Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its low melting temperature; the alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon ranging from 1.8 to 4 wt%, silicon 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram. Since the compositions of most cast irons are around the eutectic point of the iron–carbon system, the melting temperatures range from 1,150 to 1,200 °C, about 300 °C lower than the melting point of pure iron of 1,535 °C.
Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. With its low melting point, good fluidity, excellent machinability, resistance to deformation and wear resistance, cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications and are used in pipes and automotive industry parts, such as cylinder heads, cylinder blocks and gearbox cases, it is resistant to weakening by oxidation. The earliest cast-iron artifacts date to the 5th century BC, were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare and architecture. During the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for cannon in Burgundy, in England during the Reformation; the amounts of cast iron used for cannon required large scale production. The first cast-iron bridge was built during the 1770s by Abraham Darby III, is known as The Iron Bridge. Cast iron was used in the construction of buildings. Cast iron is made from pig iron, the product of smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.
Cast iron can be made directly from the molten pig iron or by re-melting pig iron along with substantial quantities of iron, limestone and taking various steps to remove undesirable contaminants. Phosphorus and sulfur may be burnt out of the molten iron, but this burns out the carbon, which must be replaced. Depending on the application and silicon content are adjusted to the desired levels, which may be anywhere from 2–3.5% and 1–3%, respectively. If desired, other elements are added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Cast iron is sometimes melted in a special type of blast furnace known as a cupola, but in modern applications, it is more melted in electric induction furnaces or electric arc furnaces. After melting is complete, the molten cast iron is poured into ladle. Cast iron's properties alloyants. Next to carbon, silicon is the most important alloyant. A low percentage of silicon allows carbon to remain in solution forming iron carbide and the production of white cast iron.
A high percentage of silicon forces carbon out of solution forming graphite and the production of grey cast iron. Other alloying agents, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium counteracts silicon, promotes the retention of carbon, the formation of those carbides. Nickel and copper increase strength, machinability, but do not change the amount of graphite formed; the carbon in the form of graphite results in a softer iron, reduces shrinkage, lowers strength, decreases density. Sulfur a contaminant when present, forms iron sulfide, which prevents the formation of graphite and increases hardness; the problem with sulfur is. To counter the effects of sulfur, manganese is added because the two form into manganese sulfide instead of iron sulfide; the manganese sulfide is lighter than the melt, so it tends to float out of the melt and into the slag. The amount of manganese required to neutralize sulfur is 1.7 × sulfur content + 0.3%. If more than this amount of manganese is added manganese carbide forms, which increases hardness and chilling, except in grey iron, where up to 1% of manganese increases strength and density.
Nickel is one of the most common alloying elements because it refines the pearlite and graphite structure, improves toughness, evens out hardness differences between section thicknesses. Chromium is added in small amounts to reduce free graphite, produce chill, because it is a powerful carbide stabilizer. A small amount of tin can be added as a substitute for 0.5% chromium. Copper is added in the ladle or in the furnace, on the order of 0.5–2.5%, to decrease chill, refine graphite, increase fluidity. Molybdenum is added on the order of 0.3–1% to increase chill and refine the graphite and pearlite structure. Titanium is added as a degasser and deoxidizer, but it increases fluidity. 0.15–0.5% vanadium is added to cast iron to stabilize cementite, increase hardness, increase resistance to wear and heat. 0.1–0.3% zirconium helps to form graphite and increase fluidity. In malleable iron melts, bismuth is added, on the scale of 0.002–0.01%, to increase how much silicon can be added. In white iron, boron is added to aid in the production of malleable iron.
Louth is a market town and civil parish in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. Louth is the principal centre for a large rural area of eastern Lincolnshire. Visitor attractions include St. James' Church, Hubbard's Hills, the market, many independent retailers and Lincolnshire's last remaining cattle market. Louth is at the foot of the Lincolnshire Wolds where they meet the Lincolnshire Marsh and is known as the Capital of the Lincolnshire Wolds, it developed where the ancient trackway along the Wolds, known as the Barton Street, crossed the River Lud. The town is east of a gorge carved into the Wolds; this area was formed from a glacial overspill channel in the last glacial period. The River Lud meanders through the gorge before entering the town. Louth had a population of 15,930 as of 2009; the Greenwich Meridian passes through the town and is marked on Eastgate with plaques on the north and south sides of the street, just east of the junction with Northgate, although this location is known to be incorrect as the line passes through a point just west of Eastgate's junction with Church Street.
