Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of 3,485 km2. It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Somerset, the county town was originally Wilton, after which the county is named, but Wiltshire Council is now based in the new county town of Trowbridge. Wiltshire is characterised by its high downland and wide valleys, Salisbury Plain is noted for being the location of the Stonehenge and Avebury stone circles and other ancient landmarks, and as a training area for the British Army. The city of Salisbury is notable for its mediaeval cathedral, important country houses open to the public include Longleat, near Warminster, and the National Trusts Stourhead, near Mere. The county, in the 9th century written as Wiltunscir, later Wiltonshire, is named after the county town of Wilton. Wiltshire is notable for its pre-Roman archaeology, the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age people that occupied southern Britain built settlements on the hills and downland that cover Wiltshire. Stonehenge and Avebury are perhaps the most famous Neolithic sites in the UK, in the 6th and 7th centuries Wiltshire was at the western edge of Saxon Britain, as Cranborne Chase and the Somerset Levels prevented the advance to the west. The Battle of Bedwyn was fought in 675 between Escuin, a West Saxon nobleman who had seized the throne of Queen Saxburga, in 878 the Danes invaded the county. Following the Norman Conquest, large areas of the country came into the possession of the crown, at the time of the Domesday Survey the industry of Wiltshire was largely agricultural,390 mills are mentioned, and vineyards at Tollard and Lacock. In the 17th century English Civil War Wiltshire was largely Parliamentarian, the Battle of Roundway Down, a Royalist victory, was fought near Devizes. The Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry currently lives on as Y Squadron, based in Swindon, around 1800 the Kennet and Avon Canal was built through Wiltshire, providing a route for transporting cargoes from Bristol to London until the development of the Great Western Railway. Information on the 261 civil parishes of Wiltshire is available on the Wiltshire Community History website, run by the Libraries and this site includes maps, demographic data, historic and modern pictures and short histories. The local nickname for Wiltshire natives is moonrakers and this originated from a story of smugglers who managed to foil the local Excise men by hiding their alcohol, possibly French brandy in barrels or kegs, in a village pond. The officials took them for simple yokels or mad and left them alone, many villages claim the tale for their own village pond, but the story is most commonly linked with The Crammer in Devizes. Two-thirds of Wiltshire, a rural county, lies on chalk. This chalk is part of a system of chalk downlands throughout eastern and southern England formed by the rocks of the Chalk Group, the largest area of chalk in Wiltshire is Salisbury Plain, which is used mainly for arable agriculture and by the British Army as training ranges. The highest point in the county is the Tan Hill–Milk Hill ridge in the Pewsey Vale, just to the north of Salisbury Plain, the chalk uplands run northeast into West Berkshire in the Marlborough Downs ridge, and southwest into Dorset as Cranborne Chase. Cranborne Chase, which straddles the border, has, like Salisbury Plain, yielded much Stone Age, the Marlborough Downs are part of the North Wessex Downs AONB, a 1,730 km2 conservation area
Swindon Town F.C.
