Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Clear Brook, Virginia
Clear Brook is an unincorporated farming community in northern Frederick County, Virginia. The community lies six miles north of the county seat of Winchester along Martinsburg Pike, it is the site of the Kenilworth home, once owned by Harry K. Thaw, the old Hopewell Meeting House, Stonewall Elementary School, the Clearbrook Park, the Frederick County Fairgrounds. Sometimes referred to as Clearbrook, its name was decided upon by the Board on Geographic Names in 1966 as Clear Brook. Clear Brook drew national attention when resident and Quaker peace activist Tom Fox was kidnapped in Baghdad on November 25, 2005. Fox's body was found March 9, 2006. Clear Brook was selected as the site for the Hogging Up BBQ & Music Festival, a Kansas City Barbeque Society sanctioned event deemed a "State Championship" by the Governor of Virginia for 2013; the event is an annual event supporting local charities under the guidance of Wayne Schafer, a barbecue pitmaster who runs the event. Clear Brook is well known throughout Northern Virginia as well as the Route 11 and Highway 81 corridors for its annual holiday light display in Clear Brook Park.
The light display opens the day after Thanksgiving and runs through early January. The display is turned off at 10pm each night and is closed on Christmas Eve, Christmas Day, New Year’s Eve. Trelleborg Marine Systems produces marine fenders in Clear Brook Family Dining in Clear Brook, VA
Donaldson, Hampshire County, West Virginia
Donaldson is an unincorporated community in Hampshire County in the U. S. state of West Virginia. It is located in Green Spring Valley on Green Spring Road between Green Springfield. Donaldson was once a thriving railroad community along the South Branch Valley Railroad with its own school and post office in operation. Media related to Donaldson, Hampshire County, West Virginia at Wikimedia Commons
Hooks Mills, West Virginia
Hooks Mills is an unincorporated community in Hampshire County, West Virginia, United States. It is located on Hooks Mill Road which intersects Cacapon River Road 4.5 miles south of Capon Bridge. Hooks Mills is named for the saw and grist mill on the Cacapon River run by the Hook family from 1848 to the late 1930s. John Cale, an immigrant from Germany built a cabin in the area in the 1740s. On April 6, 1750, George Washington surveyed the property, to become the mill for a plat for Richard Arnold, Jr. On February 22, 1848 Margaret Dunlap sold the property to Robert Hook for the sum of $5,600; the deed of sale stated that other improvements on the property conveyed to Hook. In the 1820s, a one-room school house was built near the mill, George Nicholas Spaid serving as the teacher. In 1884 the River Dale school, as it was known, served the additional purpose as the site of legal proceedings. By the late 19th and early 20th century Hooks Mills was an established community, with an inn serving the patrons of the mill, a blacksmith shed and house, the mill residence, the Captain David Pugh House.
A 1903 photograph on display in the Capon Bridge Museum shows the mill in a state of early decline. In the photo Henson Hook, the mill operator, is seen with his hand on the wheel of a horse-drawn wagon; the mill served as the community's post office, the mill race served as a place where the local population harvested ice in the winter. Nothing remains of the mill, swept away in a flood in the late 1930s, but the traces of the mill race and a few scattered foundation stones. Today, Hooks Mills is served by the Yellow Spring post office; the inn, the blacksmith's house, the miller's house all remain as private residences. Homer's Fort site and Indian War fort Riversdell, 1835 - Recently listed on the National Register of Historic Places Media related to Hooks Mills, West Virginia at Wikimedia Commons Riversdell Farm
Stephens City, Virginia
Stephens City is an incorporated town in the southern part of Frederick County, United States, with a population of 1,829 at the time of the 2010 census. And an estimated population in 2017 of 1,999. Founded by Peter Stephens in the 1730s, the colonial town was chartered and named for Lewis Stephens in October 1758, it was settled by German Protestants from Heidelberg. Stephens City is the second-oldest municipality in the Shenandoah Valley after nearby Winchester, about 5 miles to the north. "Crossroads", the first free black community in the Valley in the pre-Civil War years, was founded east of town in the 1850s. Crossroads remained until the beginning of the Civil War when the freed blacks either escaped or were recaptured. Stephens City was saved from intentional burning in 1864 by Union Major Joseph K. Stearns; the town has gone through several name changes in its history, starting as "Stephensburg" "Newtown", winding up as "Stephens City", though it nearly became "Pantops". Interstate 81 and U.
S. Route 11 pass close to and through the town, respectively. A large section of the center of the town, including buildings and homes, covering 65 acres, is part of the Newtown–Stephensburg Historic District and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992. Stephens City celebrated its 250th anniversary on October 12, 2008; the town is a part of the Winchester, Virginia-West Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area, an offshoot of the Washington–Baltimore–Northern Virginia, DC–MD–VA–WV Combined Statistical Area. It is a member of the Winchester–Frederick County Metropolitan Planning Organization. Jost Hite, a German immigrant, purchased a large land grant in the northern Shenandoah Valley in 1731. Peter Stephens and a small party of German Protestants from Heidelberg, in the Palatinate, arrived about 1732 to buy and settle that land, including the site of what became Stephens City, named for the Stephens family. Although Hite's title to the land was challenged by Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, the land baron of the area, the matter was settled amicably.
