Independent school (United Kingdom)
In the United Kingdom, independent schools are fee-paying private schools, governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools. For example, pupils do not have to follow the National Curriculum. Many of the older and more exclusive schools catering for the 13–18 age-range in England and Wales are known as public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868, the term "public" being derived from the fact that they were open to pupils regardless of where they lived or their religion. Prep schools educate younger children up to the age of 13 to "prepare" them for entry to the public schools and other independent schools; some former grammar schools converted to an independent fee-paying model following the 1965 Circular 10/65 which marked the end of their state funding. There are around 2,500 independent schools in the UK, which educate around 615,000 children, some 7 per cent of all British children and 18 per cent of pupils over the age of 16.
In addition to charging tuition fees, many benefit from gifts, charitable endowments and charitable status. Many of these schools are members of the Independent Schools Council. In 2017, the average cost for private schooling was £14,102 for day school and £32,259 for boarding school; some independent schools are old, such as The King's School, The King's School, Rochester, St Peter's School, Sherborne School, Warwick School, The King's School, Ely and St Albans School. These schools were under their complete dominion. However, it was during the late 14th & early 15th centuries that the first schools, independent of the church, were founded. Winchester & Oswestry were the first of their kind and paved the way for the establishment of the modern "Public school"; these were established for male scholars from poor or disadvantaged backgrounds. For instance, the Queen's Scholarships founded at Westminster in 1560, are for "the sons of decay'd gentlemen"; the transformation of free charitable foundations into institutions which sometimes charge fees came about readily: the foundation would only afford minimal facilities, so that further fees might be charged to lodge and otherwise maintain the scholars, to the private profit of the trustees or headmaster.
Facilities provided by the charitable foundation for a few scholars could profitably be extended to further paying pupils. After a time, such fees would eclipse the original charitable income, the original endowment would become a minor part of the capital benefactions enjoyed by the school. In 2009 senior boarding schools were charging fees of nearly £ 30,000 per annum. However, a majority of the independent schools today are still registered as a charity, bursary is available to students on a means test basis. Christ's Hospital in Horsham is an example. A large proportion of its students are funded by its charitable foundation or by various benefactors; the educational reforms of the 19th century were important under first Thomas Arnold at Rugby, Butler and Kennedy at Shrewsbury, the former emphasising team spirit and muscular Christianity and the latter the importance of scholarship and competitive examinations. Edward Thring of Uppingham School introduced major reforms, focusing on the importance of the individual and competition, as well as the need for a "total curriculum" with academia, music and drama being central to education.
Most public schools developed during the 18th and 19th centuries, came to play an important role in the development of the Victorian social elite. Under a number of forward-looking headmasters leading public schools created a curriculum based on classics and physical activity for boys and young men of the upper and upper middle classes, they were schools for the gentlemanly elite of Victorian politics, armed forces and colonial government. Successful businessmen would send their sons to a public school as a mark of participation in the elite. Much of the discipline was in the hands of senior pupils, not just a means to reduce staffing costs, but was seen as vital preparation for those pupils' roles in public or military service. More heads of public schools have been emphasising that senior pupils now play a much reduced role in disciplining. To an extent, the public school system influenced the school systems of the British Empire, recognisably "public" schools can be found in many Commonwealth countries.
Until 1975 there had been a group of 179 academically selective schools drawing on both private and state funding, the direct grant grammar schools. The Direct Grant Grammar Schools Regulations 1975 required these schools to choose between full state funding as comprehensive schools and full independence; as a result, 119 of these schools became independent. Pupil numbers at independent schools fell during the mid-1970s recession. At the same time participation at all secondary schools grew so that the share of the independent sector fell from a little under 8 per cent in 1964 to reach a low of 5.7 per cent in 1978. Both these trends were reversed during the 1980s, the share of the indepe
The Championships, Wimbledon
The Championships, Wimbledon known as Wimbledon, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, is regarded by many as the most prestigious. It has been held at the All England Club in Wimbledon, since 1877 and is played on outdoor grass courts. Wimbledon is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, the others being the Australian Open, the French Open and the US Open. Since the Australian Open shifted to hardcourt in 1988, Wimbledon is the only major still played on grass; the tournament traditionally took place over two weeks in late June and early July, starting on the last Monday in June and culminating with the Ladies' and Gentlemen's Singles Finals, scheduled for the Saturday and Sunday at the end of the second week. However recent changes to the tennis calendar have seen the event moved back by a week to begin in early July. Five major events are held each year, with additional junior and invitational competitions taking place. Wimbledon traditions include a strict dress code for Royal patronage.