A three-mile £6.6 million A16 Louth Bypass opened in 1991. The former route through the town is now designated as the B1520. Three handaxes have been found on the wolds surrounding Louth, dating from between 424,000 and 191,000 years ago, indicating inhabitation in Paleolithic era. Bronze Age archeological finds include a'barbed and tanged' arrowhead found in the grounds of Monks' Dyke Tennyson College. St Helen's Spring, at the Gatherums, off Aswell Street, is dedicated to a popular medieval saint, the mother of Constantine the Great, the first Roman Emperor to become a Christian, but is thought to be a Christianised Romano-British site for veneration of the pagan water-goddess Alauna; the Anglo-Saxon pagan burial ground, northwest of Louth, dates from the fifth to sixth centuries, was first excavated in 1946. With an estimated 1200 urn burials it is one of the largest Anglo-Saxon cremation cemeteries in England.Æthelhard, a Bishop of Winchester, made Archbishop of Canterbury in 793, was an abbot of Louth in his early life.
Louth is listed in the 1086 Domesday Book as a town of 124 households. Louth Park Abbey was founded in 1139 by the Bishop Alexander of Lincoln as a daughter-house of the Cistercian Fountains Abbey in Yorkshire. Following its dissolution in 1536 it fell into ruin and, only earthworks survive, on private land, between Louth and Keddington. Monks' Dyke, now a ditch, was dug to supply the abbey with water from the springs of Ashwell and St. Helen's at Louth. In 1643, Sir Charles Bolles, a resident of Louth, raised a'hastily-got-up soldiery' for the Royalist cause in the English Civil War. Fighting took place in, around the town and, at one point, Bolles was forced to take refuge under the Ramsgate bridge. By the battle's end'Three strangers, being souldgeres, was slain at a skirmish at Lowth, was buryed'. Human remains, found during archaeological visits to Louth Park Abbey during the 1800s, in'a little space surrounded by a ditch', were believed to date from the Civil War as two cannonballs, from that era, were found with the bodies.
The Louth flood of 1920 occurred in the town on 29 May 1920. One woman climbed a chimney to survive, another was the only survivor from a row of twelve terrace houses, which were destroyed by the flood waters. Four stone plaques exist in the town to show. Other, less devastating floods occurred in July 1968 and on 25 June and 20 July in 2007. Margaret Wintringham succeeded her dead husband at the Louth by-election in September 1921, to become the Liberals' first female MP, Britain's third female MP. St Herefrith, or Herefrid, is Louth's ` forgotten saint', he was a bishop, who died around 873 killed by the Danes. An 11th-century text describes Herefrith as Bishop of Lincoln, but as the bishopric there dates to 1072, Lincoln more refers to Lindsey, the early name for Lincolnshire. Similar confusion exists in an inventory of Louth's St. James Church, written in 1486 and transcribed in 1512, where he is referred to as a Bishop of Auxerre, France. At some point, following his death, a shrine venerating him was established at Louth.
Æthelwold, the Bishop of Winchester from 963 to 984, was seeking relics for his newly rebuilt Thorney Abbey in Cambridgeshire and sent his monks to Louth to raid Herefrith's shrine. From an 11th-century account, Æthelwold had:...heard of the merits of the blessed Herefrid bishop of Lincoln resting in Louth a chief town of the same church. When all those dwelling there had been put to sleep by a cunning ruse, a trusty servant took him out of the ground, wrapped him in fine line cloth, with all his fellows rejoicing brought him to the monastery of Thorney and re-interred him. A church dedicated to St. Herefrith, at Louth, appears in accounts from the 13th to 15th centuries, one of his relics, an ivory comb, is recorded among the possessions of Louth's St. James Church in 1486. Suggestions that the shrine, church, of St. Herefrith, were earlier incarnations of St. James has'no supportive evidence' but St James' is the site of two earlier churches of which little is known. Louth railway station was a major intermediate station on the East Lincolnshire Railway which ran from Boston railway station to Grimsby Town railway station from 1848 and was served by rail motor services.