Town lots were laid out beginning in 1754, on September 21, 1758, Lewis Stephens petitioned the colonial government of Virginia in Williamsburg for a town charter. The Virginia General Assembly approved the charter for the town of "Stephensburgh" on October 12, 1758; the German-speaking residents soon left off the "h". By the start of the Revolutionary War, Stephensburg was called "New Town" or "Newtown", as the new settlement on the Great Wagon Road south of Winchester. Shenandoah Valley and Newtown's central location attracted heavy traffic through the region, wagon-making emerged as an important industry for the town. By 1830, the town's population had reached 800. In the late 1850s, free blacks began a settlement about a mile east of town which became known as "Crossroads" or "Freetown", which lasted until the time of the Civil War. After the January 1, 1863, Emancipation Proclamation, most of the newly freed slaves and many of the free blacks left the area; when the Civil War broke out in 1861, the majority of Newtown's young men joined Confederate forces.
During the war, the town was "between the lines", nominally controlled by the Union but with much Confederate partisan activity. On May 24, 1862, Stonewall Jackson's Confederate forces advanced northward on the Valley Pike and attacked Union troops. At Newtown, General George Henry Gordon of the Second Massachusetts Infantry ordered his Federal troops to make a stand; the skirmishing involved heavy artillery fire, but Gordon's men retreated without loss of the important supply wagons. When Gordon left the town to Jackson's forces, both sides claimed a victory. In June 1864, Major Joseph K. Stearns of the 1st New York Cavalry arrived under orders to burn the town down to help stop Confederate ambushes on the wagon road; because the remaining population consisted of women and the elderly, Stearns allowed the town to stand. He required the adult residents to take the "Ironclad oath", in which they swore that they had not voluntarily provided aid to the Confederacy; the government required the oath excluding ex-Confederates from the political arena during the Reconstruction era.
In April 1867, the Virginia General Assembly granted a charter to the Winchester and Strasburg Railroad Company. The company was authorized to construct a rail line between Winchester and Strasburg, linking Newtown to the rest of the nation by railroad for the first time. Though the railroad improved the local economy, which had lagged after the end of the war, it decimated the wagon-building trade. In 1880, the United States Post Office Department, faced with nearly a dozen Newtowns in Virginia, announced that the local post office would be renamed "Pantops". Dissatisfied with the name, the townsfolk chose "Stephens City"; the 20th century brought improvements to energy and domestic systems: electrical service was introduced in 1915. The construction of Interstate 81 during the early 1960s depressed business development in the town; the wagon road, made part of U. S. Route 11, had led traffic through the center of town, but the interstate passed less than a tenth of a mile to the east, drawing off development, retail trade and businesses.
This caused downtown to decline. Developers constructed new residential subdivisions both within and outside the town boundaries to the east for access to I-81; the town surveyed its older buildings to establish architectural significance and to determine those that contributed to the town's historic center. The
Capon Bridge, West Virginia
Capon Bridge is a town in eastern Hampshire County, West Virginia, United States, along the Northwestern Turnpike 20 miles west of Winchester, Virginia. The population was 355 at the 2010 census. Known as "Glencoe", Capon Bridge was incorporated in 1902 by the Hampshire County Circuit Court, it is named because of the construction of the bridge over the Cacapon River at that place, the name of the river being derived from the Shawnee Cape-cape-de-hon, meaning "river of medicine water". Capon Bridge is located in eastern Hampshire County at 39°17′54″N 78°26′12″W. U. S. Route 50 leads east 3 miles to the Virginia and 19 miles to the center of Virginia. To the west, US 50 leads 22 miles to the Hampshire county seat. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.70 square miles, of which 0.67 square miles are land and 0.03 square miles are water. As of the census of 2010, there were 355 people, 156 households, 96 families residing in the town; the population density was 529.9 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 180 housing units at an average density of 268.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.9% White, 1.7% African American, 0.6% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.1% of the population. There were 156 households of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.0% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.5% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the town was 33.9 years. 27% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 51.5% male and 48.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 200 people, 91 households, 56 families residing in the town; the population density was 354.1 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 110 housing units at an average density of 194.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.50% White, 1.00% African American, 0.50% from two or more races. There were 91 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.0% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.4% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.65. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.0% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 19.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $30,750, the median income for a family was $40,000. Males had a median income of $30,000 versus $22,188 for females.
The per capita income for the town was $19,457. About 12.1% of families and 17.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.2% of those under the age of eighteen and 19.0% of those sixty five or over. Amos Pugh Home, Northwestern Pike Capon Chapel Baptist Church & Cemetery, Christian Church Road Fort Edwards Site, Cold Stream Road Frye's Inn, Northwestern Pike Hook's Tavern, Northwestern Pike Monroe Cemetery, Christian Church Road Moss Rock Inn, Cacapon River Road Parks Home Burgundy Center for Wildlife Studies Capon Bridge Rocks 3121 Northwestern Pike, Northwestern Pike Capon Bridge Elementary Capon Bridge Middle School Fort Edwards Foundation The Capon Bridge Museum Capon Bridge Public Library & Doctor Gardner Museum Capon Bridge Founders Day Festival
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government