Luxembourgish, Letzeburgesch, or Luxembourgian is a West Germanic language, spoken in Luxembourg. About 390,000 people speak Luxembourgish worldwide. A variety of the Moselle Franconian dialect group, Luxembourgish has similarities with other varieties of High German and the wider group of West Germanic languages; the status of Luxembourgish as an official language in Luxembourg and the existence there of a regulatory body, has removed Luxembourgish, at least in part, from the domain of Standard German, its traditional Dachsprache. Luxembourgish belongs to the West Central German group of High German languages and is the primary example of a Moselle Franconian language. Luxembourgish is the national language of Luxembourg and one of three administrative languages, alongside French and German. In Luxembourg, 50.9% of citizens can speak Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is spoken in the Arelerland region of Belgium and in small parts of Lorraine in France. In the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken.
The language is spoken by a few descendants of Luxembourg immigrants in the United States and Canada. Additionally, in the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken. Other Moselle Franconian dialects are spoken by ethnic Germans long settled in Transylvania, Romania. Moselle Franconian dialects outside the Luxembourg state border tend to have far fewer French loan words, these remain from the French Revolution. There are several distinct dialect forms of Luxembourgish including Areler, Kliärrwer, Stater, Veiner and Weelzer. Further small vocabulary differences may be seen between small villages. Increasing mobility of the population and the dissemination of the language through mass media such as radio and television are leading to a gradual standardisation towards a "Standard Luxembourgish" through the process of koineization. There is no distinct geographic boundary between the use of Luxembourgish and the use of other related High German dialects.
Spoken Luxembourgish is hard to understand for speakers of German who are not familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects. However, they can read the language to some degree. For those Germans familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects, it is easy to understand and speak Luxembourgish as far as the everyday vocabulary is concerned. However, the large number of French loanwords in Luxembourgish may hamper communication about certain topics, or with certain speakers. There is no intelligibility between Luxembourgish and French or any of the Romance dialects spoken in the adjacent parts of Belgium and France. Erna Hennicot-Schoepges, President of the Christian Social People's Party of Luxembourg 1995–2003, was active in promoting the language beyond Luxembourg's borders. A number of proposals for standardising the orthography of Luxembourgish can be documented, going back to the middle of the 19th century. There was no recognised system, until the adoption of the "OLO" on 5 June 1946; this orthography provided a system for speakers of all varieties of Luxembourgish to transcribe words the way they pronounced them, rather than imposing a single, standard spelling for the words of the language.
The rules explicitly rejected certain elements of German orthography. New principles were adopted for the spelling of French loanwords. Fiireje, rééjelen, shwèzt, veinejer bültê, âprê, ssistém This proposed orthography, so different from existing "foreign" standards that people were familiar with, did not enjoy widespread approval. A more successful standard emerged from the work of the committee of specialists charged with the task of creating the Luxemburger Wörterbuch, published in 5 volumes between 1950 and 1977; the orthographic conventions adopted in this decades-long project, set out in Bruch, provided the basis of the standard orthography that became official on 10 October 1975. Modifications to this standard were proposed by the Conseil permanent de la langue luxembourgeoise and adopted in the spelling reform of 30 July 1999. A detailed explanation of current practice for Luxembourgish can be found in Lulling; the Luxembourgish alphabet consists of the 26 Latin letters plus three letters with diacritics: "é", "ä", "ë".
In loanwords from French and Standard German, other diacritics are preserved: French: Boîte, Enquête, Piqûre, etc. German: blöd, Bühn, etc. Like many other varieties of Western High German, Luxembourgish has a rule of final n-deletion in certain contexts; the effects of this rule are indicated in writing, therefore must be taken into account when spelling words and morphemes ending in ⟨n⟩ or ⟨nn⟩. For example: wann ech ginn "when I go", but wa mer ginn "when we go" fënnefandrësseg "thirty-five", but fënnefavéierzeg "forty-five"; the consonant inventory of Luxembourgish is quite similar to that of Standard German. /p͡f/ occurs only in loanwords from Standard German. Just as among many native German-speakers, it tends to be simplified to word-initia
For the town in Mersch canton, see Boevange-sur-AttertBoevange is a village in the commune of Wincrange, in northern Luxembourg. As of 2001, the village had a population of 117. Boevange was a commune in the canton of Clervaux until 1 January 1978, when it was merged with the communes of Asselborn and Oberwampach to form the new commune of Wincrange; the law creating Wincrange was passed on 31 October 1977. The former commune of Boevange included the villages of Boevange, Deiffelt, Hamiville, Lullange and Wincrange
Hachiville is a village in the commune of Wincrange, in northern Luxembourg. As of 2005, the village has a population of 181. Hachiville was a commune in the canton of Clervaux until 1 January 1978, when it was merged with the communes of Asselborn and Oberwampach to form the new commune of Wincrange; the law creating Wincrange was passed on 31 October 1977. The former commune of Hachiville included the villages of Hachiville, Neumühle, Lehresmühle and Weiler; the name Hachiville appears for the first time in a charter in the year 1130. It is believed, that the site has been inhabited since Celtic times and that it was occupied by the Romans; the village's greatest fame lies in its celebrated hermitage, located on an ancient Celtic place of worship. The carved altar screen now displayed in Hachiville's baroque parish church is considered one of Luxembourg's most precious art treasures. Housed in the hermitage chapel just outside the village, the piece, which appears to date from the sixteenth century, depicts scenes from the life and the passion of Christ.
