Hockey Dad is an Australian surf rock band from Windang, New South Wales, Australia. The band consists of two members, Billy Fleming and Zach Stephenson, has two full albums and one EP released to date; the band was founded in 2013, although the members claim to have played together before being an official band with a third member Bailey Carson. The duo cites a band called'Abstract Classic' as an earlier project that fizzled out before they became Hockey Dad. Fleming and Stephenson were both born and raised in Windang Australia and lived two doors down from each other on Boronia Street in New South Wales where they still reside; the members met in 1999 at the ages of three and four when they were playing a neighbourhood game of football on the street. Continuing to reside in the same town, the duo spends their time surfing at the beach and skating at the local park; the name of the band, Hockey Dad, derived from a joke on an episode of The Simpsons. On the episode, Hockey Dad is a quickly shown video game played between Bart Simpson and Milhouse Van Houten.
Stephenson and Fleming claim that the name stuck as they could not think of anything else. Hockey Dad credits the era of'60s garage as their main influence; the duo credits their musical inspiration to bands such as Bass Drum of Death and Band of Horses. Growing up, Fleming quotes that listening to his brother's collection of'90s punk music helped develop his musical style. On the contrary, Stephenson indulged into his father's'80s Australian punk and rock musical selection. For music videos, they are said to be based on the band's days growing up in suburban Australia - surfing and drinking beer. Hockey Dad is associated with two record labels. Firstly, they are signed with the Australian independent label Farmer & the Owl/Inertia Music since 2014 for all dealings within Australia and the remainder of the world with exception of North America; the second label they are signed to is the independent label Kanine Records since 2015, for dealings within North America. Zach Stephenson was born on November 1994 in Windang, Australia.
For Hockey Dad, he plays the guitar as well as provides the main vocals for all their songs. Along with this, Stephenson can play bass and drums and is learning the behind the scenes of recording and producing music. Billy Fleming was born on July 7, 1996 in Windang and plays the drums for Hockey Dad's records. Fleming can play guitar and bass and is learning recording and production with Stephenson. Additionally, he is learning mastering in audio post production. In May 2016, Hockey Dad announced their UK/Europe tour hitting 16 shows across United Kingdom, Netherlands and Germany; the tour began on May 12, 2016 in Reading and finished on June 4, 2016 in Nederweert, Netherlands. Due to the successful shows, Hockey Dad extended their tour and added another date on June 7, 2016 in Brighton, UK performing alongside other bands. Hockey Dad ran a tour across United States and Canada in support of their debut album. Lasting from the 10th of August to the 1st of September 2016, the tour consisted of 18 shows across fourteen states and two provinces.
Musical group Muuy Biien played alongside Hockey Dad for this tour for all dates except that in San Francisco. This is the first tour Hockey Dad has performed in North America, previous visits only for music festivals. From September 24 to October 8, 2016 Hockey Dad performed a short Australian national tour reaching Brisbane, Sydney and Perth; this tour was to locally promote their debut album and was sold out across all locations. On November 17, 2016 Hockey Dad announced their 2017 regional tour titled'Benefit of the Doubt' tour; the tour ran from February 3, 2016 until March 4, 2016 and consisted of 8 shows in 8 cities across Australia. On January 16, 2018 Hockey Dad announced via Facebook that they would be touring to support the release of their second studio album Blend Inn; the tour ran from the 1st of 2018 to the 25th of March. The tour consisted of 7 shows across 5 cities within Australia. However, after 6 of these shows sold out within the first 24 hours, the band added an extra 7 shows across Australia bringing the total number of shows played to 14.
On 18 June 2018, Hockey Dad announced their second Australian tour for 2018. The string of shows was announced in support of their song'Join The Club', released on their Sophomore album'Blend Inn'; the tour took place in late September and October and included Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane, with every show being sold out
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Blackbutt, New South Wales
Blackbutt is a southern suburb of Shellharbour, New South Wales, Australia. The eastern half of the suburb is occupied by the Blackbutt Forest Reserve
Coledale, New South Wales
Coledale is a small sea-side village 18 kilometres north of Wollongong along the Princes Highway in New South Wales, Australia. It lies between Wombarra and Austinmer. Coledale has several shops on the main road as well as a RSL club, public hall, fire station, public hospital with an aged care unit. Coledale's shops include a newsagent, a more comprehensive gift store, selling furniture and homeware items can be found diagonally opposite on the main road. There is a beauty salon, hair dresser and fish & chip shop. Further along the road there is a bottle shop. Coledale has a small public school with good views of Coledale beach. Coledale has a playing field for soccer and netball: St. James Park is the home ground for the Coledale Waves soccer teams; this was where Kerryn McCann trained as she lived close by. In the 2016 Census, there were 1,260 people in Coledale. 82.1% of people were born in Australia and 91.8% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 39.5%, Catholic 20.6% and Anglican 18.1%.
