In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
Breccia Peak (Wyoming)
Breccia Peak is a mountain in the southern Absaroka Range in the Rocky Mountains. It is located in Teton County in U. S. state of Wyoming near Togwotee Pass and close to the southwest border of the Teton Wilderness within the Bridger-Teton National Forest. Breccia Peak is located about 2.5 miles north of Togwotee Pass, which connects Jackson Hole, traversed by the Snake River, in the west from the Wind River valley in the east. The pass is part of the Great Continental Divide, the mountain is located about 4.5 miles west of it. The plateau-like summit shows steep and rocky cliffs to the west and north, the Breccia Cliffs. To the east and southeast however, it shows a grassy face. Between altitudes of 10,500 and 10,800 feet, there is a steep rock barrier, except for the section near the east and southeast ridge. In the west of the Breccia Peak there is no higher mountain for more than 30 miles, up to the Teton Range. Breccia Peak is not independent, because it has only 200 feet of clean prominence from neighboring Buffalo Fork Peak in the north.
About 1.25 miles southwest of Breccia peak lies Lost Lake at an elevation of about 9,500 feet, a small but scenic lake, where Breccia Cliffs can reflect off the water in the right setting. Breccia Peek is made of volcanic Absorka breccia; the rocks in the section of the summit belong to the Wiggins Formation of the Thorofare Creek Group originated in the Upper Eocene. In the saddle between Breccia Peak and Angle Mountain lying northwest is an elongate irregular intrusive body of glassy flow-banded rhyodacite porphyry showing minor associated wall-rock alteration. Breccia Peak is one of the most rewarding summits in the Yellowstone Region reachable within two hours. From the trailhead near U. S. Highway 26/U. S. Highway 287 0.6 miles north of Togwotee Pass, visitors can get to the summit with a easy hike. Starting at the pullout at the highway there is a well-established, but unofficial trail leading to the treeline. Early on there is a fork. After some stream crossings the path reaches open timber.
At an elevation of 10,000 feet, climbers get to a vast meadow southeast of Breccia Peak where they can see the southeast face of the mountain entirely. Here they have to leave the trail; the easiest route from there is to traverse the southeast face in northern direction to reach the east ridge, avoiding the steep rocky cliff in the middle. From there, climbers follow that ridge to the summit near the edge to the cliff on its right hand end on grass. A somewhat shorter alternative involving a little more scrambling is to avoid the steep rocky cliff on its left hand, southwest end. To do so, climbers have to head west from the meadow to the south ridge of Breccia Peak and follow this ridge to the summit; the southeast face of the mountain above timber is suitable for backcountry skiing. There are only short runs; the summit was in the zone of totality of the Solar eclipse of August 21, 2017. It was called a "quirky place to see the total solar eclipse" in the Wind River region in Wyoming
Mount Schurz el. 11,007 feet is a mountain peak in the Absaroka Range in Yellowstone National Park. Mount Schurz is the second highest peak in Yellowstone; the mountain was named Mount Doane by Henry D. Washburn during the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expedition in 1871; the name Mount Doane was given to another peak in the Absaroka Range by geologist Arnold Hague. In 1885, Hague named the mountain for the 13th U. S. Secretary of the Interior, Carl Schurz. Schurz was the first Secretary of the Interior to visit Yellowstone and a strong supporter of the national park movement. Mountains and mountain ranges of Yellowstone National Park
Druid Peak is a moderate domed peak on the southern flank of the Absaroka Range in Yellowstone National Park. The peak lies just north of the Lamar River and Soda Butte Creek confluence at the head of the Lamar Valley. Prior to 1885, this summit was named Soda Hill by members of the Hayden Geological Survey of 1878 and Mount Longfellow or Longfellows' Peak by park superintendent Philetus Norris in 1880. In 1885, members of the Arnold Hague Geological Survey changed the name to Druid Peak for unknown reasons, but some historians believe it may have been the presence of Stonehenge like rock formations on its eastern face that prompted the name. Druid Peak is notable for its role in the reintroduction of Wolves into Yellowstone. Rose Creek which flows west from the northern slope of Druid Peak was the site of one of the release pens for the January 1995 release of wolves, the pack to be known as the Rose Creek pack. In January 1996 a second release was made from pens on the slopes of Druid Peak.