Strawberries and cream is traditionally consumed at the tournament. In 2017, fans consumed 10,000 litres of cream; the tournament is notable for the absence of sponsor advertising around the courts, except the advertisements of Rolex. In 2009, Wimbledon's Centre Court was fitted with a retractable roof to lessen the loss of playing time due to rain; the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club is a private club founded on 23 July 1868 as "The All England Croquet Club". Its first ground was at Nursery Road off Worple Road, Wimbledon. In 1876, lawn tennis, a game devised by Major Walter Clopton Wingfield a year or so earlier as an outdoor version of court tennis and given the name Sphairistikè, was added to the activities of the club. In spring 1877, the club was renamed "The All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club" and signalled its change of name by instituting the first Lawn Tennis Championship. A new code of laws, replacing the code administered by the Marylebone Cricket Club, was drawn up for the event.
Today's rules are similar except for details such as the height of the net and posts and the distance of the service line from the net. The inaugural 1877 Wimbledon Championship started on 9 July 1877 and the Gentlemen's Singles was the only event held, it was won by Spencer Gore, an old Harrovian rackets player, from a field of 22. About 200 spectators paid one shilling each to watch the final; the lawns at the ground were arranged so that the principal court was in the middle with the others arranged around it, hence the title "Centre Court". The name was retained when the Club moved in 1922 to the present site in Church Road, although no longer a true description of its location. However, in 1980 four new courts were brought into commission on the north side of the ground, which meant the Centre Court was once more described; the opening of the new No. 1 Court in 1997 emphasised the description. By 1882, activity at the club was exclusively confined to lawn tennis and that year the word "croquet" was dropped from the title.
However, for sentimental reasons it was restored in 1899. In 1884, the club added Gentlemen's Doubles competitions. Ladies' Doubles and Mixed Doubles events were added in 1913; until 1922, the reigning champion had to play only in the final, against whomever had won through to challenge him/her. As with the other three Major or Grand Slam events, Wimbledon was contested by top-ranked amateur players; this changed with the advent of the open era in 1968. No British man won the singles event at Wimbledon between Fred Perry in 1936 and Andy Murray in 2013, while no British woman has won since Virginia Wade in 1977, although Annabel Croft and Laura Robson won the Girls' Championship in 1984 and 2008 respectively; the Championship was first televised in 1937. Though properly called "The Championships, Wimbledon", depending on sources the event is known as "The All England Lawn Tennis Championships", "The Wimbledon Championships" or "Wimbledon". From 1912 to 1924, the tournament was recognized by the International Lawn Tennis Federation as the "World Grass Court Championships".
Wimbledon is considered the world's premier tennis tournament and the priority of the Club is to maintain its leadership. To that end a long-term plan was unveiled in 1993, intended to improve the quality of the event for spectators, players and neighbours. Stage one of the plan was completed for the 1997 championships and involved building the new No. 1 Court in Aorangi Park, a broadcast centre, two extra grass courts and a tunnel under the hill linking Church Road and Somerset Road. Stage two involved the removal of the old No. 1 Court complex to make way for the new Millennium Building, providing extensive facilities for players, press and members, the extension of the West Stand of the Centre Court with 728 extra seats. Stage three has been completed with the construction of an entrance building, club staff housing, museum and ticket office. A new retractable roof was built in time for the 2009 championships, marking the first time that rain did not stop play for a lengthy time on Centre Court.
