Wiman Joseon was part of the Gojoseon period of ancient Korean history. It began with Wiman's seizure of the throne from Gojoseon's King Jun and ended with the death of King Ugeo, a grandson of Wiman. Apart from archaeological data, the main source on this period of Korean history comes from chapter 115 of Sima Qian's Shiji. Wiman was a Chinese military leader from the Kingdom of Yan under the Han dynasty. According to Sima Qian, Wiman was a general from the Yan state of northeastern China after the collapse of China's Qin dynasty, who submitted to Gojoseon's King Jun. Jun accepted and appointed Wiman commander of the western border region of Gojoseon, which corresponds to the west of the present-day Liaoning. Despite the generosity that King Jun had demonstrated, Wiman destroyed Gojoseon. In 194 BC, he decided to locate his capital in Wanggeom-seong. Many Korean historians believe that the exact location of Wanggeom-seong was Yodong in Liaodong China. In this period, Wiman Joseon expanded to control a vast territory and became strong economically by controlling trade between the Han Dynasty and the peoples of Manchuria.
Emperor Wu of Han thought that Wiman Joseon threatened Han China, Wiman Joseon would ally with the Xiongnu. Wiman's grandson, King Ugeo, allowed many exiles from Han dynasty of China to live in Wiman Joseon; the number of Han grew and King Ugeo prevented the Jin state from communicating with the Han dynasty. As a result, in 109 BC, Wudi of China invaded Wiman Joseon near the Luan River. After failing several times to defeat Wiman Joseon's armies, Han Wudi tried to convince the princes of Wiman Joseon to kill King Ugeo; the conspiracy failed and it led to the destruction of the Gojoseon kingdom. After the war Wudi of Han dynasty sentenced two generals to death for failing to defeat Wiman Joseon. After a year of battle, Wanggeom-seong was captured and Wiman Joseon was destroyed. Han dynasty established the Four Commanderies of Han in the captured areas, which corresponds to the current area of Liaodong peninsula and the northwestern Korean peninsula; the Commanderies fell to the rising Goguryeo in 4th century AD.
Several nations were formed in its place. Among them was the Nangnang Nation; the Nangnang Nation must be differentiated from the Lelang commandery. List of Korea-related topics History of Korea List of Korean monarchs Yap, Joseph P.. "Chapter 5. 109 BC". Wars With the Xiongnu: A Translation From Zizhi tongjian. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4490-0604-4. Http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-9500.html http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Asia-and-Oceania/Korea-Democratic-People-s-Republic-of-DPRK-HISTORY.html http://www.bartleby.com/65/ko/Korea.html https://web.archive.org/web/20030310223530/https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/04/eak/ht04eak.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20060301054640/http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/publications/pdfs/korea/divided/History-Religions.pdf https://www.nytimes.com/books/first/c/cumings-korea.html?_r=1&oref=slogin http://www.mmtaylor.net/Literacy_Book/DOCS/Part_2_Korea.html
Raï, sometimes written rai, is a form of Algerian folk music that dates back to the 1920s. Singers of Raï are called cheb as opposed to the name given to Chaabi singers; the tradition arose in the city of Oran among the poor. Traditionally sung by men, by the end of the 20th century, female singers had become common; the lyrics of Raï have concerned social issues such as disease and the policing of European colonies that affected native populations. Raï is a type of Algerian popular music that arose in the 1920s in the port city of Oran and that self-consciously ran counter to accepted artistic and social mores, it appealed to young people who sought to modernize the traditional Islamic attitudes. Regional and religious drum patterns and instruments were blended with Western electric instrumentation. Raï emerged as a major world-music genre in the late 1980s. In the years just following World War I, the Algerian city of Oran—known as “little Paris”—was a melting pot of various cultures, full of nightclubs and cabarets.
