PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language built on the. NET Framework. Initially a Windows component only, PowerShell was made open-source and cross-platform on 18 August 2016, in PowerShell, administrative tasks are generally performed by cmdlets, which are specialized. NET classes implementing a particular operation. Sets of cmdlets may be combined into scripts, executables, or by instantiating regular. NET classes and these work by accessing data in different data stores, like the file system or registry, which are made available to the PowerShell runtime via PowerShell providers. PowerShell provides a hosting API with which the PowerShell runtime can be embedded inside other applications and these applications can use PowerShell functionality to implement certain operations, including those exposed via the graphical interface. Other Microsoft applications including Microsoft SQL Server 2008 expose their management interface via PowerShell cmdlets, PowerShell includes its own extensive, console-based help, similar to man pages in Unix shells, via the Get-Help cmdlet.
Local help contents can be retrieved from the Internet via Update-Help cmdlet, help from the web can be acquired on a case-by-case basis via the -online switch to Get-Help. Every released version of Microsoft DOS and Microsoft Windows for personal computers has included a command-line interface tool, the shell is a command line interpreter that supports a few basic commands. For other purposes, a console application must be invoked from the shell. The shell includes a language, which can be used to automate various tasks. In Windows Server 2003, the situation was improved, but scripting support was considered unsatisfactory. Microsoft attempted to address some of shortcomings by introducing the Windows Script Host in 1998 with Windows 98. It integrates with the Active Script engine and allows scripts to be written in languages, such as JScript and VBScript. Different versions of Windows provided various special-purpose command line interpreters with their own command sets, none of them were integrated with the command shell, nor were they interoperable.
By 2002 Microsoft had started to develop a new approach to command line management, the shell and the ideas behind it were published in August 2002 in a white paper titled Monad Manifesto. Monad was to be a new extensible command shell with a design that would be capable of automating a full range of core administrative tasks. Microsoft first showed off Monad at the Professional Development Conference in Los Angeles in October 2003, a private beta program began a few months which eventually led to a public beta program. Microsoft published the first Monad public beta release on June 17,2005, Beta 2 on September 11,2005, and Beta 3 on January 10,2006. Not much later, on April 25,2006 Microsoft formally announced that Monad had been renamed Windows PowerShell, Release Candidate 1 of PowerShell was released at the same time
Windows Error Reporting
Windows Error Reporting is a crash reporting technology introduced by Microsoft with Windows XP and included in Windows versions and Windows Mobile 5.0 and 6.0. Not to be confused with the Dr, no data is sent without the users consent. When a dump reaches the Microsoft server, it is analyzed, Solutions are served using Windows Error Reporting Responses. Windows Error Reporting runs as a Windows service and can optionally be entirely disabled, if Windows Error Reporting itself crashes, an error report that the original crashed process produced cannot be sent at all. Kinshuman is the designer of Windows Error Reporting in Vista which is the same design. Microsoft first introduced Windows Error Reporting with Windows XP, Windows Error Reporting was improved significantly in Windows Vista. Most importantly a new set of public APIs have been created for reporting failures other than application crashes, developers can create custom reports and customize the reporting user interface. The new APIs are documented in MSDN, the architecture of Windows Error Reporting has been revamped with a focus on reliability and user experience. WER can now report errors even when the process is in a bad state for example if the process has encountered stack exhaustions, PEB/TEB corruptions, heap corruptions.
In earlier OSs prior to Windows Vista, the process terminated silently without generating an error report in these conditions. A new Control Panel applet, Problem Reports and Solutions was introduced, keeping a record of system and application errors and issues, the Problem Reports and Solutions Control Panel applet was replaced by the Maintenance section of the Windows Action Center on Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2. Client-side software detects an error condition, generates a report, labels the bucket. The WER service records the occurrence and then, depending on information known about the particular error, might request additional data from the client. Programmers access the WER service to retrieve data for specific error reports, errors collected by WER clients are sent to the WER service. The service is provisioned to receive and process well over 100 million error reports per day, in the Microsoft Windows Error Reporting system, crash reports are organized according to buckets. Buckets classify issues by, Application Name, Application Version, Application Build Date, Module Name, Module Version, Module Build Date, OS Exception Code/System Error Code, each bucket contains crash reports that are caused by the same bug.