Swindon Town Football Club is a professional football club in Swindon, Wiltshire, England. Founded as Swindon AFC in 1879, they became Spartans in 1880, the team compete in League One, the third tier of the English football league system. The clubs home ground, where it has played since 1896, is the 15,728 capacity County Ground, the club went professional in 1894 and entered the Football League in 1920. Swindon Town won promotion to the Premier League in the 1992–93 season, Swindon Town Football Club was founded by Reverend William Pitt of Liddington in 1879. The team turned professional in 1894 and joined the Southern League which was founded in the same year, during this period Septimus Atterbury played for the club. Swindon reached the FA Cup semi-finals for the first time in the 1909–10 season, Barnsley and Swindon were invited to compete for the Dubonnet Cup in 1910 at the Parc des Princes Stadium in Paris. The result was a 2–1 victory for Swindon with Harold Fleming scoring both of the clubs goals, the following season, 1910–11, Swindon Town won the Southern League championship, earning them a Charity Shield match with the Football League champions Manchester United. This, the highest-scoring Charity Shield game to date, was played on 25 September 1911 at Stamford Bridge with Manchester United winning 8–4, some of the proceeds of this game were later donated to the survivors of the Titanic. In 1912 Swindon Town reached the finals of the FA Cup for a second time in 3 years. Swindons exploits at this time owed a lot to the skilful forward H. J. Fleming who was capped by England 11 times between 1909 and 1914 despite playing outside the Football League. Fleming remained with Swindon throughout a career spanning 1907 and 1924. Swindon entered the Football League in 1920 as a member of Division Three. This result stands as a record for the club in League matches, the club was relegated back into Division Three in 1965 but it was about to create a sensation. In 1969, Swindon beat Arsenal 3–1 to win the League Cup for the time in the clubs history. As winners of the League Cup, Swindon were assured of a place in their first European competition, however, the Football Association had previously agreed to inclusion criteria with the organizers which mandated that only League Cup winners from Division One would be able to take part. As the team were not eligible, the short lived Anglo-Italian competitions were created to give teams from lower divisions experience in Europe, the first of these, the 1969 Anglo-Italian League Cup, was contested over two legs against Coppa Italia winners A. S. Swindon won 5–2, with the scorer of two goals in the League Cup final – Don Rogers – scoring once and new acquisition Arthur Horsfield acquiring his first hat-trick for the club. The team then went on to win the 1970 Anglo-Italian Cup competition in a tournament beset by hooliganism, napoli was abandoned after 79 minutes following pitch invasions and a missile barrage, with teargas being employed to allow the teams to return to the dressing room
Devizes /dᵻˈvaɪzᵻz/ is a market town and civil parish in the heart of Wiltshire, England. Standing on a hill at the east edge of the Vale of Pewsey, Devizes serves as a centre for banks, solicitors and shops and has an open market place where a market is held once a week. It has nearly five hundred listed buildings, some churches, a Town Hall. Its development has grown around the 11th century Norman castle, Devizes Castle was built by Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury in 1080, but the town is not mentioned in the Domesday Book. Because the castle was on the boundaries of the manors of Rowde, Bishops Cannings and Potterne it became known as the castrum ad divisas, on John Speeds map of Wiltshire, the towns name is recorded as The Devyses. The first castle on the site was of the motte and bailey form and was made of wood and earth. A new castle was built in stone by Roger of Salisbury, Devizes received its first charter in 1141 permitting regular markets. The castle changed several times during the civil war between Stephen of Blois and Matilda in the 12th century. The castle held important prisoners, including Robert Curthose, eldest son of William the Conqueror, the town has had churches since the 12th century and today has four Church of England parish churches. During the 12th and 13th centuries, the town of Devizes developed outside the castle with craftsmen, the first known market in Devizes was in 1228. The original market was in the space outside St Mary’s Church, rather than in the current Market Place. The chief products in the 16th and early 17th centuries were wheat, wool and yarn, with cheese, bacon, in 1643, during the English Civil War, Parliamentary forces under Sir William Waller besieged Royalist forces under Sir Ralph Hopton in Devizes. However the siege was lifted by a force from Oxford under Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester. Devizes remained under Royalist control until 1645, when Oliver Cromwell attacked and forced the Royalists to surrender, the castle was destroyed in 1648 on the orders of Parliament, a process known as slighting, and today little remains of it. From the 16th century Devizes became known for its textiles, initially white woollen broadcloth but later the manufacture of serge, drugget, felt and cassimere or Zephyr cloth. In the early 18th century Devizes held the largest corn market in the West Country of England and also traded hops, cattle, horses and various types of cloth. Before the Corn Exchange was built in 1857, the trade in wheat and barley was conducted in the open, with sacks piled around the market cross. Todays cross displays the salutary tale of Ruth Pierce, accused of cheating some buyers at the market, The coroner, John Clare, wool merchants were able to build prosperous town houses in St. Johns and Long Street and around the market place