The Club tested the new roof at an event called A Centre Court Celebration on Sunday, 17 May 2009, which featured exhibition matches involving Andre Agassi, Steffi Graf, Kim Clijsters and Tim Henman. The first Championship match to take place under the roof was the completion of the fourth round women's singles match between Dinara Safina and Amélie Mauresmo; the first match to be played in its entirety under the new roof took place between Andy Murray and Stanislas Wawrinka on 29 June 2009. Murray was involve
Wimbledon is a district and town of south-west London, England, 7.1 miles south-west of the centre of London at Charing Cross, in the London Borough of Merton, south of Wandsworth, north-east of New Malden, north-west of Mitcham, west of Streatham and north of Sutton. Wimbledon had a population of 68,187 in 2011 which includes the electoral wards of Abbey, Hillside, Village, Raynes Park and Wimbledon Park, it is home to the Wimbledon Tennis Championships and New Wimbledon Theatre, contains Wimbledon Common, one of the largest areas of common land in London along with a Wimbledon Tennis Club. The residential and retail area is split into two sections known as the "village" and the "town", with the High Street being the rebuilding of the original medieval village, the "town" having first developed after the building of the railway station in 1838. Wimbledon has been inhabited since at least the Iron Age when the hill fort on Wimbledon Common is thought to have been constructed. In 1087 when the Domesday Book was compiled, Wimbledon was part of the manor of Mortlake.
The ownership of the manor of Wimbledon changed between various wealthy families many times during its history, the area attracted other wealthy families who built large houses such as Eagle House, Wimbledon Manor House and Warren House. The village developed with a stable rural population coexisting with nobility and wealthy merchants from the city. In the 18th century the Dog and Fox public house became a stop on the stagecoach run from London to Portsmouth in 1838 the London and South Western Railway opened a station to the south-east of the village at the bottom of Wimbledon Hill; the location of the station shifted the focus of the town's subsequent growth away from the original village centre. Wimbledon had its own borough larger than its historic boundaries while still in the county of Surrey. Since 2005, the north and west of the borough have been represented in Westminster by Stephen Hammond, a Conservative MP; the east and south of the Borough are represented by Siobhain McDonagh, a Labour MP.
Wimbledon has established minority groups. Wimbledon, a small farming locality in New Zealand, was named after this district in the 1880s after a local resident shot a bullock from a considerable distance away; the shot was considered by onlookers to be worthy of the rifle-shooting championships held in Wimbledon at the time. Wimbledon has been inhabited since at least the Iron Age when the hill fort on Wimbledon Common, the second-largest in London, is thought to have been constructed; the original nucleus of Wimbledon was at the top of the hill close to the common – the area now known locally as "the village". The village is referred to as "Wimbedounyng" in a charter signed by King Edgar the Peaceful in 967; the name Wimbledon means "Wynnman's hill", with the final element of the name being the Celtic "dun". The name is shown on J. Cary's 1786 map of the London area as "Wimbleton", the current spelling appears to have been settled on recently in the early 19th century, the last in a long line of variations.
At the time the Domesday Book was compiled, Wimbledon was part of the manor of Mortlake, so was not recorded. The ownership of the manor of Wimbledon changed hands many times during its history; the manor was held by the church until 1398 when Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury fell out of favour with Richard II and was exiled. The manor became crown property; the manor remained crown property until the reign of Henry VIII when it was granted to Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, until Cromwell was executed in 1540 and the land was again confiscated. The manor was next held by Henry VIII's last wife and widow Catherine Parr until her death in 1548 when it again reverted to the monarch. In the 1550s, Henry's daughter, Mary I, granted the manor to Cardinal Reginald Pole who held it until his death in 1558 when it once again become royal property. Mary's sister, Elizabeth I held the property until 1574, when she gave the manor house to Christopher Hatton, who sold it in the same year to Sir Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter.
The lands of the manor were given to the Cecil family in 1588 and a new manor house, Wimbledon Palace, was constructed and gardens laid out in the formal Elizabethan style. Wimbledon's proximity to the capital was beginning to attract other wealthy families. In 1613 Robert Bell, Master of the Worshipful Company of Girdlers and a director of the British East India Company built Eagle House as a home at an easy distance from London; the Cecil family retained the manor for fifty years, before it was bought by Charles I in 1638 for his Queen, Henrietta Maria. Following the King's execution in 1649, the manor passed among various parliamentarian owners, including the Leeds MP Adam Baynes and the civil war general John Lambert, but after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, it was returned to Henrietta Maria; the Dowager Queen sold the manor in 1661 to George Digby, Earl of Bristol, who employed John Evelyn to improve and update the landscape in accordance with the latest fashions, including grottos and fountains.
