Texas's 15th congressional district
Texas District 15 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves a thin section of the far south of the state of Texas. The district's current Representative is Democrat Vicente González, elected in 2016; the district's best-known Representative was John Nance Garner, who represented the district from its creation in 1903 until 1933, was Speaker of the House from 1931 to 1933. He ran with Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 and 1936 presidential campaigns, was elected Vice President of the United States, serving from 1933 to 1941. List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
The Karankawa were a Native American people concentrated in southern Texas along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. They consisted of several independent seasonal nomadic groups who shared the same language and much of the same culture; the tribe included the groups called the Cujanes, Cocos and Copanes. Some of the village names survived to modern day and are the Ebahamo, Kouyam, Quara and the Toyal villages. After establishing relations with the Spanish empire in the sixteenth century, the Karankawa played an important role in the goals of the Spanish empire, relations between the French and English empires, the Texan-Mexican War. In 1825, Stephen Austin commissioned a captain to lead volunteers to expel the Karankawa from the Austin land grant. In subsequent years, the Karankawa were attacked by Texan colonists, who drove them out of their native territories. By the 1840s, the Karankawa split into two groups, one of which settled on Padre Island while the other fled into the Mexican state of Tamaulipas.
In 1858, Juan Nepomuceno Cortina led a group of Texan colonists against the Karankawa's last refuge and killed the remaining members of the tribe. By 1891, the Karankawa as an organized tribe was believed to be extinct. Historical research of the Karankawa is hindered because the documents concerning them were overwhelmingly written by open enemies of the tribe; the Karankawa name's origins are disputed. Early speculation centered around the names. Karankawa was theorized to originate from related peoples living nearby who called the dog the term "klam" or "glam", to love, to like, to be fond of, "kawa." Thus Karankawa could mean dog-raisers. Meanwhile, the Tonkawa called them due to the Karankawas' skill in the art, they alternatively called them the barefooted or those without moccasins, but this name was applied to other groups with which the Tonkawe were acquainted. The Lipan-Apache called the Karankawa the people who walk in the water referring to their mode of fishing and catching turtles.
Notably, the Karankawa called themselves "Karankawa" as well. Speculation placed the Karankawa language in the Cariban linguistic stock. Linguistic data suggests that the Karankawa name originated from the old Spanish Main, "Kalina," and a suffix from a Northern Carib tribe, "kxura,"meaning "people, but this theory is disputed and the origins of the name "Karankawa" remain unknown. According to some contemporary sources, former migrations of their ancestors were unknown to the Karankawa of the early nineteenth century. However, the linguist Herbert Landar argues that based on linguistic evidence, the Karankawa language and people originated from a Carib subgroup; the Carib subgroup to which the Karankawa people belong remains to be discovered. Their exact migratory path northward is indistinct. Migration northward is theorized to have occurred in the late fifteenth century; the route north was from the original land north of the Amazon river toward Tamaulipas and Texas, was finished over a long period of time in short bursts of migration.
Scholars have speculated that the Karankawa were descended from a group of Carib Indians who arrived by sea from the Caribbean basin. This is based on the similarity of their physical appearance to Caribbean Natives. However, no ethnographic or archaeological evidence has been found to support this speculation. Recent archaeological records that used radiocarbon dating for artifacts indicated that these native groups had been in the area as early as the 5th millennium BCE; the Karankawa voyaged from place to place on a seasonal basis in their dugouts, made from large trees with the bark left intact. They remained in each place about four weeks. After European contact, canoes were of two kinds, both being called "awa'n": the original dugout and old skiffs obtained from the whites. Neither were used for fishing but for transportation only, their travels were limited to the waters close to the land; the women and possessions travelled in the hold while the men stood on the stern and poled the canoe.
Upon landing at their next destination, the women set up wigwams and the men hauled the boats on the shore. Their campsites were always close to the shoreline of the nearby body of water, their wigwams consisted of willow branches arranged in a circle, with the tops of the branches bent toward the center and interlocked in wickerwork. This wickerwork was fastened with deerskin. Upon this framework, the Karankawa lay deer, panther or bear skins, again fastened with deerskin thongs; the next step was to make a fire. After European contact, the Karankawa begged for tinderboxes from settlers; the fire was always kept burning day and night. They used animal skins to sleep on within their dwellings, their household goods and utensils included wooden spoons, some clay vessels, fishbone needles, fine deer sinew. The primary food sources of the Karankawa were venison, birds, fish and turtles, they supplemented their hunting with gathering food such as berries, wild grapes, sea-bird eggs, nuts. Their food was always boiled in earthen pots or roasted.