This pack became known as the Druid Pack. Mountains and mountain ranges of Yellowstone National Park
Black Tooth Mountain
Black Tooth Mountain is located in the Bighorn Mountains in the U. S. state of Wyoming. The peak is the second highest in the range after Cloud Peak, only 1.5 miles to the south, the summit is located in the Cloud Peak Wilderness of Bighorn National Forest. The sharp dark profile of the mountain resembles a dark fang, hence the name; because of the steep terrain, Black Tooth Mountain is one of the hardest mountains to climb in the Bighorns. Many of the trails up the mountain are unmarked. Mount Woolsey is an adjacent summit only.20 mi to the southeast. Another high peak of the Bighorns known as Hallelujah Peak is situated along a knife-like ridge known as an arête.64 mi to the northeast. Several tiny remnant glaciers can be found on the north slopes of Black Tooth Mountain
Wind River Range
The Wind River Range, is a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in western Wyoming in the United States. The range runs NW–SE for 100 miles; the Continental Divide follows the crest of the range and includes Gannett Peak, which at 13,804 feet, is the highest peak in Wyoming. There are more than 40 other named peaks in excess of 13,000 feet. With the exception of the Grand Teton in the Teton Range, the next 19 highest peaks in Wyoming after Gannett are in the Winds. Two large National Forests including three wilderness areas encompass most of the mountain range. Shoshone National Forest is on the eastern side of the continental divide while Bridger-Teton National Forest is on the west. Both National Forests and the entire mountain range are an integral part of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Portions of the range are inside the Wind River Indian Reservation. Indigenous peoples of the Great Basin, such as the Shoshones and Absarokas Native Americans, lived in the range beginning 7000 and 9000 years ago.
Villages as high as 10,000 feet in elevation, dating from 700 to 2000 BC, have been studied by archaeologists. These villages were established by the Sheepeater band of Shoshone during pine nut harvesting season. One, dubbed "High Rise", has 60 lodges over a space of 26 acres and was added to the National Register of Historic Places. One of the men from the Lewis and Clark expedition, John Colter, is thought to be the first European American person to view the range when he visited the area around 1807, though little is known about his travels through the area. In 1812, a party led by Wilson Price Hunt were the first to cross South Pass, at the southern end of the range, the pass which marked the continental divide and crest of the Rocky Mountains and became an important portion of the Oregon Trail. Climbing was pursued in the mid to late 1800s by men such as John C. Fremont for the purpose of surveying the region. Early climbers to come purely for recreation began arriving in the 1920s. Gannett Peak, the range and Wyoming's tallest, was first climbed by Arthur Tate and Floyd Stahlnaker in 1922.
Most of the early climbing in the region focused around the Titcomb Basin radiating outwards. Today, the Titcomb Basin remains one of the area's busiest recreation attractions along with the Cirque of the Towers to the south. Much of the Wind River Range received federal protection as National Forest primitive areas during 1931-32; the Wind River Range is now protected by three federal wilderness areas. These include the Bridger Wilderness on the western slope, designated in 1964, the Fitzpatrick Wilderness and Popo Agie Wilderness on the eastern slope, designated in 1976 and 1984 respectively. Together these wilderness areas protect 728,020 acres, making the Wind River Range one of the largest road-free areas in the continental United States. Part of the eastern slope of the Wind River Range is under the protection of the Wind River Indian Reservation; the Winds are composed of a granitic batholith, granite rock formed deep under the surface of the Earth, over one billion years ago. Over hundreds of millions of years, rocks that were once covering this batholith eroded away.
As the land continued to rise during the Laramide orogeny, further erosion occurred until all that remained were the granitic rocks. The ice ages beginning 500,000 years ago began carving the rocks into their present shapes. Within the Winds, numerous lakes were formed by the glaciers and numerous cirques, or circular valleys, were carved out of the rocks, the most well known being the Cirque of the Towers, in the southern section of the range. Shoshone National Forest claims that there are 16 named and 140 unnamed glaciers just on the east side of the range for a total of 156, with another 27 reported by Bridger-Teton National Forest for the western slopes of the range. Several of these are the largest glaciers in the U. S. Rocky Mountains. Gannett Glacier which flows down the north slope of Gannett Peak, is the largest single glacier in the Rocky Mountains of the U. S. and is located in the Fitzpatrick Wilderness in Shoshone National Forest. Several major rivers have headwaters on either side of the range.