However, there are two forms of weakness in the WER bucketing, weaknesses in the condensing heuristics, which result in mapping reports from a bug into too many buckets. For example, if you compile your application one more time without any changes Module Build Date will changes however, and weaknesses in the expanding heuristics, which result in mapping more than one bug into the same bucket
System Policy Editor
System Policy Editor is a graphical tool provided with Windows 95, Windows NT4.0, and Windows 98. System policies are made up from a set of entries that control the computer resources available to a user or group of users. These registry entries can be applied to users, groups of users. It works by manipulating Registry and security settings, user-specific settings are stored in the HKEY_CURRENT_USER registry hive. Likewise, machine-specific settings are written under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, ADM files are template files that are used by System Policy Editor to describe where registry-based policy settings are stored in the registry. They describe the interface presented to System Policy administrators. In Windows 2000, the System Policy Editor was replaced with the Group Policy snap-in for Microsoft Management Console
Microsoft Developer Network
The relationship management is situated in assorted media, web sites, developer conferences, trade media, blogs and DVD distribution. The life cycle of the ranges from legacy support through evangelizing potential offerings. The main website, and most of its constituent applications below are available in 56 or more languages, MSDN Library is a library of official technical documentation content intended for developers developing for Microsoft Windows. MSDN Library documents the APIs that ship with Microsoft products and includes sample code, technical articles and it is available free on the web and on CDs and DVDs for paid MSDN subscribers. Initially, the version was only available as part of an MSDN subscription and was released on a quarterly basis. However, in recent times, it can be downloaded from Microsoft Download Center in form of ISO images for CD/DVD releases are no longer published quarterly. Instead, its schedule is now aligned with major software releases. Visual Studio Express edition integrates only with MSDN Express Library, which is a subset of the full MSDN Library, in Visual Studio 2010 MSDN Library is replaced with the new Help System, which is installed as a part of Visual Studio 2010 installation.
Help Library Manager is used to install Help Content books covering selected topics, each edition of MSDN Library can only be accessed with one help viewer, which is integrated with the current single version or sometimes two versions of Visual Studio. In addition, each new version of Visual Studio does not integrate with a version of MSDN. A compatible MSDN Library is released with new version of Visual Studio. MSDN Library versions can be installed side-by-side, that is, both the older as well as the version of MSDN Library can co-exist. MSDN Forums are the web-based forums used by the community to discuss a variety of software development topics. MSDN Forums were migrated to a platform during 2008 that provided new features designed to improve efficiency such as inline preview of threads, AJAX filtering. MSDN blogs is a series of Microsoft blogs hosted under blogs. msdn. com domain name, Social bookmarking on MSDN Social was first launched in 2008, built on a new web platform that has user-tagging and feeds at its core.
The goal of the social bookmarking application is to provide a method whereby members of the community can. By filtering on one or more tags, users can discover popular or recent links and follow experts recommended sites. Each profile page includes a feed of the users contributions, users can be discovered through a drop-down menu on each bookmark
Disk Cleanup is a computer maintenance utility included in Microsoft Windows designed to free up disk space on a computers hard drive. The utility first searches and analyzes the hard drive for files that are no longer of any use, the option of removing hibernation data may not be ideal for some users as this may remove the hibernate option. Aside from removing unnecessary files, users have the option of compressing files that have not been accessed over a set period of time and this option provides a systematic compression scheme. Infrequently accessed files are compressed to free up disk space while leaving the frequently used files uncompressed for faster access times. If after file compression, a user wishes to access a compressed file, the access times may be increased and vary from system to system
Control Panel (Windows)
Additional applets can be provided by third party software. The Control Panel has been an inherent part of the Microsoft Windows operating system since Windows 2.0, these applets are stored as. cpl files. For example, the Add or Remove Programs applet is stored under the name appwiz. cpl in the SYSTEM32 folder, many of the individual Control Panel applets can be accessed in other ways. For instance, Display Properties can be accessed by right-clicking on an empty area of the desktop, the classic view consists of shortcuts to the various control panel applets, usually without any description. The categories are seen if the user use Details view, the category view consists of categories, which when clicked on display the control panel applets related to the category. In Windows Vista, the category used applets below the name of the category, the Control Panel can be accessed quickly by typing control in the Run dialog box. HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\Current Version\Explorer\ControlPanel\Namespace This contains the location of the CLSID variables for all the panels not included as cpl files and these are commonly folders or shell applets, though Windows Vista allows physical programs themselves to be registered as well.