Although there were a lot of salt deposits nearby, the Karankawa used chile for seasoning their food. After European contact, the Karankawa would mix flour with
Guadalupe County, Texas
Guadalupe County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 131,533; the county seat is Seguin. The county is named after Guadalupe River. Guadalupe County is part of the San Antonio, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. Indigenous paleo-Indian hunter-gatherers were the first inhabitants of the area, thousands of years before European colonization. Historic Indian tribes settled in the area, including Tonkawa, Kickapoo, Lipan Apache, Comanche. In 1689, Alonso de Leon named the Guadalupe River for Spain in honor of Our Lady of Guadalupe. In 1806, French army officer José de la Baume, who joined the Spanish army, was rewarded for his services to Spain with title to 27,000 acres of Texas land, the original El Capote Ranch; the grant was reaffirmed by the Republic of Mexico. Following Mexico's independence from Spain, Anglo-Americans from the United States settled in Texas in 1821 and claimed Mexican citizenship. In 1825, Guadalupe County was part of Green DeWitt's petition for a land grant to establish a colony in Texas, approved by the Mexican government.
From 1827 to 1835, twenty-two families settled the area as part of DeWitt's colony. Following Texas' gaining independence from Mexico, 33 Gonzales Rangers and Republic veterans established Seguin. Founded as Walnut Springs in 1838, the settlement's name was changed to Seguin the next year to honor Juan Nepomuceno Seguín, who had fought for independence. In 1840, the Virginian Michael Erskine acquired the El Capote Ranch for use as a cattle ranch. In 1842, the Republic of Texas organized Guadalupe County as a judicial county; the Texas Supreme Court declared judicial counties to be unconstitutional. In 1845, Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels secured title to 1,265 acres of the Veramendi grant in the northern part of the former judicial county. Following the annexation of Texas by the United States, the Prussian immigrant August Wilhelm Schumann arrived on the Texas coast aboard the SS Franziska in 1846 and purchased 188 acres in Guadalupe County. Shortly thereafter, the state legislature established the present county from parts of Bexar and Gonzales counties.
In 1846, during the war between the United States and Mexico, a wagon train of German immigrant settlers bought Guadalupe land from August Schumann. The following year the town of Schumannsville was established by German immigrants and named after him. Numerous German immigrants entered Texas at Galveston following the revolutions of 1848 in German states, settling in Guadalupe County and central Texas. After their own struggles, they tended to oppose slavery; the last Indian raid into the area was made by the Kickapoo in 1855. By 1860, there were 1,748 slaves of African descent in the county brought in from the South by slaveholder migrants. In 1861, the people of the county voted 314–22 in favor of secession from the Union. Guadalupe County sent several troops to fight for the Confederate States Army. Following the end of the Civil War and the emancipation of the slaves, a Freedmen's Bureau office opened in 1866 in Seguin to supervise work contracts between former slaves and area farmers. Together, German Americans and African Americans joined the Republican Party, leading Guadalupe County to be a reliably Republican one into the 20th century after the state disfranchisement of African Americans in 1901 by imposition of a poll tax.
By 1876, the Galveston and San Antonio Railway reached Seguin. It was completed as far as San Antonio the following year. By 1880, ethnic Germans accounted for 40 percent of the county population. Tenant farming and sharecropping accounted for the operation of 25 percent of the county's farms. By 1910, immigrants from Mexico accounted for 11½ percent of the country’s population. In 1929, oil was discovered at the Darst Creek oilfield. By 1930, tenant farming and sharecropping comprised 64 percent of the county's farms. Over the next five decades, the economy changed markedly as the area became more urbanized and less dependent on agriculture. By 1982, professional and related services and wholesale and retail trade involved nearly 60 percent of the work force in the area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 715 square miles, of which 711 square miles is land and 3.5 square miles is water. Interstate 10 Interstate 35 U. S. Highway 90 U. S. Highway 90 Alternate State Highway 46 State Highway 123 State Highway 130 Hays County Caldwell County Gonzales County Wilson County Bexar County Comal County As of the census of 2000, there were 89,023 people, 30,900 households, 23,823 families residing in the county.