Louth was served by the Mablethorpe Loop Line as the terminus of the line which ran to nearby villages and towns of Mablethorpe, Sutton-on-Sea, Saltfleetby, Theddlethorpe and Willoughby. The station was the start and terminus on the Louth to Bardney Line which opened in 1876 but
Merton Abbey Mills
Merton Abbey Mills is a former textile factory in the parish of Merton in London, England near the site of the medieval Merton Priory, now the home of a variety of businesses retailers. The River Wandle flowing north towards Wandsworth drove watermills and provided water for a number of industrial processes in Merton. Merton Abbey Mills were established by Huguenot silk throwers in the early eighteenth century; the Abbey was restructured for textile printing in the early nineteenth century and was acquired by the artist and textile designer William Morris in June 1881 as the new home of Morris & Co.'s workshops. The complex, on 7 acres, included several buildings and a dyeworks, the various buildings were soon adapted for stained glass making, textile printing, fabric and carpet-weaving. Morris refused to destroy existing buildings, adapted them or built new ones. Morris employed a number of former Spitalfields silk weavers at Merton Abbey to produce hand-woven textiles, used the gardens to grow dye plants and the water of the River Wandle to dye and rinse his fabrics.
Liberty & Co. had been involved with the site since the 19th century, as their popular ranges of fabrics for dress and furniture were nearly all made there by Littler and Co, Morris's immediate neighbours to the south. In 1904 Liberty & Co took over the Littler site, in 1940 the Morris facilities as well, they continued to operate the Merton Abbey Mills until 1972, textile production was continued by other firms until 1982. During World War II part of the site was used to construct gun-turrets for the Bristol Blenheim fighter-bomber. Today Merton Abbey Mills is a crafts market and the site of a summer theatre and music festival called Abbeyfest. A number of buildings from the Morris period, earlier and there are displays on the history of the site. A water-mill still turns in the summer, the "colourhouse", a mid-18th century industrial building, is now a children's theatre; the water-mill and colour house are both Grade II listed buildings. History of silk Fairclough and Emmeline Leary, Textiles by William Morris and Morris & Co.
1861–1940, Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery, 1981, ISBN 0-89860-065-0 Naylor, William Morris by Himself: Designs and Writings, Little Brown & Co. 2000 reprint of 1988 edition, ISBN 0-316-85507-3 Parry, Linda, "Textiles", in The Earthly Paradise: Arts and Crafts by Wiliam Morris and his Circle in Canadian Collections, edited by Katharine A. Lochnan, Douglas E. Schoenherr, Carole Silver, Key Porter Books, 1993, ISBN 1-55013-450-7 Parry, Linda, ed. William Morris, Abrams, 1996, ISBN 0-8109-4282-8 Parry, William Morris and the Arts and Crafts Movement: A Sourcebook, New York, Portland House, 1989 ISBN 0-517-69260-0 Parry, William Morris Textiles, New York, Viking Press, 1983, ISBN 0-670-77074-4 Parry, Textiles of the Arts & Crafts Movement and Hudson, revised edition 2005, ISBN 0-500-28536-5 Wilhide, William Morris and the Art of Design New York, Abrams, 1991, ISBN 0-8109-3623-2 Merton Abbey Mills official site Abbeyfest Merton Priory Trust – full notes on the history and archaeology by David Saxby of the Museum of London
Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell
Lieutenant-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, was a British Army officer, writer and first Chief Scout of the world-wide Boy Scout Movement, founder, with his sister Agnes, of the world-wide Girl Guide / Girl Scout Movement. Baden-Powell authored the first editions of the seminal work Scouting for Boys, an inspiration for the Scout Movement. Educated at Charterhouse in Surrey, Baden-Powell served in the British Army from 1876 until 1910 in India and Africa. In 1899, during the Second Boer War in South Africa, Baden-Powell defended the town in the Siege of Mafeking. Several of his military books, written for military reconnaissance and scout training in his African years, were read by boys. In 1907, he held a demonstration camp, the Brownsea Island Scout camp, now seen as the beginning of Scouting. Based on his earlier books Aids to Scouting, he wrote Scouting for Boys, published in 1908 by Sir Arthur Pearson, for boy readership. In 1910 Baden-Powell formed The Boy Scouts Association.
