The Rossi Codex is a music manuscript collection of the 14th century. The manuscript is presently divided into two sections, one in the Vatican Library and another, smaller section in the Northern Italian town of Ostiglia; the codex contains 37 secular works including madrigals, cacce and, uniquely among trecento sources, monophonic ballatas. The codex is of great interest for trecento musicologists because for many years it was considered the earliest source of fourteenth-century Italian music. Although other pre-1380 sources of secular, Italian music have now been identified, none are nearly so extensive as the Rossi Codex. Although the manuscript had at least 32 folios, only 18 survive today; the largest part of the Rossi Codex is in the Vatican Library. This section comprises ff. 1–8 and ff. 18–21. In the early nineteenth century, it was in the possession of Italian collector Giovan Francesco de Rossi, for whom this manuscript and the collection in the Vatican is named. In 1857 his widow gave the manuscripts to the Jesuit library in Linz transferred to Vienna.
In that collection, the manuscript had the shelfmark, VIII.154. In 1922, the Jesuits gave the collection to the Vatican; the manuscript was first brought to the attention of the musical community by Monsignor Gino Borghezio in 1925 and described in more depth by the musicologists Heinrich Besseler, Friedrich Ludwig, Johannes Wolf. Although all three of these scholars contended that the manuscript, like most of the surviving trecento sources, was Florentine, the Italian scholars Ferdinando Liuzzi, Ugo Sesini, Ettore Li Gotti noted that linguistic evidence in the texts pointed to northern Italy, the Veneto in particular as more point of origin. Most Pirrotta has asserted a specific origin in Verona on the basis of symbols in the codex's works; the source's whereabouts prior to Rossi's possession are unclear. Kurt von Fischer claimed that it was owned by Cardinal Domenico Capranica who gave the manuscript to the college he founded. However, as Pirrotta notes, other sources which De Rossi purchased from the Collegio in 1842 have a note acknowledging the Collegio as their origin.
This codex has none. Pirrotta has further noted that De Rossi purchased books in Venice and Verona and speculates that the codex could have been acquired during one of these trips. A smaller section of the manuscript is in the library of the Fondazione Greggiati in Ostiglia. Though the source is nearly always listed as "MS without shelfmark," it has been given the catalog number "Mus. rari B 35." These two bifolios were discovered by Oscar Mischiati in 1963. Since the folios did not appear in any library catalogs prior to 1963, since the folios show evidence of having been folded, they were used as covers or cover reinforcements for other volumes. While the precise history of the Codex is obscure, some details about its creation have been established. Most it preserves the repertory of the group of singers and composers who were gathered by Alberto della Scala in Padua and Verona between around 1330 and 1345. Alberto was the son of Prince of Verona, the famous patron of Dante. Alberto was an greater patron of the arts than his father, according to an 18th century history.
He lived in Padua, controlled by the Scaglia family until 1337. Most significant of all, notational peculiarities in the manuscript are close to those described by Marchetto da Padova in his Pomerium in arte musice mensurate of the second decade of the century, from the same region. Though the music was composed between 1325 and 1355, recent evidence suggests that the codex, like most trecento sources, is retrospective; the manuscript was certainly copied after 1350 with the most accepted current date being Pirrotta's of c. 1370. Overall, there are 29 pieces; the Ostiglia leaves add another eight compositions to the total. Thirty of the pieces are madrigals, including one unusual canonic madrigal, there is one caccia, one rondello, five ballatas. All of the ballatas are monophonic. While the music is anonymous, two composers have been identified from the appearance of the same pieces with attributions in other sources: Maestro Piero and Giovanni da Cascia. Music of the Trecento Nino Pirrotta, ed. Il Codice Rossi 215: Studio introduttivo ed edizione in facsimile.