The population density was 125 people per square mile. There were 33,585 housing units at an average density of 47 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.65% White, 5.01% Black or African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 12.76% from other races, 3.07% from two or more races. 33.21% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 30,900 households out of which 38.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.60% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.90% were non-families. 18.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.50% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 29.10% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 11.30% who were 65
Wilson is a small rural city in the northeastern quadrant of Lynn County, United States. The town of Wilson was established in 1912 by William Dickson Green of Shiner and Lonnie Lumsden. Early settlers included German and Polish emigrant farmers who acquired property on former Wilson County School lands located in Lynn County, hence the city's name. Wilson was founded in anticipation that the Panhandle and Santa Fe Railway would lay tracks through the area; the Panhandle and Santa Fe Railway Company was one of the two major operating subsidiaries of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway Company in Texas, with lines crossing the Texas Panhandle and South Plains regions, as well as a line across the Trans-Pecos to Presidio. A branch line between Slaton Junction and Lamesa was constructed in 1911, this line would pass directly through Wilson. In 1917, William Green built the "Green Building" that housed a mercantile store that became the center of activity in this small town; the couple most involved in operating the store were Mr. and Mrs. J.
T. Williams, who managed the store from 1916 to 1936, when Mr. Williams died. Mrs. Williams continued to manage the store for another few years until the early 1940s. In 1963, the citizens of Wilson celebrated the renovation of the Green Building, today, the refurbished building serves as the city hall and historical museum, continues to be a community gathering spot. In 1923, with only 20 residents, was among 37 communities that applied to become the home of the new Texas Technological College, instead located to the north in Lubbock. Wilson offered the choice of 6000 acres for the institution, three times the amount required in the legislation authored by State Senator William H. Bledsoe of Lubbock, whose district included Lynn County; the institution could have picked any arrangement of land without disturbing any individual or moving a fence. Wilson rests upon the level High Plains of the Llano Estacado in West Texas, it is situated at the intersection of Farm to Market Road 400 and Farm to Market Road 211.
Farm to Market Road 400 runs parallel to the tracks of the former Santa Fe Railway. This branch line was abandoned in 1999 and Wilson no longer has access to rail transport, it is located at 33°19′01″N 101°43′27″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.6 square miles, all of it land. As of the 2010 census, 489 people resided in Wilson, down from 532 people in 2000. According to the 2000 census, 182 households and 139 families resided in the city; the population density was 816.8 people per square mile. The 194 housing units averaged 297.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 72.56% White, 0.94% African American, 22.18% from other races, 4.32% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 55.45% of the population. Of the 182 households, 39.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.1% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.1% were not families. The average household size was 2.92 and the average family size was 3.41.
In the city, the population was distributed as 32.1% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,333, for a family was $32,000. Males had a median income of $26,944 versus $18,438 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,654. About 15.0% of families and 26.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.6% of those under age 18 and 23.4% of those age 65 or over. Jerry "Bo" Coleman was born in Wilson and became a radio disc jockey in Lubbock and a friend and associate of Buddy Holly and Waylon Jennings. Woodrow, Texas Slide, Texas Llano Estacado Close City, Texas Canyon Valley, Texas Wilson, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Wilson Public domain photos of the Llano Estacado
Texas's 28th congressional district
Texas District 28 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves a strip in deep south Texas starting south of San Antonio, ending at the U. S.-Mexico border. The current Representative from District 28 is Henry Cuellar. On June 28, 2006, the U. S. Supreme Court declared that the Texas legislature's redistricting plan violated the Voting Rights Act in the case of Texas's 23rd congressional district; as a result, on August 4, 2006, a three-judge panel announced replacement district boundaries for 2006 election for the 23rd district, which affected the boundaries of the 15th, 21st, 25th and 28th districts. On election day in November, these five districts had open primaries, or a "jungle primary". Otherwise, a runoff election in December will decide the seat. Cuellar retained his seat in the 28th district. List of United States congressional districts Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542. Vázquez de Coronado had hoped to reach the Cities of Cíbola referred to now as the mythical Seven Cities of Gold, a term not invented until American gold-rush days in the 1800s, his expedition marked the first European sightings of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River, among other landmarks. His name is Anglicized as "Vasquez de Coronado". Vázquez de Coronado was born into a noble family in Salamanca, Spain, in 1510 as the second son of Juan Vázquez de Coronado y Sosa de Ulloa and Isabel de Luján. Juan Vázquez held various positions in the administration of the captured Emirate of Granada under Iñigo López de Mendoza, its first Spanish governor. Francisco Vázquez de Coronado went to New Spain in 1535 at about age 25, in the entourage of its first Viceroy, Antonio de Mendoza, the son of his father's patron and Vázquez de Coronado's personal friend.