Calne /ˈkɑːn/ is a town and civil parish in Wiltshire, southwestern England, at the northwestern extremity of the North Wessex Downs hill range, a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Calne is on a river, the Marden, that rises 2 miles away in the Wessex Downs. It is on the A4 road national route 19 mi east of Bath,6 mi east of Chippenham,13 mi west of Marlborough and 16 mi southwest of Swindon. Wiltshires county town of Trowbridge is 15 mi to the southwest, at the 2011 Census, Calne had 17,274 inhabitants. In AD978, Anglo-Saxon Calne was the site of a large building with a hall on the first floor. This was claimed as a miracle by Dunstans supporters, early market town In 1086 Calne may already have been, as it was later, a market town on the main London-Bristol road. The church in it was well endowed,74 or more households were held almost outright by burghal tenure, and the lordship of its large outlying land was divided between the king and the church. A modest hospital was provided on a modest endowment from 1248 until it provided no accommodation in 1546 and was two years later by the Crown. Nearby are some of the 20 original cloth mills along the Marden, St Marys church was extended by the generous donations of rich clothiers and wool merchants in the 15th century. Houses of the 17th and 18th centuries have external walls of stone, most of the stone is limestone rubble, laid with ashlar dressings in houses of higher quality, the walls of many houses were rendered smooth. Until the 19th century, quarries beside the London road northwest and southeast of the town were sources of stone for building, a relic of 19th century lime extraction, a kiln, exists in the grounds of St Marys School. This solid marine deposition is chiefly one chemical, calcium carbonate, former canal The Wilts & Berks Canal linked the Kennet and Avon Canal at Semington, near Melksham, to the River Thames at Abingdon. Much of the traffic on the canal was coal from the Somerset Coalfield, as the canal passed through open country near Stanley, east of Chippenham, a short branch led through three locks to a wharf in Calne. The canal was completed in 1810 and abandoned in 1914, the opening of Black Dog Halt in the early 20th century provided insufficient demand to slow a progressive decline. The branch closed as a result of the Beeching Axe in September 1965, Wiltshire pork and ham Subsequently, Calnes main industry other than being a small market town was the imposing Harris pork processing factory. The factory provided employment directly and indirectly to many of the residents until the early 1980s and it is said that the pork-curing industry developed because pigs reared in Ireland were landed at Bristol and then herded across England on drovers roads to Smithfield, London, passing through Calne. The factory started in the half of the 18th century when brothers John. The factory has now been demolished and its site redeveloped as shops, housing
Chippenham is an historic market town in Wiltshire, England,13 miles east of Bath and 96 miles west of London. It was a vill, and probably a royal hunting lodge. The primary school, Kings Lodge School, gets its name from this tradition, the town continued to grow when the Great Western Railway arrived in 1841. The town is now a commuter town, Chippenham is twinned with La Flèche in France and Friedberg in Germany. The towns motto is Unity and Loyalty, the town is surrounded by sparsely populated countryside and there are several woodlands in or very near the town, such as Birds Marsh, Vincients Wood and Briars Wood. Chippenham lies 4 miles south of the M4 motorway, which links the town to Bristol, Swindon, South Wales, the A4 former coach road, A420 and B4069 provide further road links to Bath, Bristol and Oxford. The town is bypassed to the west by the A350, which links the M4 motorway with Chippenham and nearby towns to the south, such as Melksham, Warminster and Trowbridge. The A4 national route crosses the southern part of the town, linking Chippenham to nearby Corsham, Calne, local councillors have called for an eastern extension linking the A4 to the A350 north of Cepen Park although this has been opposed by many residents. Dualling work on a 2-mile /3 km stretch of the A350 eastern bypass commenced in January 2015 from Cepen Park North through to the A4, which is scheduled for completion in 2017. Two shorter single carriageway sections of the A350 from just south of the Plough crossroads to Cepen Park North were both converted to dual carriageway between October 2014 and March 2015, Chippenham has a bus station with several routes and companies serving it. APLtravel with the 33 to Devizes and it is served by main line services and a smaller service to Southampton Central via Melksham, Westbury and Salisbury. It is being electrified to make train times faster from London to the West Country, National Express Coach services connect at Chippenham to London, Wales, South West England, the Midlands and East Anglia. Bus services connect the town to Bristol, Bath, Corsham, Calne, Frome, Devizes, Trowbridge, Swindon and nearby villages. The original Buttercross, a structure, was erected in c.1570 and stood at the centre of the Shambles. It was used for the sale of meat and dairy products, in 1889, Mr E. C. Lowndes bought the Buttercross for £6 and re-erected it as a gazebo in the kitchen garden of the Castle Combe Manor House, where it subsequently fell into disrepair. The Buttercross was re-erected in 1995 by the Chippenham Civic Society, funded by local people. It currently stands as the centre-piece of the area of the town centre. The Yelde Hall is one of few remaining medieval timber framed buildings in the town