Out of this milieu arose a group of male and female Muslim singers called chioukhs and cheikhates, who rejected the refined, classical poetry of traditional Algerian music. Instead, to the accompaniment of pottery drums and end-blown flutes, they sang about the adversity of urban life in a raw, sometimes vulgar, controversial language that appealed to the and economically disadvantaged; the cheikhates further departed from tradition in that they performed not only for women but and for men. The music performed was called raï, it drew its name from the Algerian Arabic word raï, inserted—and repeated—by singers to fill time as they formulated a new phrase of improvised lyrics. By the early 1940s Cheikha Rimitti el Reliziana had emerged locally as a musical and linguistic luminary in the raï tradition, she continued to be among the music’s most prominent performers into the 21st century. In the early 20th century, Oran was divided into Jewish, French and Arab quarters. By independence in 1962, the Jewish quarter, was home to musicians like Reinette L'Oranaise, Saoud l'Oranais and Larbi Bensari.
Sidi el Houari was home to Spanish fishermen and many refugees from Spain who arrived after 1939. These two quarters had active music scenes, the French inhabitants of the city went to the Jewish and Spanish areas to examine the music; the Arabs of Oran were known for al-andalous, a classical style of music imported from Southern Spain after 1492. Hawzi classical music was popular during this time, female singers of the genre included Cheikha Tetma, Fadila D'zirya and Myriam Fekkai. Another common musical genre was Bedoui. Bedoui consisted of Melhun poetry being sung with accompaniment from guellal drums and gaspa Flutes. Bedoui was sung by male singers, known as cheikhs, who were dressed in long, white jellabas and turbans. Lyrics came from the poetry of people such as Zenagui Bouhafs. Performers of bedoui included Cheikh Hamada, Cheikh Mohammed Senoussi, Cheikh Madani, Cheikh Hachemi Bensmir and Cheikh Khaldi. Senoussi was the first to have had recorded the music in 1906. French colonization of Algeria changed the organization of society, producing a class of poor, uneducated urban men and women.
Bedoui singers collaborated with the French colonizers, though one exception from such collaboration was Cheikh Hamada. The problems of survival in a life of poverty were the domain of street musicians who sang bar-songs called zendanis. A common characteristic of these songs included exclamations of the word "raï!" and variations thereof. The word "rai" implies. In the 1920s, the women of Oran were held to strict code of conduct. Many of those that failed became singers and dancers, they sang medh songs in praise of the prophet Mohammed and performed for female audiences at ceremonies such as weddings and circumcision feasts. These performers included Soubira bent Menad and Kheira Essebsadija. Another group of female social outcasts were called cheikhas, who were known for their alluring dress, hedonistic lyrics, their display of a form of music, influenced from meddhahates and zendani singers; these cheikhas, who sang for both men and women, included people such as Cheikha Remitti el Reliziana, Cheikha Grélo, Cheikha Djenia el Mostganmia, Cheikha Bachitta de Mascara, Cheikha a.
The 1930s saw the rise of revolutionary organizations, including organizations motivated by Marxism, which despised these early roots raï singers. At the same time, Arabic classical music was gaining huge popularity across the Maghreb the music of Egypt's Umm Kulthum; when first developed, raï was a hybrid blend of rural and cabaret musical genres, invented by and targeted toward distillery workers, peasants who had lost their land to European settlers, other types of lower class citizens. The geographical location of Oran allowed for the spread of many cultural influences, allowing raï musicians to absorb an assortment of musical styles such as flamenco from Spain, gnawa music, French cabaret, allowing them to combine with the rhythms typical of Arab nomads. In the early 1930s, social issues afflicting the Arab population in the colony, such as the disease of typhus and imprisonment by the colonial police, poverty were prominent themes of raï lyrics. However, other main lyrical themes concerned the likes of wine, th
This is a list of historical highway markers in Hampshire County, in the U. S. state of West Virginia. These markers were erected as part of the West Virginia Highway Historical Marker Program, managed by West Virginia Archives and History, a part of the West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Title: Capon SpringsInscription: Capon Springs bears Indian name meaning the "Medicine Waters." Discovered in 1765. Famous resort of early days. President Franklin Pierce, Daniel Webster, his guest, Sir Henry Bulwer, the British Minister, were among guests. Location: West Virginia Route 259, Capon Lake Title: West Virginia/VirginiaInscription: "The Mountain State"--western part of the Commonwealth of Virginia until June 20, 1863. Settled by the Germans and Scotch-Irish, it became a line of defense between the English and French during the French and Indian War, 1754-1763. Named for Queen Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen of England. Site of the first permanent English settlement, 1607, in America. One of the 13 original colonies.