On his death in 1677, the manor was sold again to the Lord High Treasurer, Thomas Osborne, Earl of Danby. The Osborne family sold the manor to Sir Theodore Janssen in 1712. Janssen, a director of the South Sea Company, began a new house to replace the one built by the Cecils, but the spectacular collapse of the company meant it was never finished; the next owner was Sarah Church
Direct grant grammar school
A direct grant grammar school was a type of selective secondary school in England and Wales that existed between 1945 and 1976. One quarter of the places in these schools were directly funded by central government, while the remainder attracted fees, some paid by the Local Education Authority and some by private pupils. On average, the schools received just over half of their income from the state; the status was introduced by the Education Act 1944 as a modification of an existing direct grant scheme to endowed schools. There were 179 direct grant grammar schools, together with over 1,200 grammar schools maintained by local authorities, formed the most academic tier of the Tripartite System, they varied in size and composition, but, on average, achieved higher academic results than either maintained grammar schools or independent schools. State secondary education was reorganised on comprehensive lines in early 1970s; the direct grant was phased out from 1975 and the schools were required to choose between becoming maintained comprehensive schools or independent schools.
Forty-five schools all Roman Catholic, joined the state system, while a few closed. The rest became independent and remain as selective independent schools. In the 19th century, few boys and few girls in England and Wales received secondary education, available only at private schools. During this time, secondary provision adjusted to growing demand. At the start of that century, some boarding schools like Eton College and Winchester College thrived educating the sons of the aristocracy, but most endowed grammar schools were in decline, their classical curricula seen as irrelevant to the industrial age; these schools were reformed under the Endowed Schools Act 1869, which led to many endowments being diverted to the creation of girls' schools. In the meantime a range of other schools had appeared. After the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829 and mid-century Irish immigration, Catholic teaching orders from Ireland and mainland Europe began to establish their own grammar schools. New proprietary schools were established as joint-stock companies, converting to charities if they were successful.
One of the largest such companies was the Girls' Public Day School Company, set up to provide an affordable academic education for girls, which had established 32 schools by 1894. In the latter part of the century, many of the less wealthy schools received annual grants from the Department of Science and Art and from their county councils; the grant system was restructured when the Board of Education was created in 1901 to fund early secondary schools, the Education Act 1902 gave counties and county boroughs responsibility for schools, designating them as local education authorities. Secondary schools controlled by voluntary bodies could receive a grant from either the Board of Education or their local authority, or both. In return they were required to meet the Board's regulations, were subject to the same system of inspections as state-funded schools. Under the Education Act 1907, secondary schools in receipt of grant were required to admit a specified proportion of their intake 25%, free of charge from state elementary schools.
Suitable pupils were selected using a scholarship examination. Circular 1381, a directive issued by the Board of Education in 1926, required that schools choose a single source of grant: they could receive a "direct grant" from central government, or be "grant-aided" by their local authority. By 1932 there were 240 secondary schools receiving a direct grant, compared with 1138 aided by local authorities. Although this division was intended purely as an administrative convenience, local authorities gained more influence over the schools they aided, in part because of the schools' weak financial position during the Great Depression; the Depression and the falling birth rate in the pre-war years had weakened independent schools and schools receiving the direct grant. At the same time, the state-funded sector had grown to the point where universal secondary education seemed achievable, changes in society had made the idea more popular. Proposals were made for a reorganisation of the maintained sector, including a new accommodation with the voluntary schools.
In response, the Headmasters' Conference persuaded the President of the Board of Education, R. A. Butler, to establish a commission under Lord Fleming in July 1942 "to consider means whereby the association between the Public Schools... and the general education system of the country could be developed and extended". The Education Act 1944 aimed to introduce a universal system of secondary education for England and Wales. Under the Tripartite System, there were to be three types of schools, with pupils sitting an eleven plus exam to determine which type of school they would be sent to; the most academic tier would be the grammar school, the Act revised the terms of the direct grant to operate alongside LEA-maintained grammar schools, many of which were former LEA-aided schools. The latter schools, unable to cope with the costs of the reorganisation required by the 1944 Act, had been offered the status of voluntary controlled or voluntary aided schools, under which the state would pay all their running costs and all or most of their capital costs.