In New Spain, he married twelve-year-old Beatriz de Estrada, called "the Saint", sister of Leonor de Estrada, ancestor of the de Alvarado family and daughter of Treasurer and Governor Alonso de Estrada y Hidalgo, Lord of Picón, wife Marina Flores Gutiérrez de la Caballería, from a converso Jewish family. Vázquez de Coronado inherited a large portion of a Mexican encomendero estate through Beatriz and had eight children by her. Vázquez de Coronado was the Governor of the Kingdom of Nueva Galicia, a province of New Spain located northwest of Mexico and comprising the contemporary Mexican states of Jalisco and Nayarit. In 1539, he dispatched Friar Marcos de Niza and Estevanico, a survivor of the Narváez expedition, on an expedition north from Compostela toward present-day New Mexico; when de Niza returned, he told of a city of vast wealth, a golden city called Cíbola, whose Zuni residents were assumed to have killed Estevan. Though he did not claim to have entered the city of Cíbola, he mentioned that it stood on a high hill and that it appeared wealthy and as large as Mexico City.
Vázquez de Coronado assembled an expedition with two components. One component carried the bulk of the expedition's supplies, traveling via the Guadalupe River under the leadership of Hernando de Alarcón; the other component traveled by land, along the trail on which Friar Marcos de Niza had followed Esteban. Vázquez de Coronado and Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza invested large sums of their own money in the venture. Mendoza appointed Vázquez de Coronado the commander of the expedition, with the mission to find the mythical Seven Cities of Gold; this is the reason he was lent 70,000 pesos. In the autumn of 1539, Mendoza ordered Melchior Díaz, commander of the Spanish outpost at San Miguel de Culiacán, to investigate Friar de Niza's findings, on November 17, 1539, Díaz departed for Cíbola with fifteen horsemen. At the ruins of Chichilticalli, he turned around because of "snows and fierce winds from across the wilderness". Díaz had encountered Vázquez de Coronado before he had departed San Miguel de Culiacán, reported that initial investigations into Friar de Niza's report disproved the existence of the bountiful land he had described.
Díaz's report was delivered to Viceroy Mendoza on March 20, 1540. Vázquez de Coronado set out from Compostela on February 23, 1540, at the head of a much larger expedition composed of about 400 European men-at-arms, 1,300 to 2,000 Mexican Indian allies, four Franciscan friars, several slaves, both natives and Africans. Many other family members and servants joined the party, he followed the Sinaloan coast northward, keeping the Gulf of California on his left to the west until he reached the northernmost Spanish settlement in Mexico, San Miguel de Culiacán, about March 28, 1540, whereupon he rested his expedition before they began trekking the inland trail. Aside from his mission to verify Friar de Niza's report, Melchior Díaz had taken notice of the forage and food situation along the trail, reported that the land along the route would not be able to support a large concentrated body of soldiers and animals. Vázquez de Coronado, decided to divide his expedition into small groups and time their departures so that grazing lands and water holes along the trail could recover.