Virginia is the birthplace of eight Presidents of the United States. Location: West Virginia Route 259, at state line Title: Northwestern TurnpikeInscription: In 1784, Washington proposed the Northwestern Turnpike as an all-Virginia route to the Ohio. Authorized in 1827 and started in 1831, it remains a monument to the skill of its engineers, Charles Shaw and Colonel Claudius Crozet. Location: U. S. Route 50, Capon Bridge Title: Fort EdwardsInscription: Troops from this fort under Captain Mercer were ambushed in 1756 and many were killed; the French and Indians attacked the fort but the garrison, aided by Daniel Morgan and other frontiersmen, repulsed the assault. Location: U. S. Route 50, near junction with County Route 14, Capon Bridge Title: Ice MountainInscription: Huge natural refrigerator, five miles north along North River, where ice is found for several hundred yards on the hottest summer days. Raven Rock, on North Mountain, offers one of the finest views in West Virginia. Location: U. S. Route 50, at junction with West Virginia Route 29 North Title: Mount Bethel ChurchInscription: The Presbyterians established a church near here in 1792.
At first called the Mountain Church in 1808, it became the nucleus of Presbyterian work in Hampshire County under the auspices of the Rev. John Lyle; the Rev. James Black reorganized the congregation in 1812 and the newly formed congregation was named Mount Bethel; the present church, built of logs in 1837, is the oldest house of worship in this county. Location: County Route 5, at junction with County Route 5/4, Three Churches Title: Bloomery Gap Skirmish/Bloomery Iron FurnaceInscription: February 14, 1862, Brigadier General Frederick W. Lander, commanding the 5th and 8th Ohio, 14th Indiana Infantry, 400 men of the 1st West Virginia Cavalry, attacked a Confederate brigade of the 31st, 51st, 67th, 89th Virginia Militia under Colonel J. Sencendiver; the Confederates were fled toward Winchester. Lander returned to his camp at Paw Paw and Sencendiver again occupied Bloomery Gap; the furnace was built, 1833, by Thomas Pastly and was owned by Lewis Passmor. He placed a Mr. Cornwell in charge, he and his heirs operated it until 1875.
It was operated for a short time in 1880-1881. Annual capacity was 8500 tons; the iron was carried on flatboats down the Cacapon River. Location: West Virginia Route 127, 2 miles east of junction with West Virginia Route 29 Title: Oriskany SandInscription: The massive sandstone forming the top of the exposure and the great arch is the Oriskany and the limestone below it is the Helderberg of the driller and geologist; the "Oriskany Sand", an important gas sand, has produced in excess of a trillion cubic feet of gas in West Virginia. Location: U. S. Route 50/West Virginia Route 28, two miles west of Romney Title: Hampshire County/VirginiaInscription: Oldest county. Formed from Frederick and Augusta. Lord Fairfax, named it for the English shire of the same name. Ice Mountain and Hanging Rocks are among its natural wonders. Named for Queen Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen of England. Site of the first permanent English settlement, 1607, in America. One of the 13 original colonies. Virginia is the birthplace of eight Presidents of the United States.