The first Scout Rally was held at The Crystal Palace in 1909, at which appeared a number of girls in Scout uniform, who told Baden-Powell that they were the "Girl Scouts", following which, in 1910, Baden-Powell and his sister Agnes Baden-Powell started the Girl Guides Movement. In 1912 he married Olave St Clair Soames, he gave guidance to the Scouting and Girl Guiding Movements until retiring in 1937. Baden-Powell lived his last years in Nyeri, where he died and was buried in 1941, his grave is now a National Monument. Baden-Powell's father was the Reverend Professor Baden Powell, a prominent mathematician and theologian, whose family originated in Suffolk, his mother was Henrietta Grace, daughter of Admiral William Henry Smyth whose earliest known Smyth ancestor was a Royalist American colonist. Baden-Powell was born as Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell at 6 Stanhope Street, Paddington in London, on 22 February 1857, he was called Stephe by his family. He was named after his godfather, Robert Stephenson, the railway and civil engineer, his third name was his mother's maiden name.
Baden-Powell was the son of The Reverend Baden Powell, Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford University and Church of England priest and his third wife, Henrietta Grace Smyth, eldest daughter of Admiral William Henry Smyth. After Powell died in 1860, to identify her children with her late husband's fame, to set her own children apart from their half-siblings and cousins, his mother styled the family name Baden-Powell; the name was legally changed by Royal Licence on 30 April 1902. Baden-Powell had four older half-siblings from the second of his father's two previous marriages, six full siblings Warington, the often-ill Augustus, Francis and Baden, as well as three others, who had all died young before he was born. Baden-Powell's father died. Subsequently, Baden-Powell was raised by his mother, a strong woman, determined that her children would succeed. In 1933 he said of her "The whole secret of my getting on, lay with my mother."Baden-Powell attended Rose Hill School, Tunbridge Wells. He was given a scholarship to a prestigious public school.
He played the piano and violin, was an ambidextrous artist, enjoyed acting. Holidays were spent on canoeing expeditions with his brothers, his first introduction to Scouting skills was through stalking and cooking game while avoiding teachers in the nearby woods, which were out-of-bounds. In 1876 Baden-Powell joined the 13th Hussars in India with the rank of lieutenant, he enhanced and honed his military scouting skills amidst the Zulu in the early 1880s in the Natal province of South Africa, where his regiment had been posted, where he was Mentioned in Despatches. During one of his travels, he came across a large string of wooden beads. Although Baden-Powell claimed the beads had been those of the Zulu king Dinizulu, one researcher learned from Baden-Powell's diary that he had taken beads from a dead woman's body around that time and indeed the bead form is more similar to dowry beads than to warrior beads; the beads were incorporated into the Wood Badge training programme he started after he founded the Scouting Movement.
Baden-Powell's skills impressed his superiors and in 1890 he was brevetted Major as Military Secretary and senior Aide-de-camp to the Commander-in-Chief and Governor of Malta, his uncle General Sir Henry Augustus Smyth. He was posted to Malta for three years working as intelligence officer for the Mediterranean for the Director of Military Intelligence, he travelled disguised as a butterfly collector, incorporating plans of military installations into his drawings of butterfly wings. In 1884 he published Scouting. Baden-Powell returned to Africa in 1896, served in the Second Matabele War, in the expedition to relieve British South Africa Company personnel under siege in Bulawayo; this was a formative experience for him not only because he commanded reconnaissance missions into enemy territory in the Matopos Hills, but because many of his Boy Scout ideas took hold here. It was during this campaign that he first met and befriended the American scout Frederick Russell Burnham, who introduced Baden-Powell to stories of the American O
Raynes Park is a residential suburb, railway station and local centre in Wimbledon and is within the London Borough of Merton. It is situated south-west of Wimbledon Common, to the north-west of Wimbledon Chase and to the east of New Malden, in South West London, it is 8.2 miles south-west of Charing Cross. Towards the north and west, either side of the borough boundary with the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames are the areas of Copse Hill and Coombe with their large detached houses, golf courses and gated lands. Raynes Park had a population of 19,619 in 2011, which refers to the populations of the wards of Raynes Park and West Barnes. Raynes Park is 8.2 miles from Central London and has one of the largest proportions of green open space in South West London. The area has a number of parks including Cottenham Park Recreation Ground, named after Charles Pepys, 1st Earl of Cottenham, Cannon Hill Common. Cannon Hill Common covers 21 hectares of open space, is a site of borough importance – Grade 1 for Nature Conservation.