Ars Nova 2. Lucca: LIM, 1992. ISBN 88-7096-033-1 Tiziana Sucato, Il Codice Rossiano 215: Madrigali ballate, una caccia, un rotondello. Diverse voci 1. Pisa: Edizione ETS, 2003. ISBN 88-467-0600-5 "Sources, Italian Polyphony 1325-1400", in Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy, La Trobe University Library Medieval Music Database Facsimile
The Chantilly Codex is a manuscript of medieval music containing pieces from the style known as the Ars subtilior. It is held in the museum at the Château de Chantilly in Oise. Most of the compositions in the Chantilly Codex date from ca. 1350-1400. There are 112 pieces total by French composers, all of them polyphonic; the codex contains examples of many of the most popular courtly dance styles of its time, such as ballades, rondeaus and isorhythmic motets. Some of the motets are rhythmically complex, are written in intricately exact musical notation. Two pieces by Baude Cordier were added at a later date at the front of the manuscript, use unusual shapes to reflect their musical contents; the piece "Belle, Sage, Plaisant" was written to a special lady for the New Year, reflects the shape of the notation with the text. The graphic layout of the notation is a play on words on the "Cor" in "Cordier"; the Chantilly Codex is known to contain music from the composers Johannes Symonis, Jehan Suzay, P. des Molins, Solage, Baude Cordier, Guillaume de Machaut, Jehan Vaillant, Franciscus Andrieu, Johannes Cuvelier, Rodericus and Jacob Senleches.
Most of the 112 pieces are found in Willi Apel, ed. French Secular Compositions of the Fourteenth Century The following recordings include selections from the 112 pieces: Ensemble Organum. Codex Chantilly: Airs de cour du XIVe siècle. Arles: Harmonia Mundi, 1987. CD recording HMC 901252. Ensemble P. A. N. Ars Magis Subtiliter: Secular Music of the Chantilly Codex". San Francisco: New Albion, 1989. CD recording NA 021. Medieval Ensemble of London Florilegium Series. London: Éditions de L'Oiseau-Lyre, 1983. LP recording DSDL 704. New London Consort. Ars subtilior. Glasgow, Scotland: Linn Records, 1998. CD recording CKD 039. De Caelis Codex Chantilly dir. Laurence Brisset. Aeon 2010. Günther, Ursula; the Motets of the Manuscripts Chantilly, Musée condé, 564 and Modena, Biblioteca Estense, a. M. 5, 24. Corpus mensurabilis musicae 39.: American Institute of Musicology, 1965. Günther, Ursula. "Unusual Phenomena in the Transmission of Late Fourteenth-Century Polyphonic Music". Musica disciplina 38 Musik im kirchlichen, höfischen und städtischen Leben vom 13.
Bis 15. Jahrhundert Günther, Ursula. "Sources, MS, VII: French polyphony 1300–1420" in Grove Music Online, Barbara. "Contemplating the Chantilly Codex". Early Music 30, no. 2: 264–69. Hoppin, Richard H. Medieval Music; the Norton Introduction to Music History. New York, W. W. Norton & Co. 1978. ISBN 0-393-09090-6 Plumley, Yolanda. "An'Episode in the South'? Ars Subtilior and the Patronage of French Princes". Early Music History: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Music 22: 103–68. Upton, Elizabeth Randell. "The Chantilly codex: The Manuscript, Its Music, Its Scholarly Reception". PhD diss. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2001; the Chantilly Codex: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
The Robertsbridge Codex is a music manuscript of the 14th century. It contains the earliest surviving music written for keyboard; the term codex is somewhat misleading: the musical section of the source comprises only two leaves, bound together with a larger manuscript from Robertsbridge, England. It contains six pieces, three of them in the form of the estampie, an Italian dance form of the Trecento, as well as three arrangements of motets. Two of the motets are from the Roman de Fauvel. All of the music is anonymous, all is written in tablature. Most of the music for the estampies is for two voices in parallel fifths, using hocket technique. Most the instrument used to play the pieces in the Codex was the organ; the date of the Codex was presumed to be around 1330, but more recent research has suggested a date after mid-century. The manuscript was considered Italian and connected to the main streams of the Italian trecento in its contents and in its clear use of puncti divisionis. However, scholarly consensus now considers the source English.