Location: West Virginia Route 127, at state line Title: Hampshire County/Morgan CountyInscription: Oldest county. Formed from Frederick and Augusta. Lord Fairfax, named it for the English shire of the same name. Ice Mountain and Hanging Rocks are among its natural wonders. Formed, 1820, from Berkeley and Hampshire. Named for Gen. Daniel Morgan of the Revolutionary Army. Many of his renowned "Riflemen" were from the Eastern Panhandle. Famed Berkeley Springs here. Location: West Virginia Route 9 West Title: Caudy's CastleInscription: Named for James Caudy and Indian fighter, who took refuge from the Indians on a mass of rocks overlooking Cacapon River during the French and Indian War. From his position on the Castle of Rocks, he defended himself by pushing the Indians, one by one with the butt of his rifle, over the precipice as they came single file along the narrow crevice of rocks, they fell 450–500 feet to the base along the edge of the Cacapon. Location: West Virginia Route 127, 1.5 miles east of West Virginia Route 29 Title: Hampshire County/Morgan CountyInscription: Oldest county.
Formed from Frederick and Augusta. Lord Fairfax, named it for the English shire of the same name. Ice Mountain and Hangi
Judy A. Smith is an American crisis manager, lawyer and television producer, she is known as the founder, CEO of the crisis management firm Smith & Company. Her work in crisis management is the inspiration for the ABC television series Scandal. Smith was born on October 27, 1958, in Washington, D. C, she attended the Academy of Notre Dame. Following high school, she attended Boston University and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Public Relations, she enrolled at American University and graduated with a J. D. degree from the American University Washington College of Law. She was the first African-American woman to serve as executive editor of American University Law Review. In May 2013, Smith delivered the Commencement Address to the Boston University College of Communication Class of 2013, alongside the Commencement Student Speaker Cody Brotter. On July 10, 2016, Smith became an honorary member of Alpha Kappa Alpha. Smith began working in public service in 1983, when she was employed as assistant editor for the Nurses Association of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in Washington, D.
C. After her graduation from American University in 1987, she became Deputy Director of Public Information and Associate Counsel in the Office of the Independent Counsel. In 1989, she was appointed Special Counsel to the U. S. Attorney for the District of Columbia, serving as principal adviser to the U. S. Attorney on media relations and chief spokeswoman. Starting March 7, 1991, Smith served as Special Assistant and Deputy Press Secretary to President George H. W. Bush. While there, she earned a reputation for being straightforward and hard working, she was instrumental in guiding the Bush administration through the controversies surrounding the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court. After leaving the White House staff, Smith started Smith & Company, a consulting firm specializing in crisis management and media relations, her firm has advised such notable clients as Monica Lewinsky, actor Wesley Snipes, NFL quarterback Michael Vick and Sony Pictures Entertainment after their 2014 cyber attack.
In addition to her work as a communications advisor, Smith serves as a counselor to Fortune 500 corporations and has provided strategic advice on a variety of corporate communications issues. She has assisted leading companies such as Nextel, United Healthcare, Wal-Mart, Radio-One, Union Pacific, Waste Management Corporation, American International Group, Inc.. After her work for President Bush, Smith worked for NBC as vice president of communications, where she was responsible for news and entertainment shows. In 2009, Smith was introduced to Shonda Rhimes, creator of the TV series Grey's Anatomy, her partner Betsy Beers, a co-executive producer; that meeting was scheduled for less than half an hour but went on for more than three, resulting in development of the political-thriller television series Scandal, inspired by Smith's professional background in public relations and crisis management work in Washington D. C; as of 2012, Smith serves as co-executive producer and technical advisor for the show.
Smith writes blogs for ABC television. Her blog, titled Ask Judy, is a feature of the Huffington Post, where she is listed among the Black Voices. In tandem with her role at ABC, she writes a blog titled What Would Judy Do? for each episode of the television series Scandal. Smith's first book, Good Self, Bad Self, was released on April 3, 2012 to good reviews. Kirkus Reviews summarized a review by stating, "Smith provides a good overview of how to identify and curtail egregious behavior, with just enough celebrity misbehavior to hold the reader's attention." Publishers Weekly was less enthusiastic, concluding that her "approach feels unwieldy and better suited to accompany her services as a crisis manager than as a do-it-yourself program". She is active in community service. Smith, Judy. Good Self, Bad Self: Transforming Your Worst Qualities into Your Biggest Assets, Free Press, 288 pages. ISBN 978-1451649994 Smith, Judy. Good Self, Bad Self: How to Bounce Back from a Personal Crisis, Free Press, 272 pages.
