The Cirrus SR22 is a single-engine four- or five-seat composite aircraft built from 2001 by Cirrus Aircraft of Duluth, Minnesota. It is a development of the Cirrus SR20, with a larger wing, higher fuel capacity, a more powerful, 310-horsepower engine; the SR22 series has been the world's best-selling general aviation airplane every year since 2003. With 5,194 units delivered from 2001–17, in combination with the SR20, a total of 6,526, it is among the most-produced aircraft of the 21st century, is the single most-produced GA aircraft made from composite material, accounting for over 30% of the entire piston aircraft market; the Cirrus SR22 is equipped with a whole-plane emergency recovery parachute system: the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System. This has contributed to its market success and has given it the name "the plane with the parachute"; the SR22, certified in November 2000, is a more powerful version of the earlier SR20. The SR22 is a low-wing cantilever monoplane of composite construction, featuring fixed tricycle landing gear with a castering nose wheel and steering via differential braking on the main wheels.
It is powered by a nose-mounted 310 hp Continental IO-550-N piston engine. The four-seat cabin is accessed through doors on either side of the fuselage; the SR-series remains the only production airplane in its class to include side stick flight controls that combine aspects of a traditional yoke handle. The Cirrus SR22, like the SR20, is equipped with the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System, which can lower the entire aircraft to the ground gently in an emergency. In 2004, the company introduced the SR22 G2 and in 2007 the SR22 G3. Both were defined by airframe modifications, G2 by fuselage and G3 by modified wing and landing gear. Robert Goyer of Flying magazine wrote in a 2012 review that the Cirrus SR22 "is the most sophisticated single-engine civilian airplane built and by a long shot."In 2013, the manufacturer introduced the SR22 G5. Key changes were an increase in gross weight to a standard five-seat cabin arrangement; the G5 received only minor changes including integrated LED lighting and Beringer brakes.
In 2014, the SR22 and SR22T had been the best-selling four-to-five-seat fixed-wing aircraft in the world for 12 years in a row. In 2016, Cirrus introduced improvements to the SR Series, including Bluetooth wireless connectivity, a remote keyless entry, convenience lighting system, an easy-access door latch. In 2017, the company introduced the SR22 G6, with several major upgrades to the avionics and new navigation lighting. Cirrus introduced the SR22 Turbo in 2006, with a Tornado Alley turbonormalizing upgrade kit, factory installed under a Supplemental Type Certificate, it included twin intercoolers. The conversion includes a Hartzell three-blade lightweight composite propeller; the weight of the conversion reduces the SR22's useful load. Air conditioning is available with the SR22 Turbo; the turbo version has a certified ceiling of 25,000 feet, a maximum cruise speed of 211 knots, a top speed of 219 knots. In 2010, Cirrus introduced the SR22T; this used a new engine, the Continental TSIO-550K, which produces 315 hp with a 7.5:1 compression ratio and can run on 94 octane fuel.
SR22s and SR20s built before 2003 were equipped with traditional analog instruments and a 10" Multi-function display. In February 2003, Cirrus began offering SR22s with the Avidyne Entegra primary flight display, making the plane the first of its kind to come with a glass cockpit; that year, this instrumentation became standard equipment on all SR-series aircraft and sparked a major transition in general aviation, whereby over 90% of all new light aircraft by the year 2006 were equipped with glass cockpits. Retrofits are available for the older SR aircraft that replace the analog instrument panels with one that includes a PFD, a new MFD and the installation of back-up mechanical instruments. On 22 May 2008, Cirrus revealed the "Cirrus Perspective" glass cockpit. Both cockpits were available for a while and after 2008 the SR22 was sold with only the Perspective panel. In 2009, the third-generation Cirrus SR22 GTS came equipped with a new enhanced vision system, a sophisticated dual-wavelength instrument that offers both infrared and synthetic vision.
At the 2010 EAA AirVenture, Cirrus announced its plans to certify Garmin's ESP system on the Cirrus SR22. It included advanced flight envelope protection that could stabilize the aircraft with the push of a button, to avoid spiral from developing; the Cirrus Perspective-Plus avionics flight deck was introduced in 2017, with a faster processing speed, animated datalink weather, payload management, visual approach capabilities, wireless database uploads, glass back-up instruments, more. Cirrus completed testing for flight into known icing conditions on 12 January 2009; the equipment change involved installing a larger fluid tank for the TKS Ice Protection System and protecting more areas of the aircraft. The FAA approved the new installation in April 2009. Ryan Campbell used an SR22 to become the youngest pilot to fly solo around the world, at age nineteen, he completed his trip on 7 September 2013 in Australia. His SR-22, Spirit of the Sapphire Coast, was modified by removing three seats and adding a 160 U.