The Codex is in the British Library. John Gillespie, Five Centuries of Keyboard Music. New York, Dover Publications, 1965/1972. ISBN 0-486-22855-X Medieval Music Database Sheet music of Robertsbridge Codex estampies
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge
Corpus Christi College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. It is notable as the only college founded by Cambridge townspeople: it was established in 1352 by the Guild of Corpus Christi and the Guild of the Blessed Virgin Mary, making it the sixth-oldest college in Cambridge. With around 250 undergraduates and 200 postgraduates, it has the second smallest student body of the traditional colleges of the University; the College has traditionally been one of the more academically successful colleges in the University of Cambridge. In the unofficial Tompkins Table, which ranks the colleges by the class of degrees obtained by their undergraduates, Corpus's 2012 position was 3rd, with 32.4% of its undergraduates achieving first-class results. The college's average position between 2003 and 2012 was 9th, in the most recent rankings, it was placed 10th. Corpus ranks among the wealthiest Cambridge colleges in terms of fixed assets, being exceptionally rich in silver; the College's endowment was valued at £90.9M at the end of June 2017, while its net assets were valued at £227.4M.
The guild of Corpus Christi was founded in Cambridge in 1349 by William Horwode, Henry de Tangmere, John Hardy in response to the Black Death. They determined to found a new college in the University of Cambridge, the sixth in the University's history; the same year the new guild merged with an older guild, the Guild of the Blessed Virgin Mary, decimated by the Plague. The united guilds acquired land in the centre of town and their patron, the Duke of Lancaster, applied to King Edward III for a licence to found a new college, granted in 1352. Construction began of a single modest court near the parish church and in 1356 it was ready to house the Master and two fellows; the college's statutes were drawn up in 1356. The united guild merged its identity with the new college, which acquired all the guild's lands and revenues; the grandest of these ceremonies was the annual Corpus Christi procession: a parade through the streets to Magdalene Bridge, the host carried by a priest and several of the college's treasures carried by the Master and fellows, before returning for an extravagant dinner.
The parade continued until the English Reformation, when the Master, William Sowode, put a stop to it in 1535. The college continues to have a grand dinner on the feast day of Corpus Christi, the Thursday after Trinity Sunday; the newly constructed court could house 22 students. The statutes laid down the rules governing the behaviour of fellows only. Students were not part of the foundation at this stage and would not come within the scope of the statutes for another 200 years. In its early centuries, the college was poor and so could not construct new buildings, it had no chapel, so the members worshipped in St Bene't's Church next door. From the late 14th century through to the 19th century during the Reformation when Catholic references were discouraged, Corpus was known as St Benet's College. By 1376 it possessed 55 books, many more would be donated or bequeathed over the succeeding centuries, most those donated in the 16th century by Archbishop Matthew Parker, celebrated by the college as its greatest benefactor.
During the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, the college was sacked by a mob of townspeople led by the mayor which, according to the college, carried away its plate as well as its charter to be burned while gutting the rest of the college buildings. Corpus was the only University college, although by no means the only University building, to be attacked; the revolt, which took place during the Corpus Christi week, focused on the college as centre of discontent due to its rigid collection of "candle rents". The college claimed £80 in damages. In 1460 during the Wars of the Roses, the college paid for armaments including artillery and arrows, protective clothing to defend the college's treasures from a "tempestuous riot". Elizabeth, Duchess of Norfolk, her sister Lady Eleanor Botelar née Talbot, believed by some to have been secretly married to Edward IV, endowed the college with scholarships in the 1460s and financed repairs to the college buildings; as a monument a'talbot', the heraldic supporter of the Talbot family, was placed on the gable of Old Court and can still be seen today.
At the same time the Master, Thomas Cosyn, built the college's first chapel and a passageway between Old Court and St Bene't's Church. Over the next few centuries, garret rooms were added in Old Court increasing student numbers. Although spared the worst of the religious tumult that the Reformation brought to England, the college produced adherents and indeed martyrs to both traditions. Notable are William Sowode who cancelled the Corpus Christi procession, St Richard Reynolds, martyred by Henry VIII and Thomas Dusgate and George Wishart who were both burned as Protestants, it was during this time. He donated his unrivalled library to much silver plate and its symbol, the pelican. In order to ensure the safety of his collection Parker inserted into the terms of his endowment one which stated that if any more than a certain number of books were lost, the rest of the collection would pass first to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge and to Trinity Hall, Cambridge; every few years, representatives from both of those colleges ceremonially inspect the collection for any losses.