It contains mature woodland, over 140 years old and provides a habitat for a variety of fauna and flora. For earlier history see Wimbledon; the area of Raynes Park south of Coombe Lane and Kingston Road was part of the parish of Merton and the area north of that line was part of the Parish of Wimbledon. The area remained rural until late into the 19th century; the first development in the area was the opening of the London & South Western Railway in May 1838 which crossed the area on a high embankment, although the station did not open until later. Cottenham Park to the north of the station was the first part of the area to be laid out for development in the 1870s, it takes its named from Charles Pepys, 1st Earl of Cottenham who lived in Wimbledon until his death in 1851. The name Raynes Park was used in the 1870s and only applied to the area south of the railway line where the local landowner, Richard Garth, Lord of the Manor of the adjacent parish of Morden, planned to develop a new garden suburb similar to that being developed by John Innes at Merton Park to the east.
The name refers to the Rayne family, the previous landowners of the farmland on which Garth intended to build. Garth laid out the northern section of Grand Drive, about as far south as Heath Drive, Blenheim Road and persuaded the railway company to build the station. A number of detached houses were constructed, but Garth's absence as Chief Justice of Bengal slowed the development and much of the rest of the area became a golf course and cricket grounds. By the late Victorian period the residential development of Wimbledon was encroaching on the north side of the railway from the east but, apart from a few buildings including the Junction Tavern and a school, development around the station did not start until the beginning of the 20th century. South of the railway, the twelve terraced roads known locally as "the Apostles" were laid out over a former cricket ground starting during the Victorian period. In the 1920s, the Kingston Bypass and its spur, Bushey Road, were built as dual carriageways.
South of the railway, the majority of residential development occurred in the 1930s with Grand Drive being extended south into Lower Morden and new roads being developed. Much of the area remains open space. During World War II the area suffered considerable bombing in 1944 from the V-1 flying bomb. Raynes Park station is on the National Rail network; the station is at the junction of the branch line heading towards Epsom and Dorking and has four platforms. A distinctive local landmark is the station footbridge which spans all four main running lines at an angle of about 45 degrees. Another distinctive feature of the station is; the station benefits from frequent train services to central London, with 210 trains to Waterloo each day, averaging about 12 per hour during service hours. Raynes Park is divided into two by the Waterloo - Southampton mainline railway. In recent years, Raynes Park has benefitted from increased investments. Raynes Park has London bus services running through Wimbledon to Colliers Wood, Streatham and to New Malden and Kingston upon Thames, as well as nightbus services to Wandsworth, Vauxhall and Aldwych.
Bushey Road connects the Kingston Bypass to Merton Park. On the south side is Prince George's playing field; the field has other purposes and has in the past held travelling Funfairs and Hindu festival celebrations. Adjacent to the playing field is leisure centre; the area has a number of other parks and open spaces including Cottenham Park Recreation Ground and Raynes Park Sports Ground. The nearest London Underground tube station is Wimbledon on the District line. Raynes Park has a Non-League football club Raynes Park Vale F. C. who play at Prince George's Fields. Other leisure facilities in the area include the Raynes Park Residents Lawn Tennis Club, the Malden Golf Club; the Malden Golf Club was founded in 1893 and the parkland course is set over an area of 120 acres. Wimbledon United CC have fielded a number of Sunday cricket teams with great success at their home ground at Cottenham Park for the past 90 years. Cannon Hill Common is popular for walking, recreational fishing and angling, dog walking, bird watching and represents a small piece of countryside within the city of London.
Since 2010 the MyRaynesPark Festival has taken place annually for a week during the summer, providing arts and cultural events for the local community. Wimbledon Volleyball Club is based at Raynes Park High School. Oliver Reed, actor Richard Briers
Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC since 1963. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lord called "the Doctor", an extraterrestrial being, to all appearances human, from the planet Gallifrey; the Doctor explores the universe in a time-travelling space ship called the TARDIS. Its exterior appears as a blue British police box, a common sight in Britain in 1963 when the series first aired. Accompanied by a number of companions, the Doctor combats a variety of foes while working to save civilisations and help people in need; the show is a significant part of British popular culture, elsewhere it has gained a cult following. It has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series; the programme ran from 1963 to 1989. There was an unsuccessful attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with a backdoor pilot, in the form of a television film titled Doctor Who; the programme was relaunched in 2005, since has been produced in-house by BBC Wales in Cardiff.