The CLSID allows items such as the icon and category to be set, the control panel uses these lists to locate the applets and load them into the control panel program when started by the user. In addition to using the panel, a user can invoke the applets manually via the command processor. For instance, the syntax Control. exe inetcpl. cpl or control. exe /name Microsoft. InternetOptions will run the internet properties applet in Windows XP or Vista respectively, while both syntax examples are accepted on Windows Vista, only the former one is accepted on Windows XP. These are options in the panel that show devices connected to the computer. They do not actually offer a direct interface to control these devices, such applets include and Cameras Game Controllers Portable Media Devices Third-party software vendors have released many applets. Although it is impossible to mention all of them, some of them are listed here, System Preferences – same purpose program on macOS How to run Control Panel tools by typing a command at Microsoft. com
Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, Microsoft Office office suite, and Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface tablet lineup, as of 2016, it was the worlds largest software maker by revenue, and one of the worlds most valuable companies. Microsoft was founded by Paul Allen and Bill Gates on April 4,1975, to develop and it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows. The companys 1986 initial public offering, and subsequent rise in its share price, since the 1990s, it has increasingly diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions. In May 2011, Microsoft acquired Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion, in June 2012, Microsoft entered the personal computer production market for the first time, with the launch of the Microsoft Surface, a line of tablet computers.
The word Microsoft is a portmanteau of microcomputer and software, Paul Allen and Bill Gates, childhood friends with a passion for computer programming, sought to make a successful business utilizing their shared skills. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which offered a computer that tracked and analyzed automobile traffic data. Allen went on to pursue a degree in science at Washington State University. The January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systemss Altair 8800 microcomputer, Allen suggested that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device, after a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration. Since they didnt actually have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter and they officially established Microsoft on April 4,1975, with Gates as the CEO. Allen came up with the name of Micro-Soft, as recounted in a 1995 Fortune magazine article.
In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, the company moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the OS business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, however, it was MS-DOS that solidified the companys dominance. For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, branding it as MS-DOS, following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOSs available software selection, the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkins disease, while jointly developing a new OS with IBM in 1984, OS/2, Microsoft released Microsoft Windows, a graphical extension for MS-DOS, on November 20,1985.
Once Microsoft informed IBM of NT, the OS/2 partnership deteriorated, in 1990, Microsoft introduced its office suite, Microsoft Office
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. All computer programs, excluding firmware, require a system to function. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones, the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 83. 3%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in place, and the varieties of Linux is in third position. Linux distributions are dominant in the server and supercomputing sectors, other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can run one program at a time. Multi-tasking may be characterized in preemptive and co-operative types, in preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, e. g. Solaris, cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner.
16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking, 32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem, a distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer. The development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing, distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine. When computers in a work in cooperation, they form a distributed system. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, and is common in large server warehouses, embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems. They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy and they are able to operate with a limited number of resources. They are very compact and extremely efficient by design, Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is a system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator.
Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could run different programs in succession to speed up processing
Windows Vista is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, tablet PCs and media center PCs. Development was completed on 8 November 2006, and over the three months, it was released in stages to computer hardware and software manufacturers, business customers. On 30 January 2007, it was released worldwide and was available for purchase. It was succeeded by Windows 7, which was released to manufacturing on 22 July 2009, Vista aimed to increase the level of communication between machines on a home network, using peer-to-peer technology to simplify sharing files and media between computers and devices. Windows Vista included version 3.0 of the. NET Framework, Microsofts primary stated objective with Windows Vista was to improve the state of security in the Windows operating system. One common criticism of Windows XP and its predecessors was their commonly exploited security vulnerabilities and overall susceptibility to malware, Microsoft stated that it prioritized improving the security of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 above finishing Windows Vista, thus delaying its completion.
While these new features and security improvements have garnered positive reviews, Vista has been the target of much criticism, as a result of these and other issues, Windows Vista had seen initial adoption and satisfaction rates lower than Windows XP. In May 2010, Windows Vistas market share had a range from 15% to 26%. On 22 October 2010, Microsoft ceased sales of copies of Windows Vista. As of March 2017, Vistas market share was 0. 72%, Microsoft stopped providing mainstream support for Windows Vista on 10 April 2012. Extended support will end on 11 April 2017, Microsoft began work on Windows Vista, known at the time by its codename Longhorn, in May 2001, five months before the release of Windows XP. It was originally expected to ship sometime late in 2003 as a step between Windows XP and Blackcomb, which was planned to be the companys next major operating system release. Gradually, Longhorn assimilated many of the important new features and technologies slated for Blackcomb, in some builds of Longhorn, their license agreement said For the Microsoft product codenamed Whistler.