Parker placed a similar condition on the silv
The Bodleian Library is the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe. With over 12 million items, it is the second-largest library in Britain after the British Library. Under the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003 it is one of six legal deposit libraries for works published in the United Kingdom and under Irish Law it is entitled to request a copy of each book published in the Republic of Ireland. Known to Oxford scholars as "Bodley" or "the Bod", it operates principally as a reference library and, in general, documents may not be removed from the reading rooms. In 2000, a number of libraries within the University of Oxford were brought together for administrative purposes under the aegis of what was known as Oxford University Library Services, since 2010 as the Bodleian Libraries, of which the Bodleian Library is the largest component. All colleges of the University of Oxford have their own libraries, which in a number of cases were established well before the foundation of the Bodleian, all of which remain independent of the Bodleian.
They do, participate in OLIS, the Bodleian Libraries' online union catalogue. Much of the library's archives were digitized and put online for public access in 2015; the Bodleian Library occupies a group of five buildings near Broad Street: the 15th-century Duke Humfrey's Library, the 17th-century Schools Quadrangle, the 18th-century Clarendon Building and Radcliffe Camera, the 20th- and 21st-century Weston Library. Since the 19th century a number of underground stores have been built, while the principal off-site storage area is located at South Marston on the edge of Swindon. Before being granted access to the library, new readers are required to agree to a formal declaration; this declaration was traditionally an oral oath, but is now made by signing a letter to a similar effect. Ceremonies in which readers recite the declaration are still performed for those who wish to take them. External readers are still required to recite the declaration orally prior to admission; the Bodleian Admissions Office has amassed a large collection of translations of the declaration — covering over one hundred different languages as of spring 2017 — allowing those who are not native English speakers to recite it in their first language.
The English text of the declaration is as follows: I hereby undertake not to remove from the Library, nor to mark, deface, or injure in any way, any volume, document or other object belonging to it or in its custody. This is a translation of the traditional Latin oath: Do fidem me nullum librum vel instrumentum aliamve quam rem ad bibliothecam pertinentem, vel ibi custodiae causa depositam, aut e bibliotheca sublaturum esse, aut foedaturum deformaturum aliove quo modo laesurum. Whilst the Bodleian Library, in its current incarnation, has a continuous history dating back to 1602, its roots date back further; the first purpose-built library known to have existed in Oxford was founded in the 14th century under the will of Thomas Cobham, Bishop of Worcester. This small collection of chained books was situated above the north side of the University Church of St Mary the Virgin on the High Street; this collection continued to grow but when Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester donated a great collection of manuscripts between 1435 and 1437, the space was deemed insufficient and a larger building was required.
A suitable room was built above the Divinity School, completed in 1488. This room continues to be known as Duke Humfrey's Library. After 1488, the university stopped spending money on the library's upkeep and acquisitions, manuscripts began to go unreturned to the library; the library went through a period of decline in the late 16th century: the library’s furniture was sold, only three of the original books belonging to Duke Humphrey remained in the collection. During the reign of Edward VI, there was a purge of "superstitious" manuscripts, it was not until 1598 that the library began to thrive once more, when Thomas Bodley wrote to the Vice Chancellor of the University offering to support the development of the library: "where there hath bin hertofore a publike library in Oxford: which you know is apparent by the rome it self remayning, by your statute records I will take the charge and cost upon me, to reduce it again to his former use." Six of the Oxford University dons were tasked with helping Bodley in refitting the library in March 1598.
Duke Humfrey’s Library was refitted, Bodley donated a number of his own books to furnish it. The library was formally re-opened on 8 November 1602 under the name “Bodleian Library”. There were around two thousand books in the library at this time, with an ornate Benefactor's Register displayed prominently, to encourage donations. Early benefactors were motivated by the recent memory of the Reformation to donate books in the hopes that they would be kept safe. Bodley’s collecting interests were varied.