They were thus integrated into the state system. The new direct grant scheme was a modification of proposals in the Fleming Report of 1944. A direct grant grammar school would provide 25% of its places free of charge to children who had spent at least 2 years in maintained primary schools, would reserve at least a further 25% of places to be paid for by the LEA if required; the re
Sylvia May Payne was one of the pioneers of psychoanalysis in the United Kingdom. Born as Sylvia May Moore in Marylebone, the daughter of Rev. Edward William Moore and his wife Letitia, her father was incumbent of Brunswick Chapel and an adherent of the Higher Life movement, being one of the founders of the Keswick Convention. The family lived at Wimbledon. Moore was educated at Wimbledon High School, Westfield College and the London School of Medicine for Women – the Royal Free Hospital, she qualified in 1906 and held house appointments at the Royal Free Hospital until her marriage in 1908. During the First World War, Payne became commandant and medical officer in Torquay at the Red Cross Hospital for wounded soldiers. In the 1918 Birthday Honours, she was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire for her work. Payne developed an interest in psychoanalysis during the war and began training with Edward Glover at the Medico-Psychological Clinic on Brunswick Square, London, she went to Berlin, where she got to know Karl Abraham.
In 1922, Payne became an Associate Member of the British Psychoanalytical Society. In 1926 she became a psychiatrist at Ernest Jones' London Clinic of Psychoanalysis and a member of the society. Payne was a prolific writer on psychoanalysis and women. Jones put her in charge of administration at the society, where she was effective. In 1929 she was joint secretary with Joan Riviere in the International Congress in Oxford. Payne was the analyst for Charles Rycroft, among others. Between 1941 and 1945, she played an important part in the controversial discussions as one of the moderators between Melanie Klein and Anna Freud, she organised a stenographer to record the discussion so members who could not get to London because of war work could be kept in touch. At the same time, there was a constitutional debate within the society centring on Edward Glover; the result was that Glover resigned from the society and Anna Freud resigned from the training committee. In 1944 Payne was elected with Ernest Jones as honorary president.
Payne was in charge of discussions on training, with an ad hoc committee including John Bowlby, Anna Freud, Willi Hoffer, Melanie Klein, Susan Isaacs, Adrian Stephen and John Rickman.. She ceased to be president in 1947 but was president of the BPAS again from 1954 to 1956. In 1962, she was elected an honorary member of the BPAS, she was a Fellow of the British Psychological Society. In 1908 she married John Ernest Payne, a surgeon who had rowed for Cambridge in the Boat Race in 1899 and 1900, stroked the winning Leander Club four in the Stewards' Challenge Cup at Henley Royal Regatta in 1900. One son Kenneth Payne became an Olympic rower, another Anthony Monck-Mason Payne became a professor of medicine at Yale University and an Assistant Director of WHO, her brother, Henry Monck-Mason Moore, was Governor General of Ceylon. Sylvia Payne lived in retirement in Tunbridge Wells, where she died at the age of 95. A Conception of Femininity, 1935 Some Observations on Ego Development of the Fetishist, 1939
The Worst Witch (1998 TV series)
The Worst Witch is a British-Canadian ITV television series about a group of young witches at a school for magic. The series stars Georgina Sherrington and Felicity Jones, is based on The Worst Witch books by Jill Murphy, it aired for a total of 40 episodes spread over three series between 1998 and 2001, before being followed by Weirdsister College. Most episodes revolved following the adventures of Mildred and her friends; the series was followed by The New Worst Witch, which ran for two series and chronicled the experiences of Mildred's younger cousin Hettie as she attended the school. On 2 November 2014, it was announced that a new series was in development with the BBC; the series stars Georgina Sherrington and Felicity Jones, was broadcast from 1998 to 2001 on ITV, on HBO. The series stars veteran British actress Una Stubbs as the eccentric chanting teacher, Miss Bat. Felicity Jones was replaced by Katy Allen after the first series, it was explained away as a magical makeover. New characters were added, such as Frank Blossom, Miss Crotchet, the music teacher in the third series who replaced Miss Bat and two students from ethnic minorities – Ruby Cherrytree and Jadu Wali.