The Green and Big Sandy rivers drain southward from the west side of the range, while the Wind River drains eastward through the Shoshone Basin. The Green is the largest fork of the Colorado River while the Wind River, after changing its name to the Bighorn River, is the largest fork of the Yellowstone River The Bridger Wilderness contains over 1,300 lakes; these lakes range in size from less than 3 acres to over 200 acres, with an average size of about 10 acres. The lakes and streams of the Bridger Wilderness were devoid of fish, as were most alpine lakes throughout the Rocky Mountains; the first known transplant of fish into the area took place in 1907 when Colorado River cutthroat trout were introduced into North Fork Lake. Considerable fish stocking by individuals, the U. S. Forest Service, the Wyoming Game & Fish Department, occurred between 1924 and 1935; the Winds are known to have a small grizzly bear population in the northernmost areas. Other mammals include the black bear, moose, mule deer, bighorn sheep, mountain lion and wolverine.
Bald eagles and hawks are just a few of the 300 species of birds known to inhabit the region. The streams and lakes are home to Yellowstone cutthroat, brook, brown and golden trout—about 2.5 million of which were stocked by a local explorer named Finis Mitchell and his wife during the Great Depression. The forests are dominated by lodgepole pine, whitebark pine, subalpine fir, Engelmann spruce; the range sits
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States. The state is the 10th largest by area, the least populous, the second most sparsely populated state in the country. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, on the west by Idaho and Montana; the state population was estimated at 577,737 in 2018, less than 31 of the most populous U. S. cities including Denver in neighboring Colorado. Cheyenne is the state capital and the most populous city, with an estimated population of 63,624 in 2017; the western two-thirds of the state is covered by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie called the High Plains. Half of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U. S. government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth by area and fifth by proportion of a state's land owned by the federal government. Federal lands include two national parks—Grand Teton and Yellowstone—two national recreation areas, two national monuments, several national forests, historic sites, fish hatcheries, wildlife refuges.
Original inhabitants of the region include the Crow, Arapaho and Shoshone. Southwestern Wyoming was in the Spanish Empire and Mexican territory until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the Mexican–American War; the region acquired the name Wyoming when a bill was introduced to the U. S. Congress in 1865 to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming"; the name was used earlier for the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, is derived from the Munsee word xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the big river flat". The main drivers of Wyoming's economy are mineral extraction—mostly coal, natural gas, trona—and tourism. Agricultural commodities include livestock, sugar beets and wool; the climate is semi-arid and continental and windier than the rest of the U. S. with greater temperature extremes. Wyoming has been a politically conservative state since the 1950s, with the Republican Party candidate winning every presidential election except 1964. Wyoming's climate is semi-arid and continental, is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with greater temperature extremes.
Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between 85 and 95 °F in most of the state. With increasing elevation, this average drops with locations above 9,000 feet averaging around 70 °F. Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with the hottest locations averaging in the 50–60 °F range at night. In most of the state, most of the precipitation tends to fall in early summer. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between mild periods, with Chinook winds providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. Wyoming is a dry state with much of the land receiving less than 10 inches of rainfall per year. Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the Big Horn Basin averaging 5–8 inches; the lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains average around 10–12 inches, making the climate there semi-arid. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, 20 inches or more, much of it as snow, sometimes 200 inches or more annually.
The state's highest recorded temperature is 114 °F at Basin on July 12, 1900 and the lowest recorded temperature is −66 °F at Riverside on February 9, 1933. The number of thunderstorm days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during early summer; the southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to tornado activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those that occur farther east; as specified in the designating legislation for the Territory of Wyoming, Wyoming's borders are lines of latitude 41°N and 45°N, longitude 104°3'W and 111°3'W, making the shape of the state a latitude-longitude quadrangle. Wyoming is one of only three states to have borders along only straight latitudinal and longitudinal lines, rather than being defined by natural landmarks.
Due to surveying inaccuracies during the 19th century, Wyoming's legal border deviates from the true latitude and longitude lines by up to half of a mile in some spots in the mountainous region along the 45th parallel. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, on the west by Idaho, it is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing 97,814 square miles and is made up of 23 counties. From the north border to the south border it is 276 miles; the Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming. The state is a great plateau broken by many mountain ranges. Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak in the Wind River Mountain Range, at 13,804 feet, to the Belle Fourche River val