Oktōēchos is the name of the eight mode system used for the composition of religious chant in Byzantine, Armenian, Georgian and Slavic churches since the Middle Ages. In a modified form the octoechos is still regarded as the foundation of the tradition of monodic Orthodox chant today; the Octoechos as a liturgical concept which established an organization of the calendar into eight-week cycles, was the invention of monastic hymnographers at Mar Saba in Palestine and in Constantinople. It was formally accepted in the Quinisext Council of 692, which aimed to replace the exegetic poetry of the kontakion and other homiletic poetry, as it was sung during the morning service of the cathedrals. One reason why another eight mode system was established by Frankish reformers during the Carolingian reform, may well have been that Pope Adrian I accepted the seventh-century Eastern reform for the Western Church as well during the 787 synod; the only evidence for this is an abbreviated chant book called a "tonary".
It was a list of incipits of chants ordered according to the intonation formula of each church tone and its psalmody. On notated and theoretical tonaries were written; the Byzantine book Octoechos has been part of the sticherarion. It was one of the first hymn books with musical notation and its earliest copies survived from the 10th century, its redaction follows the Studites reform. Students of Orthodox chant today memorize the history of Byzantine chant in three periods, identified by the names John of Damascus as the "beginning", John Koukouzeles as the "flower", Chrysanthos of Madytos as the master of the living tradition today; the latter has the reputation, that he once connected in his time the current tradition with the past of Byzantine chant, in fact the work of at least four generations of teachers at the New Music School of the Patriarchate. This division of the history into three periods begins quite late with the 8th century, despite the fact that the octoechos reform had been accepted some decades ago, before John and Cosmas entered the monastery Mar Saba in Palestine.
The earliest sources which gave evidence of the octoechos' use in Byzantine chant, can be dated back to the 6th century. The common schedule and the focus on the circle around John of Damascus is confirmed by a ninth-century treatise called "Hagiopolites" which only survived in a complete form as a late copy; the Hagiopolites treatise served as an introduction of a book called tropologion – a 9th-century chant book, replaced soon by the book octoechos, as part of the sticherarion one of the first chant books provided with musical notation. The Hagiopolitan emphasis on John of Damascus was the late result of a 9th-century redaction around the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, so it was part of the Studites reform between Jerusalem and Constantinople and it was motivated theologically, not only because of his contributions to the tropologion, but because of the keyrole which John of Damascus' polemic against the iconoclasts had during this Council; the theological and liturgical concept of an eight-week cycle can be traced back to the cathedral rite of Jerusalem during the 5th century, it was the Christian justification of Sunday as the eighth day after Sabbat.
Peter Jeffery assumed a first phase during which the concept existed independently in various places, a second phase during which Palestine became the leading centre of a monastic hymn reform. It established reform models which were used by the generation of John of Damascus. Despite that the first paragraph of the "Hagiopolites" ascribes the treatise to John of Damascus, it was written about 100 years after his death and went through several redactions during the following centuries. There is no doubt that the octoechos reform itself had taken place by 692, because certain passages of the Hagiopolites paraphrase certain law texts. Eric Werner assumed that the eight-mode system developed in Jerusalem since the late fifth century and that the reform by the hymnographers of Mar Saba were a synthesis with the Ancient Greek names used for the tropes, applied to a model of Syrian origin used in the Byzantine tradition of Jerusalem. During the eighth century, long before Ancient Greek treatises were translated into Arabic and Persian dialects between the ninth and the tenth centuries, there was a great interest among theorists like Abū Yūsuf al-Kindī, whose Arabic terms were translated from the Greek.
He adored the universality of the Greek octoechos: Sämtliche Stile aller Völker aber haben Teil an den acht byzantinischen Modi, die wir erwähnt haben, denn es gibt nichts unter allem, was man hören kann, das nicht zu einem von ihnen gehörte, sei es die Stimme eines Menschen oder eines anderen Lebewesens, wie das Wiehern eines Pferdes oder das Schreien eines Esels oder das Krähen des Hahns. Alles, was an Formen des Schreis einem jeden Lebewesen/Tier eigen ist, ist danach bekannt, zu welchem Modus der acht es gehört, und es ist nicht möglich, daß es sich außerhalb eines von ihnen; every style of any tribe takes part of the Byzantine eight tones which I mentione
Mary Berry (conductor)
Mary Berry, CBE was a canoness regular, noted choral conductor and musicologist. She was an authority on the performance of Gregorian chant, founding the Schola Gregoriana of Cambridge to revive this ancient style of music. Berry was born in 1917, the daughter of a chemist, vice-president of Downing College; as a young woman, she went to the Perse School before spending a year at the École Normale de Musique de Paris, where she became a pupil of the conductor and teacher Nadia Boulanger. On returning home, she was awarded a Turle scholarship at Girton College, where she studied with Thurston Dart, but continued to study during her vacations under Boulanger. An interest in plainchant was encouraged by Berry's supervisor, the Trinity College don Hubert Stanley Middleton. After receiving the university's John Stuart of Rannoch Scholarship in Sacred Music, she took her parents to the Abbey of Solesmes in France, which for decades had been a leader in reviving Gregorian chant. In 1939, upon graduation from university, Berry joined the Red Cross and nursed at Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge.