New recurring characters included Merlin Langstaff, a wizard apprentice who befriended Mildred, his two mean-spirited acquaintances – Barry "Baz" Dragonsbane and Gary "Gaz" Grailquest, Frank Blossom's nephew who wanted to be a wizard, Mrs. Cosie, the nervous owner of the nearby tearoom and Mistress Hecketty Broomhead, the evil school inspector who became a brief headmistress; as a character who appears more than once is Egbert Hellibore, chief wizard and headmaster of Camelot Castle, where Merlin, Charlie and Gaz live. The first series dramatised The Worst Witch and The Worst Witch Strikes Again, the second series dramatised A Bad Spell For The Worst Witch and The Worst Witch All At Sea. Both of these two series contained original stories; the third and final series continued with purely original material. Mildred Hubble – Mildred is the protagonist of the Worst Witch series, she is a clumsy, bungling young witch-in-training, who never seems to get anything right at Miss Cackle's Academy for Witches.
She is tall, with long, straggly dark plaits, never ties her bootlaces. Mildred does not come from a witch family like most of the other girls, but earns a scholarship at Cackle's Academy through a first-class piece of creative writing which impresses Miss Cackle. Mildred is kind-hearted and well-meaning and tries hard, but she is adventurous and impulsive, which gets her into trouble with her teachers, most notably the fearsome Miss Hardbroom. Creating havoc wherever she goes, mixing up spells and potions, Mildred is a walking disaster area destroying the potion lab and on the brink of bringing utter peril upon the school. However, as she has a knack of saving the teachers, the pupils and sometimes the whole academy from destruction, she always escapes getting expelled. Although her Mathematics and Science skills leave much to be desired, Mildred is tenacious and channels her creative energy into her quest to become an accomplished witch. Mildred has an ongoing feud with Ethel Hallow, which lasts throughout the entire Worst Witch series and into the Weirdsister episodes.
After five years at Cackle's Academy, Mildred goes on to university, training at Weirdsister College in Cambridge, a place she gained through her artistic skills. At Weirdsister, she seems to improve her skills, is shocked to discover that Ethel Hallow is her roommate, though the two become friends. Mildred is seen in the first episode of The New Worst Witch, now an accomplished and successful witch despite her struggles at school, escorting her younger cousin Henrietta "Hettie" Hubble on her first day at Cackle's Academy. Ethel Hallow – Ethel is Mildred Hubble's acid-tongued rival, she is a "straight-A" student, comes from a prominent and historic witch family, gives the impression of being a model student to her classmates. She is spoiled and vindictive. Ethel takes pleasure in taunting Mildred about her inability to train her cat, to ride a broomstick, Mildred responds by turning Ethel into a pig. From on Mildred and Ethel resent one another and Ethel vows to get Mildred expelled, though she does not succeed.
Ethel has many talents, among them pouting, bossing people around and insinuating herself into important people's graces. As she is one of "THE" Hallows and her father is the chair of the board of governors, she regards herself as superior to all the other pupils at Cackle’s. Ethel and her only friend, Drusilla Paddock, are shown to be allies rather than true friends, sticking together because nobody else likes them. However, in the episode "The Unfairground", they end their friendship because Drusilla agrees with Mildred and her friends' attempts to stand up to the teachers. In contrast to her personality, Ethel is an attractive young girl who matures into a beautiful and popular teenager at Weirdsister College. In her second year at Cackle's, she altered her appearance via a magical makeover to hide the fact she is the sister of winy Sybil Hallow, but the result turned out so well she decided to keep it for the remainder of her time at Cackle’s; when she came to Weirdsister College, Ethel felt as though it was safe to chang
Lara Croft is a fictional character and the main protagonist of the video game franchise Tomb Raider. She is presented as a intelligent and beautiful English archaeologist who ventures into ancient tombs and hazardous ruins around the world. Created by a team at British developer Core Design that included Toby Gard, the character first appeared in the video game Tomb Raider in 1996. Core Design handled the initial development of the series. Inspired by Neneh Cherry and comic book character Tank Girl, Gard designed Lara Croft to counter stereotypical female characters; the company modified the character for subsequent titles, which included graphical improvements and gameplay additions. American developer Crystal Dynamics took over the series after the 2003 sequel Tomb Raider: The Angel of Darkness was received poorly; the new developer rebooted the character along with the video game series. The company altered her physical proportions and gave her additional ways of interacting with game environments.