At intervals along the trail, Vázquez de Coronado established camps and stationed garrisons of soldiers to keep the supply route open. For example, in September 1540, Melchior Díaz, along with "seventy or eighty of the weakest and least reliable men" in Vázquez de Coronado's army, remained at the town of San Hieronimo, in the valley of Corazones, or Hearts. Once the scouting and planning was done, Vázquez de Coronado led the first group of soldiers up the trail, they were horsemen and foot soldiers who were able to travel while the main bulk of the expedition would set out later. After leaving Culiacan on April 22, 1540, Vázquez de Coronado followed the coast, "bearing off to the left", as Mota Padilla says, by an rough way, to the Sinaloa River; the configuration of the country made it necessary to follow the river valley until he could find a passage across the mountains to the course of the Yaqui River. He traveled alongside this stream for some distance crossed to the Rio Sonora, which he followed nearly to its source before a pass was discovered.
On the southern side of the mountains he found a stream he
John Ireland (politician)
John Ireland was the 18th Governor of Texas from 1883 to 1887. During Ireland's term, the University of Texas was established, construction on the Texas State Capitol began. Ireland is credited with the selection of local pink granite as the construction material. Ireland was born on January 1, 1827 in Hart County, Kentucky to Irish immigrants Patrick Ireland and the former Rachel Newton. Although he had little formal education, when he was 18 he was appointed deputy sheriff of the county. At 24 years of age he decided to study law, was admitted to the bar. In 1852, Ireland moved to Texas, where he practiced law. Two years he married Mathilda Wicks Faircloth, she died in 1856, the following year Ireland married Anna Maria Penn. They had three children together. Ireland was elected the mayor of Seguin in 1858. A firm believer in slavery, Ireland campaigned for greater efforts to reclaim slaves who had run away to freedom in Mexico, he served as a delegate of Seguin to the 1861 Secession Convention.
He enlisted in the Confederate States Army as a private and worked his way through the ranks to that of lieutenant colonel. Throughout the Civil War, Ireland served within the Texas borders, patrolling along the Rio Grande border and along the Gulf Coast, where he was stationed at the war's end in 1865. Following the war, Ireland participated in the Reconstruction Convention of 1866 and was soon elected judge of the Seguin District, he was removed from his position the following year. Ireland reentered politics in 1872, when he was elected to the Texas House of Representatives and chaired the executive committee of the Democratic party. During his time as a state legislator, Ireland backed the bill creating the University of Texas at Austin, was a proponent of low taxes, favored regulating the railroads. In 1875, he served as an associate justice of the Texas Supreme Court; that year, he was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. The new state constitution reduced the number of associate justices on the supreme court, in 1876 Ireland lost his position.
In late 1875, Ireland decided to run for the U. S. Senate, his primary competition was the current Governor of Richard Coke. Coke's supporters accused Ireland of having been a member of the Know-Nothing party and of opposing ratification of the new constitution. Ireland lost the election. In 1878, he attempted to run for the U. S. House against incumbent Gustav Schleicher, but again failed to win the election. In 1882, Governor Oran Roberts declined to run again, Ireland received the Democratic nomination, his main competition was G. "Wash" Jones of the Greenback party. Ireland defeated Jones by over 48,000 votes. One of his first acts as governor was to have an amendment added to the state constitution establishing an ad valorem tax, he reversed the policy of selling public lands. Ireland's land policy led to cattle ranchers accumulating large areas of land; the ranchers soon began running barbed wire around their own land and the public lands that they used, without permission, for grazing. This practice cut farmers and other ranchers off from water.
During a large drought in early 1883, people began cutting the barbed wire, leading to violence between the ranchers and farmers. This practice soon led to the Fence Cutting War. Ireland called a special session of the legislature in 1884 that passed a law allowing the Texas Rangers to intervene in these disputes; the Rangers were able to quell some, but not all, of the violence. The same year, Ireland won reelection for his second term as governor. Construction began on the new Texas State Capitol building during Ireland's tenure. At his insistence, the building was constructed of Texas pink granite instead of imported Indiana limestone. In 1887 Ireland attempted again to run for a U. S. Senate lost the race, ending his political career. After retiring from politics, Ireland returned to Seguin to practice law, his profits were invested in land and railroad stocks, during the Panic of 1893, he lost all of his holdings. He died on March 15, 1896, is interred at the Texas State Cemetery in Austin. Hendrickson, Kenneth E. Jr.
The Chief of Executives of Texas: From Stephen F. Austin to John B. Connally, Jr. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, ISBN 0-89096-641-9 Entry for John Ireland from the Biographical Encyclopedia of Texas published 1880, hosted by the Portal to Texas History