Many of Microsofts developers were re-tasked to build updates to Windows XP, faced with ongoing delays and concerns about feature creep, Microsoft announced on 27 August 2004, that it had revised its plans. Longhorn became known as Vista in 2005, the early development stages of Longhorn were generally characterized by incremental improvements and updates to Windows XP. After several months of relatively little news or activity from Microsoft with Longhorn, Microsoft released Build 4008 and it was privately handed out to a select group of software developers. An optional new taskbar was introduced that was thinner than the previous build, the most notable visual and functional difference, came with Windows Explorer. The incorporation of the Plex theme made blue the dominant color of the entire application, the Windows XP-style task pane was almost completely replaced with a large horizontal pane that appeared under the toolbars
Performance Monitor is a system monitoring program introduced in Windows NT3.1. It monitors various activities on a such as CPU or memory usage. This type of application may be used to determine the cause of problems on a local or remote computer by measuring the performance of hardware, software services, and applications. In Windows 9x, System Monitor is not installed automatically during Windows setup and it has few counters available and offers little in the way of customization. In contrast, the Windows NT Performance Monitor is available out-of-the-box and has over 350 performance measurement criteria available, Performance Monitor can display information as a graph, a bar chart, or numeric values and can update information using a range of time intervals. The categories of information that can be monitored depends on which networking services are installed, but they always include file system, other possible categories include Microsoft Network Client, Microsoft Network Server, and protocol categories.
The System Monitor naming was kept in Windows XP, some third-party publications referred to it as Performance Monitor however, even in Windows 2000 or XP contexts. A new feature added to the Performance Monitor in Windows Vista is Data Collector Set, which allows sets of accounting parameters to be easily manipulated as a group
It is currently developed by the USB Implementers Forum. USB was designed to standardize the connection of peripherals to personal computers. It has become commonplace on other devices, such as smartphones, PDAs, USB has effectively replaced a variety of earlier interfaces, such as serial ports and parallel ports, as well as separate power chargers for portable devices. Also, there are 5 modes of USB data transfer, in order of increasing bandwidth, Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed, SuperSpeed, USB devices have some choice of implemented modes, and USB version is not a reliable statement of implemented modes. Modes are identified by their names and icons, and the specifications suggests that plugs, unlike other data buses, USB connections are directed, with both upstream and downstream ports emanating from a single host. This applies to power, with only downstream facing ports providing power. Thus, USB cables have different ends, A and B, therefore, in general, each different format requires four different connectors, a plug and receptacle for each of the A and B ends. USB cables have the plugs, and the corresponding receptacles are on the computers or electronic devices, in common practice, the A end is usually the standard format, and the B side varies over standard and micro.
The mini and micro formats provide for USB On-The-Go with a hermaphroditic AB receptacle, the micro format is the most durable from the point of view of designed insertion lifetime. The standard and mini connectors have a lifetime of 1,500 insertion-removal cycles. Likewise, the component of the retention mechanism, parts that provide required gripping force, were moved into plugs on the cable side. A group of seven companies began the development of USB in 1994, Compaq, DEC, IBM, Microsoft, NEC, a team including Ajay Bhatt worked on the standard at Intel, the first integrated circuits supporting USB were produced by Intel in 1995. The original USB1.0 specification, which was introduced in January 1996, Microsoft Windows 95, OSR2.1 provided OEM support for the devices. The first widely used version of USB was 1.1, the 12 Mbit/s data rate was intended for higher-speed devices such as disk drives, and the lower 1.5 Mbit/s rate for low data rate devices such as joysticks. Apple Inc. s iMac was the first mainstream product with USB, following Apples design decision to remove all legacy ports from the iMac, many PC manufacturers began building legacy-free PCs, which led to the broader PC market using USB as a standard.
The USB2.0 specification was released in April 2000 and was ratified by the USB Implementers Forum at the end of 2001.1 specification, the USB3.0 specification was published on 12 November 2008. Its main goals were to increase the transfer rate, decrease power consumption, increase power output. USB3.0 includes a new, higher speed bus called SuperSpeed in parallel with the USB2.0 bus, for this reason, the new version is called SuperSpeed