The hermitage chapel, Helzer Klaus, revered as a pilgrimage site in its own right, now contains a plaster copy of this original altarpiece. In 1973, Luxembourg issued a set of stamps depicting images of religious statues based on this altarpiece. A few years in August 1976, the altarpiece was stolen, it was found a little more than a month packaged and ready to ship abroad. The mystery of who planned the crime still remains. Legend shrouds the origin of this altar screen. According to the story, the screen came from Frankish lands and was intended for a church in Belgium. However, as the oxen stopped for a drink at the mineral spring that still flows by the hermitage, they were shackled to the ground by some invisible power; the cart that bore the altarpiece was too heavy to move by any human means, the art it contained was too costly to take any chances with. This was seen as a miraculous sign from the Queen of Heaven that she desired the altar to be built here, in the old chapel at the edge of a beech grove.
The hermitage itself has been honored with a stamp. A watercolor depiction of the restored chapel was featured in a stamp set in 1989. An interesting divination ritual is associated with its mineral spring, it has been said that if you are unmarried and in search of a spouse, you must make your way to the chapel and walk three times around it without being observed. You should beat your head twice against a thick tree standing there, followed by a jump barefoot into the spring which flows close to the chapel door. If all these rituals have been successful, in the silence you should hear the name of your future husband or wife in the burbling of the water
Weiswampach is a commune and small town in northern Luxembourg, in the canton of Clervaux. As of 2005, the town of Weiswampach, which lies in the north of the commune, has a population of 648. Other towns within the commune include Beiler, Breidfeld and Leithum; the commune of Weiswampach is situated in the Ardennes of north Luxembourg. The land is characterized by fields and woods. Although it lies on a rocky plateau, there is fertile arable land and pasture. Although many Celtic and Roman remains have been found in the vicinity, it is accepted that Weiswampach was formed in the 8th century, because the name derived from the name of the stream through the village, appears for the first time at the time of the Carolingians; the locality was stained by the killing of Normans in the 8th and 9th centuries, influenced by the strong Counts of Vianden and related families in the 11th century when it was ravaged by epidemics and wars. The French Revolution marked a turning point for Weiswampach, when it became a municipality governed by a mayor.
It saw its height with 1701 inhabitants. Industrialization and agricultural decline, were quick to scatter the population. By the 80s, the population had dropped to 850; the improvement of road infrastructure and the creation of subdivisions, among other things, has since caused an increase in population to 1399 people in 2011. With the population increase has come the building of a new school and a new biological treatment plant; the main road through Weiswampach, with its connections to Belgium, the Netherlands and North-West of Germany, as well as the favorable geographical location, has caused intense transit, which in turn has resulted in the construction of gas stations and restaurants. There is a recreation and holiday center containing 65 hectares, with two artificial lakes and 276 campsites in a natural setting, which has contributed to tourism. Lancaster Memorial Media related to Weiswampach at Wikimedia Commons
Boxhorn is a village in the commune of Wincrange, canton of Klierf, district of Diekirch in northern Luxembourg. As of 2001, the village had a population of 243
Troisvierges is a commune and town in northern Luxembourg, in the canton of Clervaux. The two highest hills in Luxembourg, the Kneiff and Buurgplaatz, are located in the commune; as of 2005, the town of Troisvierges, which lies in the south of the commune, has a population of 1,365. Other towns within the commune include Basbellain, Hautbellain and Wilwerdange; until 28 December 1908, the commune was known as "Basbellain", after its former administrative centre. On that date, the administrative centre was moved from Basbellain to Troisvierges; the coat of arms granted to Troisvierges in 1982 shows three virgins, representing Faith and Charity. The first known reference to the place was made in 1353 under its German name Ulflingen; the French name Troisvierges was adopted in the 17th century when Walloon pilgrims started using it to refer to the three virgins Saint Fides, Saint Spes and Saint Caritas. The Franciscan church of Troisvierges was built in 1658. By 1900 most of the local population were railway and customs employees.
There were some 1550 inhabitants in 1910. Troisvierges is known for being the site of the start of hostilities on the Western Front in the First World War. On 1 August 1914, German soldiers of the 69th Infantry Regiment disembarked at the town's railway station, violating the terms of Germany's use of the railways and hence violating Luxembourg's neutrality; this began a four-year occupation of Luxembourg by German forces. More the old farming population has entirely disappeared, now many of the population are from Portugal or Belgium. Desborough, United Kingdom Media related to Troisvierges at Wikimedia Commons