ISBN 978-1451650006 Official website Smith & Company Appearances on C-SPAN
Alison Robins joined the Women's Royal Naval Service in 1939 as an officers' steward and joined the "Y-Service" in World War II. Robins was born in Branksome, Dorset, on 9th March 1920, she was daughter of Edward Arthur Gerrish, a servant, who married the daughter of the house, Alison Kellie-McCallum. She grew up attending eight different schools as her parents moved for her father to find work. Alison finished her school education in 1938 and qualified as a riding instructor, as a member of the Royal Horse Society; as one of the WRNS, Robins was one of the last surviving members of the'Y-Service' at Bletchley Park, who listened-in to German communications. During the Second World War, Robins was said to have been bored as an officers' steward waiting at table in the Painted Hall of the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, so she joined a class to learn Morse code in her off-duty time, she reached the speed needed to join the Signal School and in January 1941 passed the course and was made a Chief Petty Officer.
Her first posting was to the R. N. Wireless Station at Scarborough. By May 1942 she was transferred to Felixstowe - a busy station with E-Boats working continuously up and down the coast trying to destroy British convoys carrying vital supplies. All the Morse came in code, passed to "Station X" to be decoded - a place so secret that few knew where or what it was, it was only in the late 1990s Alison discovered it was called Bletchley Park. In 1943, she moved to Sheringham in Norfolk where she decided to learn German so she could listen to speech as well as Morse from the U-Boats. Various German speaking Wrens helped her learn by singing simple songs and she bought a Hugo'Teach Yourself German in 3 Months' book; every day, German High Command gave out a report on the progress of the war and it was always at dictation speed so she learned to write it down accurately. She was one of the few Wrens who could listen in both Morse and German. In 1943, she was transferred under the Commander-in-Chief, Dover - another busy station with all the traffic passing through the English Channel and the build-up to the Allied invasion of Europe.
She met her husband-to-be Maurice Robins while he was stationed near Dover with his regiment the 8th Middlesex. He went to France on D-Day+8 and fought through France, Belgium and Germany; as he had a degree in German, at the end of hostilities, he was seconded into Military Intelligence and used as an interpreter for the interrogation of German prisoners of war to decide who could safely be sent home and who should go on trial at Nuremberg. In 2010, Alison Robins received the Bletchley Park badge from the Prime Minister, David Cameron, with the citation'The Government wishes to express to you its deepest gratitude for the vital service you performed in World War II'. Alison and her husband John Maurice Usher Robins, had four children together: Beatrice Anne, Elizabeth Jill, Rosemary Gay, Marguerite Suzanne who died five days after childbirth. By her death, she had 7 grandchildren and 8 great-grandchildren
Anthony Soubervie is a professional footballer from French Guiana who plays for FC Chambly of the French Championnat National as of 2016. Soubervie began playing football at the age of 5. A product of the FC Girondins de Bordeaux youth academy, he was former teammates with Mathieu Valbuena, Rio Mavuba and Marouane Chamakh. With FC Rouen in 2012–13, Soubervie helped the club achieve a place in promotion to the Ligue 2 but the club went bankrupt and was relegated to the Division d' Honneur. Looking for a right-back SR Colmar coach Didier Ollé-Nicolle contacted Soubervie, whom he knew from his FC Rouen days, knowing he would adapt well to the club, he signed for them, accumulating four goals and seven assists that season. Through his career, the right-back has specialized in free-kicks and set-pieces from his days with OGC Nice, his main aim is to secure a contract with a Ligue 2 team or abroad. Anthony Soubervie at Soccerway at National-Football-Teams