Coledale has two sandy beaches: Coledale Beach to the north of the village, patrolled during summer and Sharkey's Beach to the south, a popular surfing spot. In the summer months Coledale Lifesaving Club runs Nippers every 2nd Sunday on Coledale Beach. Coledale's main patrolled beach is popular with campers & caravaners, having simple but reliable amenities. Coledale railway station is located halfway off Lawrence Hargrave Drive; the station is operated by NSW TrainLink. An interactive 360° panorama of the main street
Lake Illawarra, an open and trained intermediate wave dominated barrier estuary or large coastal lagoon, is located in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, situated about 100 kilometres south of Sydney, Australia. The lake environment is administered by the Lake Illawarra Authority, a New South Wales statutory authority established pursuant to the Lake Illawarra Authority Act 1987 with the aim of transforming the degraded waters and foreshores of Lake Illawarra into an attractive recreational and tourist resource. Located south of the city of Wollongong, north of the city of Shellharbour, 5 kilometres northeast of Dapto, Lake Illawarra receives runoff from the Illawarra escarpment through Macquarie Rivulet and Mullet Creek, drawing from a catchment area of 238 square kilometres. With an average depth of 2.1 metres, the shallow lake, brought about because of infilling by sand, eroded from the surrounding catchments, covers a surface area of 35.8 square kilometres. At an elevation of 0.3 metres AHD , the maximum volume of water held in the lake is 74,275 megalitres.
The narrow tidal entrance to the Tasman Sea of the South Pacific Ocean is located at Windang. Located on the western shore of Lake Illawarra at Yallah is the natural gas-powered Tallawarra Power Station; the power station draws water from the lake for cooling purposes, returns water to the lake via an onsite water management system that ensures water quality is maintained at levels above the catchment average. The lake's location within the sprawling Wollongong urban area means that Lake Illawarra is vulnerable to pollution and urban run-off. Lake Illawarra is popular for recreational fishing and sailing. On 12 January 2009, it is suspected a man was bitten by a bull shark whilst snorkelling at Windang, near the mouth of Lake Illawarra. Birds found at the lake include pelicans, musk ducks, hoary-headed grebes, black swans, black ducks, grey teal ducks, herons and spoonbills; the traditional custodians of the land surrounding what is now known as Lake Illawarra are the Aboriginal Tharawal and Wadi Wadi peoples.
Lake Illawarra was a valuable source of spirituality. Burial sites and middens discovered at Windang and surrounding areas indicate that the Wadi Wadi used the area extensively and performed various corroborees and ceremonies in the area; the name Illawarra is derived from various adaptions of the Aboriginal Tharawal language words of elouera, eloura, or allowrie. Matthew Flinders and George Bass called the lake Tom Thumb's Lagoon on Flinders' chart, named after their little boat the Tom Thumb, when they were there in March 1796. In Lake Illawarra: an ongoing history, Joseph Davis provides a wide-ranging environmental and historical biography of the lake and its foreshores; the book contains many images and photographs depicting the lake. Davis edited John Brown of Brownsville: his manuscripts and the records of Dapto Show Society 1857-1904 that deals with the man who did most to protect the vegetation of the lake islands, he authored Gooseberry & Hooka: the island reserves of Lake Illawarra 1829-1947, the latter examining the records of John Brown and others and deals with the history of these two islands and how they survived to become nature refuges rather than recreation reserves.
List of lakes of Australia "Illawarra catchments". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Lake Illawarra Authority "Lake Illawarra Data Compilation and Assessment". Archived from the original on 2007-08-31
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
Wollongong, informally referred to as "The Gong", is a seaside city located in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. Wollongong lies on the narrow coastal strip between the Illawarra Escarpment and the Pacific Ocean, 68 kilometres south of centre of Sydney. Wollongong had an estimated urban population of 299,203 at June 2017, making it the third-largest city in New South Wales after Sydney and Newcastle, the tenth-largest city in Australia; the city's current Lord Mayor is Gordon Bradbery AM, elected in 2018. The Wollongong metropolitan area extends from Helensburgh in the north to Shell Cove in the south, it sits within the Wollongong Statistical District, which covers the local authority areas of Wollongong and Kiama, extending from the town of Helensburgh in the north, to Gerroa in the south Geologically, the city is located in the south-eastern part of the Sydney basin, which extends from Newcastle to Nowra. Wollongong is noted for its heavy industry, its port activity and the quality of its physical setting, occupying a narrow coastal plain between an continuous chain of surf beaches and the cliffline of the rainforest-covered Illawarra escarpment.