Salisbury is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, England, and the only city within the county. It is the third-largest settlement in the county, after Swindon and Chippenham, with a population of 40,302, the city is located in the southeast of Wiltshire, near the edge of Salisbury Plain. Its cathedral was located to the north at Old Sarum, following its relocation. The new town received its city charter in 1227 under the name New Sarum, which continued to be its name until 2009. It sits at the confluence of five rivers, the Nadder, Ebble, Wylye, and Bourne are tributary to the Hampshire Avon, which flows to the south coast and into the sea at Christchurch in Dorset. Salisbury railway station serves the city and is a regional interchange, Stonehenge, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is about 8 miles northwest of Salisbury and greatly aids the local economy. The city itself, Old Sarum, the present cathedral and the ruins of the one also attract visitors. The first part of the name is of obscure origin, the form Sarum is a Latinization of Sar, a medieval abbreviation for Sarisberie. Salisbury appeared in the Welsh Chronicle of the Britons as Caer-Caradog, Caer-Gradawc, cair-Caratauc, one of the 28 British cities listed in the History of the Britons, has also been identified with Salisbury. The hilltop at Old Sarum lies near the Neolithic sites of Stonehenge and Avebury and it commanded a salient between the River Bourne and the Hampshire Avon near a crossroads of several early trade routes. During the Iron Age, a hillfort was constructed around it sometime between 600 and 300 BC, the Romans may have occupied the site or left it in the hands of an allied tribe. Amid the Saxon invasions, Old Sarum fell to King Cynric of Wessex in 552, preferring settlements in bottomland like nearby Wilton, the Saxons largely ignored Old Sarum until the Viking invasions led King Alfred to restore its fortifications. Along with Wilton, however, it was abandoned by its residents to be sacked and burned by the Dano-Norwegian king Sweyn Forkbeard in 1003 and it subsequently became the site of Wiltons mint. Following the Norman invasion, a castle was constructed by 1070. The castle was directly by the Norman kings, its castellan was generally also the sheriff of Wiltshire. Hermann and his successor Saint Osmund began the construction of the first Salisbury cathedral, the cathedral was consecrated on 5 April 1092 but suffered extensive damage in a storm, traditionally said to have occurred only five days later. Bishop Roger was an ally of Henry I who served as his viceroy during the kings absence to Normandy and directed the royal administration. He refurbished and expanded Old Sarums cathedral in the 1110s and began work on a palace during the 1130s
Penalty shoot-out (association football)
A penalty shoot-out is a method of determining the winner of an association football match that is drawn after the regulation as well as extra playing time. Although the procedure for taking kicks from the penalty mark resembles that of a penalty kick, most notably, neither the kicker nor any player other than the goalkeeper may play the ball again once it has been kicked. The method of breaking a draw in a match requiring a winner is determined beforehand by the organizing body. Although employed in football commonly since the 1970s, penalty shoot-outs remain unpopular with some, during a shoot-out, coaches, players other than the kicker and the goalkeepers must remain in the centre circle. The kicking teams goalkeeper stands at the intersection of the goal line, goals scored during the shoot-out are not included in the final score, nor are they added to the goalscoring records of the players involved. A tie is a result in football. Exceptionally, a shoot-out after a league or round-robin match may be provided for and this provision appears for occasions where opposing teams in a final-day match finish the group with identical records, which can result in an immediate shoot-out. This happened in Group A of the 2003 UEFA Womens Under-19 Championship, several leagues, such as the J-League, have experimented with penalty shoot-outs immediately following a drawn league match, with the winner being awarded an extra point. A team that loses a penalty shoot-out is eliminated from the tournament but it does not count as a defeat, for instance, the Netherlands are considered to have concluded the 2014 FIFA World Cup undefeated, despite being eliminated at the semi-final stage. The following is a summary of the procedure for kicks from the penalty mark, the procedure is specified in Law 10 of the IFABs Laws of the Game document. The referee tosses a coin to decide the goal at which the kicks will be taken, the choice of goal by the coin toss winner may only be changed by the referee for safety reasons or if the goal or playing surface becomes unusable. The referee tosses the coin a second time to determine which team will take the first kick, all players other than the kicker and the goalkeepers must remain in the pitchs centre circle. Each kick will be taken in the manner of a penalty kick. Each kick will be taken from the penalty mark, which is 12 yards from the line and equidistant from each touch line. Each team is responsible for selecting from the players the order in which they will take the kicks. The referee is not informed of the order, each kicker can kick the ball only once per attempt. Once kicked, the kicker may not play the ball again, no other player on either team, other than the designated kicker and goalkeeper, may touch the ball. The ball may touch the goalkeeper, goal posts, or crossbar any number of times before going into the goal as long as the referee believes the motion is the result of the initial kick
Pewsey Vale F.C.