In March of the following year, she went to Belgium, where she became a novice with the Canonesses Regular of Jupille, under the religious name of Mother Thomas More. But two months the canonesses were forced to flee the invading Germans on the last train to Paris, having wrapped their few possessions in red blankets, they moved to a former Cistercian monastery in Dijon—in Vichy France, where they resumed their monastic way of life and taught local children. A fellow novice, the daughter of an ambassador, obtained travel documents for the community to take refuge in Lisbon, where they started up two schools. After professing solemn vows in 1945, Berry was sent to a school on the Monte Mario in Rome, where she taught English and music and was the infirmarian for the religious community and students, she served there during a typhoid outbreak in the school. She was sent to study in Belgium, after that in Dijon, where her French professors disparaged her "antediluvian" English, it was around this time that she started lecturing in Paris on Gregorian polyphony.
On returning home to England during the 1960s, Berry embarked on a doctorate in musicology at Cambridge University. She had some difficulty, however, in persuading the musical establishment that plainchant was a suitable topic for graduate study. For her degree, she submitted a thesis on the performance of plainsong in the late Middle Ages and the 16th century. There was a problem, though, as she had written her thesis in French, so that it had to be sent to Solesmes for examination. Despite this, in 1970 she received her doctorate. During this period, Berry saw the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church change with the introduction of the vernacular in the Mass and Divine Office, both significant parts of her daily routine as a canoness; these changes included a widespread dropping of Gregorian chant in favor of contemporary spiritual music. She decided that action was needed to save this integral part of Church life going back for over a millennium. By the time Berry had been awarded her doctorate, these changes had come to effect Berry's religious community.
The chapter of her religious order had decided to concentrate on a more practical apostolate. Unhappy that two promises made at her final profession – to teach and to celebrate solemnly the Divine Office – were being downplayed. At that point, Berry volunteered to be exclaustrated, she was allowed to live out her religious commitment as a canoness outside the community for the rest of her life. Berry became director of musical studies at her alma mater of Girton College, she went to teach at Newnham College, where she was director of musical studies and a full fellow and praelector, until she retired in 1984. To promote Gregorian chant, Berry gathered a chorus of amateur singers, both Catholic and Anglican, as well as choirmasters and organists to form a body which would perform the ancient music. Seeking a venue where they could play, she was turned down by several colleges and churches until she was allowed to use the chapel of St John's College for one performance. To present their music, a Solemn High Mass was celebrated by Alan Clark, the Roman Catholic Bishop of East Anglia, for which more than three times the expected number of participants attended.
After such a display of interest, it was agreed that an occasional choir, made up of choral scholars and talented amateurs, would be allowed to give concerts in the chapel. In 1975 Berry founded the Schola Gregoriana of Cambridge for the study and performance of Gregorian chant; the Cantors of the Schola are a group of young professional singers and have performed and recorded extensively under her direction working from primary sources. The Schola was one of the first ensembles to perform music from the Winchester troper after research by Berry and others made the music accessible from the manuscripts. Berry traveled to promote the teaching and singing of Gregorian chant, organized and participated in many workshops and courses, including Spode Music Week, of which she was a patron, she was a keen advocate for the use of Gregorian chant in its proper liturgical context. One result is the Community of Jesus, a large ecumenical community in Massachusetts which sings the full monastic day and night office, with responsibility shared between clergy, cantors and married people.
In the mid-1990s, Berry led the recordings of music entitled Angels from the Vatican, designed to accompany an exhibition of art from the Vatican Museums that toured the United States in 1997, recorded in the