It has two cathedrals, churches of many denominations and the Nan Tien Temple, the largest Buddhist temple in the southern hemisphere. Wollongong has a long history of coal industry; the city attracts many tourists each year, is a regional centre for the South Coast fishing industry. The University of Wollongong is internationally recognised; the name "Wollongong" is believed to mean "seas of the South" in the local Aboriginal language, referring to NSW's Southern Coast. Other meanings have been suggested, such as "great feast of fish", "hard ground near water", "song of the sea", "sound of the waves", "many snakes" and "five islands"; the area was inhabited by the Dharawal Indigenous Australians. The first Europeans to visit the area were the navigators George Bass and Matthew Flinders, who landed at Lake Illawarra in 1796; the first settlers in the region were cedar cutters in the early nineteenth century, followed by graziers in 1812. Charles Throsby established a stockman's hut in the area in 1815.
The first land grants were made in 1816. In 1830, a military barracks was constructed near the harbour. Further settlers arrived and in 1834 a town was planned. On 26 November 1834, the town was first gazetted and George Brown erected the first court house; the main road down the Escarpment through Bulli Pass was built by convict labour in 1835-6, although other passes were built during the 19th century as well, such as O'Briens Road and Rixons Pass. By 1856 Wollongong had a population of 864. In 1858, a court house was built. In 1861, a horse-drawn tramway from Mount Keira to the harbour was completed. In 1862 a telegraph line was opened between Bellambi. In 1865, the first gas supply in Wollongong was provided from a gas plant in Corrimal Street. In 1868 the extensions to the harbour were named Belmore Basin. Patrick Lahiff established, he erected two beehive coke ovens between the north eastern end of Pulpit Rock. The ovens were demolished in 1892; the remains of the coke ovens were uncovered and recovered and are now preserved beneath the hill, with a plaque explaining their history.
In 1871, the old lighthouse was completed. In 1880, steam locomotives were introduced to haul coal loads from Mount Keira mine to the harbour. Gas street lighting was introduced in 1883. In 1885, a new court house was erected in Market Street. Like many Australian court houses, it was designed in a Classical Revival style considered appropriate for public buildings, it is now listed on the Register of the National Estate. In 1886 the first town hall was erected; the Illawarra Railway to Wollongong was completed in 1887, now continues as far south as the town of Bomaderry on the Shoalhaven River. The navigator George Bass first documented the Illawarra coal deposits in 1797. There have been many coalmines in the district. Australia's worst coal mining disaster occurred in 1902, at the Mount Kembla mine when an explosion killed 94 men and boys, the youngest aged 14, the oldest 69. Two other men died attempting to rescue survivors. In 1908 the Wollongong District Hospital was established on Garden Hill.
In 1916 the Wollongong High School was opened. Heavy industry was attracted to the region by the ready availability of coal. In 1928, Hoskins Australian Iron & Steel, started a steelworks at Port Kembla, a few kilometres south of Wollongong; the former Broken Hill Proprietary Company acquired AI&S in 1935, but has since spun-out their steel division as a separate company, now known as BlueScope. The steelworks has grown to become a world-class flat rolled steel producer, operating as a integrated steel plant with a production of around 5 million tonnes per year. Other industries to have set up in the massive Port Kembla industrial complex—the largest single concentration of heavy industry in Australia—include a fertiliser plant, an electrolytic copper smelter, a locomotive workshop, a coal export shipping terminal, a grain export shipping terminal and an industrial gases manufacturing plant. In 1936, the new Wollongong Lighthouse was finished on Flagstaff Point. In 1942 Wollongong was proclaimed a City.
In 1947 City of Greater Wollongong was formed. In 1954 the population of Wollongong was 90,852. In 1956 new Wollongong City Council Chambers were opened. In 1961 the Wollongong University College was established. In 1963, the Wollongong Teachers College was established. In 1965 the Westfield shopping centre at Figtree opened. In 1985, the railway line was