Pewsey Vale F. C. are a football club based in the village of Pewsey, Wiltshire, England. They play in the Wessex League Division One, the club was formed in 1945 as Pewsey Y M but changed its name to Pewsey Vale FC in 1948. There is also evidence that there was a six a side group that played under the name of Pewsey Boys as early as 1921, the Club immediately won promotion to the Premier League after finishing runners up to Hook Norton, before being relegated back to Division One West. The 2009/10 season resulted in the winning of the Wiltshire Premier League Cup, the next season Pewsey Vale successfully applied to join the Wessex League structure and in the 2010-11 season started playing in the Wessex League Division One. As Pewsey Y M, the club were able to enter the FA Cup for a few seasons just after World War II, but never progressed past the First Qualifying Round. In recent years, the team has been eligible for the FA Vase, the Club play their home games at the Recreation Ground, Kings Corner, Ball Road, Pewsey, SN9 5BS. The ground was improved with the help of FA grants in the close season of 2002 to meet Hellenic Premier League standards. This included floodlighting, undercover seating for 50 people and hardstanding all round the perimeter of the playing area
Wiltshire Premier Shield
The Wiltshire Premier Shield, is a single county cup competition involving English football clubs based in the county of Wiltshire. The current competition format operates with a two-leg semi-final and a single match final during the stages of the league season. The most successful team in the history is Swindon Town who have won the shield 27 times. Swindon Town are the only Wiltshire representative in the Football League and have used the Wiltshire Shield to field their youths, reserves. The competition consists of four teams and these are Swindon Town, Salisbury City, Chippenham Town and Swindon Supermarine
Lee William Probert is an English professional football referee who officiates primarily in the Premier League. He was born in South Gloucestershire but is now based in Wiltshire and is associated with the Wiltshire Football Association and he has refereed in the Premier League, the top level in the English football league pyramid, since his promotion to the panel of Select Group Referees in 2007. In 2010 he officiated the FA Trophy final at Wembley Stadium and in 2014 he took charge of the FA Cup final, Probert began refereeing in 1986, in leagues local to Bristol and later in the Football Conference South. He was promoted to the assistant referees list for the Football League in 1998 and his first match after elevation to the Football League national list of referees was a League Two encounter in August 2003 between Northampton Town and Torquay United. In May 2007, Probert refereed a League One play-off semi-final second-leg which saw Blackpool defeat Oldham Athletic 3–1. Prior to this, he had been trialled in the top-tier during the previous season, the Premier League subsequently issued an apology to Wenger. In May 2010 Probert was the referee for the FA Trophy final at Wembley Stadium between Barrow and Stevenage Borough and he was appointed fourth official for the 2011 FA Cup Final between Manchester City and Stoke City. In May 2014, Probert refereed the FA Cup final at Wembley Stadium between Arsenal and Hull City, Arsenal came back from 2–0 down to win the match 3–2 in extra-time. Probert missed the whole of the 2015/16 season due to injury, Lee Probert Profile at Refworld. com Lee Probert Referee Statistics at soccerbase. com
Swindon Supermarine F.C.