Croft has been voiced by six actresses in the video game series: Shelley Blond, Judith Gibbins, Jonell Elliott, Keeley Hawes, Camilla Luddington, Abigail Stahlschmidt. Lara Croft has further appeared in video game spin-offs, printed adaptations, a series of animated short films, feature films, merchandise related to the series; the promotion of the character includes a brand of apparel and accessories, action figures, model portrayals. She has been licensed for third-party promotion, including television and print advertisements, music-related appearances, as a spokesmodel. Critics consider Lara Croft a significant game character in popular culture, she holds six Guinness World Records, has a strong fan following, is among the first video game characters to be adapted to film. Lara Croft is considered a sex symbol, one of the earliest in the industry to achieve widespread attention; the character's influence in the industry has been a point of contention among critics. Lara Croft is depicted as an athletic and fast woman with brown eyes and reddish-brown hair kept in a plait or ponytail.
The character's classic costume is a turquoise tank top, light brown shorts, calf-high boots, tall white socks. Accessories include fingerless gloves, a backpack, a utility belt with holsters on either side, two pistols; the video game sequels introduced new outfits designed for different environments, such as underwater and cold weather. In the games, Croft wears a crop top, camouflage pants and black or light brown shirts; when exploring, she carries two pistols, but has used other weaponry throughout the series. She is fluent in several languages. Lara's backstory has changed over the course of the series. During the first era, game manuals describe the character as the Wimbledon, London-born daughter of Lord Henshingly Croft, she was betrothed to the fictitious Earl of Farringdon. Lara attended a Swiss finishing school. At the age of twenty-one, she survived a plane crash, which left her stranded in the Himalayas for two weeks. Croft published books and other written works based on her exploits as a mercenary, big-game hunter, master thief.
These provided her with a replacement source of income after her father disowned her over her change in lifestyle. During the second era, Lara's story was changed to be the daughter of archaeologist Lord Richard Croft, the Earl of Abbingdon, someone, identified as a talented individual while attending the Abbingdon Girls School; the plane crash was changed to when Lara was nine years old, with her mother, Amelia Croft. While searching for shelter and her mother took refuge in an ancient Nepalese temple, where Lara witnesses her mother vanish after tampering with an ancient sword, her father disappears in search of his wife. This spurs Lara on to seek the reason for her mother's disappearance; the third era deviates from the original plot considerably. When Lara was young she traveled with her parents on many of their archaeological expeditions which helped to shape the woman she was becoming, it was on one of these expeditions that her mother vanished and was presumed dead and when her father took his own life a few years she was left in the care of Conrad Roth.
Though she inherited a vast fortune, giving her the means to attend Cambridge with ease, Lara chose to study at University College London. Though this was a much tougher choice, it helped her become more grounded and level-headed than she might otherwise have been, she ended up meeting her best friend, Samantha Nishimura, during her time at UCL. It was because of Sam's free spirit and a wild streak that Lara was able to experience much more of London than just the universities and museums that she loved so much. After traveling the world, both Lara and Sam end up on an expedition to the Dragon's Triangle off the Japanese coast in search of the lost civilization of Yamatai, it is on this expedition that Lara is stranded on a remote island full of natural and supernatural dangers, which enables her to develop from a vulnerable girl to a survivor. And after experiencing the supernatural powers of the ancient world, she comes to realize her father was right about his theories and her hunger for adventure awakens.
Although Lara had an independent life, including much international work, she was able to maintain an active social life a