Doctor Who has spawned numerous spin-offs, including comic books, novels, audio dramas, the television series Torchwood, The Sarah Jane Adventures, K-9, Class, has been the subject of many parodies and references in popular culture. Thirteen actors have headlined the series as the Doctor; the transition from one actor to another is written into the plot of the show with the concept of regeneration into a new incarnation, a plot device in which a Time Lord "transforms" into a new body when the current one is too badly harmed to heal normally. Each actor's portrayal is unique. Together, they form a single lifetime with a single narrative; the time-travelling feature of the plot means that different incarnations of the Doctor meet. The Doctor is portrayed by Jodie Whittaker, who took on the role after Peter Capaldi's exit in the 2017 Christmas special "Twice Upon a Time". Doctor Who follows the adventures of the title character, a rogue Time Lord from the planet Gallifrey who goes by the name "the Doctor".
The Doctor fled Gallifrey in a stolen TARDIS, a time machine that travels by materialising into and dematerialising out of the time vortex. The TARDIS has a vast interior but appears smaller on the outside, is equipped with a "chameleon circuit" intended to make the machine take on the appearance of local objects as a disguise. Across time and space, the Doctor's many incarnations find events that pique their curiosity and try to prevent evil forces from harming innocent people or changing history, using only ingenuity and minimal resources, such as the versatile sonic screwdriver; the Doctor travels alone and brings one or more companions to share these adventures. These companions are humans, owing to the Doctor's fascination with planet Earth, which leads to frequent collaborations with the international military task force UNIT when the Earth is threatened; the Doctor is centuries old and, as a Time Lord, has the ability to regenerate in case of mortal damage to the body, taking on a new appearance and personality.
The Doctor has gained numerous reoccurring enemies during their travels, including the Daleks, the Cybermen, the Master, another renegade Time Lord. Doctor Who first appeared on BBC TV at 17:16:20 GMT on Saturday, 23 November 1963, it was to be each episode 25 minutes of transmission length. Discussions and plans for the programme had been in progress for a year; the head of drama Sydney Newman was responsible for developing the programme, with the first format document for the series being written by Newman along with the head of the script department Donald Wilson and staff writer C. E. Webber. Writer Anthony Coburn, story editor David Whitaker and initial producer Verity Lambert heavily contributed to the development of the series; the programme was intended to appeal to a family audience as an educational programme using time travel as a means to explore scientific ideas and famous moments in history. On 31 July 1963, Whitaker commissioned Terry Nation to write a story under the title The Mutants.
As written, the Daleks and Thals were the victims of an alien neutron bomb attack but Nation dropped the aliens and made the Daleks the aggressors. When the script was presented to Newman and Wilson it was rejected as the programme was not permitted to contain any "bug-eyed monsters". According to producer Verity Lambert. We had a bit of a crisis of confidence. Had we had anything else ready we would have made that." Nation's script became the second Doctor. The serial introduced the eponymous aliens that would become the series' most popular monsters, was responsible for the BBC's first merchandising boom; the BBC drama department's serials division produced the programme for 26 seasons, broadcast on BBC 1. Falling viewing numbers, a decline in the public perception of the show and a less-prominent transmission slot saw production suspended in 1989 by Jonathan Powell, controller of BBC 1. Although it was cancelled with the decision not to commission a planned 27th season, which would have been broadcast in 1990, the BBC affirmed, over several ye
Mitcham is a district of south west London in the London Borough of Merton. It is centred 7.2 miles south-west of Charing Cross. In part of clear urban density but a suburb of houses with gardens, it is close to the cut-off of Inner London and Outer London, has traces of its former village in the historic county of Surrey, it is both residentially and financially developed and served by train and tram routes. Localities within Mitcham include Mitcham Common. Amenities include Mitcham Cricket Green. Nearby major districts are Wimbledon, Croydon, Tooting and Sutton. Mitcham, most broadly defined, had a population of 63,393 which includes the electoral wards of Cricket Green, Figges Marsh, Lavender Fields and Pollards Hill in 2011 and its surrounding constituency, which contains other parts of south Merton, had a population of 103,298. Mitcham is in the east of the London Borough of Merton and is bounded by the London Borough of Wandsworth, the London Borough of Croydon, the London Borough of Lambeth and the London Borough of Sutton.