Swindon Supermarine Football Club are a semi-professional football club based in Swindon, Wiltshire, that plays in the Southern League Division One South & West. The club is affiliated to the Wiltshire Football Association, the club plays at the Webbs wood stadium situated close to the Honda Plant in Swindon. The club was established in 1992 as a merger between two clubs in the Hellenic Football League, Supermarine F. C. and Swindon Athletic F. C. So the two decided to merge and took Swindon Athletics place in the Hellenic League Premier Division. Supermarine F. C. was originally set up in 1946 from the Social club associated with the Supermarine aircraft company, the club was originally called Vickers Armstrong and then shortened to Vickers FC. The club during their time in the division also won the Wiltshire Senior Cup in the 1985–86 season. After being relegated from the Premier Division the club struggled in Division One and at the end of the 1991–92 season, Swindon Athletic F. C. were established in 1968 and were originally called Penhill, until 1989. Like Supermarine they were members of the Wiltshire Football League in 1976. That season saw the club promoted and become Wiltshire Junior Cup winners, the next season saw them become Senior Division 2 champions and went on to Become Senior Division 1 champions in the 1982–83 and 1983–84 campaigns. At the end of the 1984–85 competition they were promoted to the Hellenic Football League Division one and they then remained in the Premier Division of the Hellenic league. During the 1980s the club also had some cup success, winning the Wiltshire Senior Cup three times and finishing runners-up twice, in 1997–98 the new club won the Hellenic League championship, but were not promoted due to ground requirements. The championship was won for the time in 2000–01 and this time they were accepted into the Southern League. In 2006–07 they again reached the promotion play-offs, where this time they were successful after beating Burnham in the semi-final and this earned them a place in the Southern League Premier Division. That season also produced the clubs last trophy win to date, at the end of the 2009–10 season, the club announced that it was facing a financial shortfall of £50,000, which would affect its immediate position in the Southern League. Part of the sponsorship drive included the ground sponsorship which was taken up by local company H J Webb & Son, the 2010-11 season saw them narrowly miss a lucrative FA Cup third round tie, though this was still the clubs best ever cup run. Season 2011–12 kicked off with Horgan and Robinson now as permanent managers, in May 2012 the management team stepped down and Highworth Town manager Dave Webb was offered and accepted the managers position. At the start of the 2001–02 season, the club was to no longer wear the traditional blue, the badge was adjusted slightly in the next decade in a shape. The merger between the two Hellenic League clubs saw the new club adopt a new hooped blue and white Umbro kit, after three years of the clubs existence Wemyss Lodge took over as sponsor, and remained a part of the hooped shirt until 2001
English football league system
There are more than 140 individual leagues, containing more than 480 divisions. As there are no definitions of any level below 11, any references to the structure at level 12. The pyramid for womens football in England runs separately to nine tiers, the Football League was created in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor. It was dominated by clubs who had supported professionalism. The twelve founding members consisted of six from Lancashire and six from the Midlands, no sides from the South including London initially participated. The system consists of a pyramid of leagues, bound together by the principle of promotion and relegation. A certain number of the most successful clubs in each league can rise to a higher league, in addition to sporting performance, promotion is usually contingent on meeting criteria set by the higher league, especially concerning appropriate facilities and finances. In theory it is possible for a local amateur club to rise to the pinnacle of the English game and become champions of the Premier League. While this may be unlikely in practice, there certainly is significant movement within the pyramid, the top five levels contain one division each and are nationwide in scope. Below this, the levels have progressively more leagues, with each covering progressively smaller geographic areas. Many leagues have more than one division, at the lower levels the existence of leagues becomes intermittent, although in some of the more densely populated areas there are leagues more than twenty layers below the Premier League. Clubs from these leagues may, if they feel they meet the standard of play and have suitable facilities. The seven levels immediately below the Premier League and English Football League are known as the National League System, in May 2014 The Football Association announced provisional plans for a new division between the English Football League and the National League which would include B teams of higher level clubs. The English football league system does not include the version of the game often called Sunday league football. These leagues are independent entities with no promotion or relegation involving the football pyramid, however, some Sunday League clubs have been known to join pyramid leagues if they desire to progress higher. There are also some Saturday leagues such as the Lincolnshire League which are not officially part of the pyramid, at the top is the single division of the Premier League, containing 20 clubs, all of which, up to the 2010–11 season, were based in England. Below the Premier League is the English Football League, which is divided into three divisions of 24 clubs each, The Championship, League One and League Two, the 92 clubs in the Premier League and English Football League are all full-time professional clubs. They are often referred to as League clubs because, before the establishment of the Premier League in 1992, clubs outside this group are referred to as non-League clubs, although they too play most of their football in league-type competitions