Mitcham is close to Wimbledon, Croydon and Tooting. The River Wandle bounds the town to the southwest; the original village lies in the west. Mitcham Common takes up the greater part of the area to the south; the toponym "Mitcham" means big settlement. Before the Romans and Saxons were present, stood a Celtic settlement, with evidence of a hill fort in the Pollards Hill area; the discovery of Roman-era graves and a well on the site of the Mitcham gas works evince Roman settlement. The Anglo-Saxon graveyard on the north bank of the Wandle is the largest discovered to date, many of the finds therein are on display in the British Museum. Scholars such as Myres have suggested that Mitcham and other Thames plain settlements were some of the first populated by the Anglo-Saxons. What became the parish lands could have hosted the Battle of Merton, 871, in which King Ethelred of Wessex was either mortally wounded or killed outright; the Church of England parish church of St St Paul dates from the early Kingdom of England.
Rebuilt in 1819–21, the current building retains the original Saxon tower. The Domesday Book of 1086 lists Mitcham as a small farming community, an implied estimate of 250 people, living in two hamlets: Mitcham, the area today being Upper Mitcham; the area lay in the Anglo-Saxon county subdivision of Wallington hundred. The Domesday Book records Mitcham as Michelham, it was held by the Canons of Bayeux. Its domesday assets were: 1 virgate, it had 1/2 mill worth £ 3 1/2 ploughs, 56 acres of meadow. It rendered £4 5s 4d, a time when a pound sterling still implied something similar to a pound of silver. During her reign Queen Elizabeth I made at least five visits to the area. John Donne and Sir Walter Raleigh had residences here in this era, it was at this time that Mitcham became gentrified, as due to the abundance of lavender fields Mitcham became renowned for its soothing air. The air led people to settle in the area during times of plague; when industrialisation occurred, Mitcham grew to become a town and most of the farms were swallowed up in the expansion.
Remnants of this farming history today include: Mitcham Common itself. Many lavender fields were in Mitcham, peppermint and lavender oils were distilled. In 1749 two local physic gardeners, John Potter and William Moore, founded a company to make and market toiletries made from locally-grown herbs and flowers. Lavender features on Merton Council's coat of arms and the badge of the local football team, Tooting & Mitcham United F. C. as well as in the name of a local council ward, Lavender Field. Mitcham was industrialised first along the banks of the Wandle, where snuff, flour and dye were all worked. Mitcham, along with nearby Merton Abbey, became the calico cloth printing centres of England by 1750. Asprey, suppliers of luxury goods made from various materials, was founded in Mitcham as a silk-printing business in 1781. William Morris opened a factory on the River Wandle at Merton Abbey. Merton Abbey Mills were the Liberty silk-printing works, it is now a craft village and its waterwheel has been preserved.
Activity along the Wandle led to the building of the Surrey Iron Railway, the world's first public railway, in 1803. The decline and failure of the railway in the 1840s heralded a change in industry, as horticulture gave way to manufacturing, with paint, varnish and firework manufacturers moving into the area; the work provided and migratory patterns resulted in a doubling of the population between the years 1900 and 1910. Mitcham became a borough, within a two-tier council system, on 19 September 1934 with the charter of incorporation being presented to the 84-year-old mayor, Mr. R. M. Chart, by the Lord Lieutenant of Surrey, Lord Ashcombe. Social housing schemes in the 1930s included New Close, aimed at housing people made homeless by a factory explosion in 1933 and Sunshine Way, for housing the poor from inner London; this industry made Mitcham a target for German bombing during World War II. During this time Mitcham returned to its agricultural roots, with Mitcham Common being farmed to help with the war effort.
From 1929 the electronics company Mullard had a factory on New Road. Post war, the areas of Eastfields, Phipps Bridge and Pollards Hill