S. gallons fuselage tank for a total of 250 U. S. gallons (950 L
Midland is a city in and the county seat of Midland County, United States, on the Southern Plains of the state's western area. A small portion of the city extends into Martin County. At the 2010 census, the population of Midland was 111,147, a 2015 estimate gave a total of 132,950, making it the twenty-fourth most populous city in the state of Texas. Due to the oil boom in Midland, certain officials have given population estimates above 155,000, it is the principal city of the Midland, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Midland County, the population of which grew 4.6 percent, between July 1, 2011 and July 1, 2012, to 151,662 according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the metropolitan area is a component of the larger Midland−Odessa, Texas Combined Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 295,987 on July 1, 2012. People in Midland are called Midlanders. Midland was founded as the midway point between Fort Worth and El Paso on the Texas and Pacific Railroad in 1881.
It is the hometown of former First Lady Laura Bush, the onetime home of former Presidents George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush, former First Lady Barbara Bush. Midland was established in June 1881 on the Texas and Pacific Railway, it earned its name because of its central location between Fort Worth and El Paso, but because there were other towns in Texas by the name of Midway, the city changed its name to Midland in January 1884 when it was granted its first Post Office. Midland became the county seat of Midland County in March 1885, when that county was first organized and separated from Tom Green County. By 1890, it had become one of the most important cattle shipping centers in the state; the city was incorporated in 1906, by 1910 the city established its first fire department, along with a new water system. Midland was changed by the discovery of oil in the Permian Basin in 1923 when the Santa Rita No. 1 well began producing in Reagan County, followed shortly by the Yates Oil Field in Iraan.
Soon, Midland was transformed into the administrative center of the West Texas oil fields. During the Second World War, Midland was the largest bombardier training base in the country. A second boom period began after the war, with the discovery and development of the Spraberry Trend, still ranked as the third-largest oil field in the United States by total reserves, yet another boom period took place during the 1970s, with the high oil prices associated with the oil and energy crises of that decade. Today, the Permian Basin produces one fifth of natural gas output. Midland's economy still relies on petroleum. By August 2006, a busy period of crude oil production had caused a significant workforce deficit. According to the Midland Chamber of Commerce, at that time there were 2,000 more jobs available in the Permian Basin than there were workers to fill them. John Howard Griffin wrote a history of Midland in 1959, Land of the High Sky. In 1967, the U. S. Supreme Court heard the case of Midland County.
Midland mayor Hank Avery had sued Midland County, challenging the electoral-districting scheme in effect for elections to the County Commissioner's Court. The county districts geographically quartered the county, but the city of Midland, in the northwestern quarter, accounted for 97% of the county's population. A judge, elected on an at-large basis, provided a fifth vote, but the result was that the three rural commissioners, representing only three percent of the county's population, held a majority of the votes; the majority of the U. S. Supreme Court held that the districting inequality violated the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection clause; the dissenting minority held that this example of the Warren Court's policy of incorporation at the local-government level exceeded the Court's constitutional authority. Midland is located in the Permian Basin in the plains of West Texas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 71.5 square miles, of which 71.3 square miles is land and 0.2 square mile is water.
Midland cool to mild winters. The city is subject to cold waves during the winter, but it sees extended periods of below-freezing cold. Midland receives 14.6 inches of precipitation per year, much of which falls in the summer. Highs exceed 90 °F on 101 days per year, 100 °F on 16 days. Nicknamed "The Tall City", Midland has long been known for its downtown skyline. Most of downtown Midland's major office buildings were built during a time of major Permian Basin oil and gas discoveries; the surge in energy prices in the mid-1980s sparked a building boom for downtown Midland. For many years, the 22-story Wilco Building in downtown Midland was the tallest building between Fort Worth and Phoenix. Today, the tallest is the 24-story Bank of America Building. Four buildings over 500 feet tall were planned in the 1980s, including one designed by architect I. M. Pei; the great oil bust of the mid-1980s killed any plans for future skyscrapers. A private development group was planning to build Energy Tower at City Center, proposed to stand at 870 feet tall with 59 floors.
If it had been built, it would have been Texas' sixth tallest building. At the 2010 census, 111,149 people, 41,268 households, 32,607 families resided in Midland; the population density was 1,558.9 people per square mile. There were 47,562 housing units at an average density of 667.1 per sq
The empennage known as the tail or tail assembly, is a structure at the rear of an aircraft that provides stability during flight, in a way similar to the feathers on an arrow. The term derives from the French language word empenner which means "to feather an arrow". Most aircraft feature an empennage incorporating vertical and horizontal stabilising surfaces which stabilise the flight dynamics of yaw and pitch, as well as housing control surfaces. In spite of effective control surfaces, many early aircraft that lacked a stabilising empennage were unflyable. So-called "tailless aircraft" have a tail fin. Heavier-than-air aircraft without any kind of empennage are rare. Structurally, the empennage consists of the entire tail assembly, including the tailfin, the tailplane and the part of the fuselage to which these are attached. On an airliner this would be all the flying and control surfaces behind the rear pressure bulkhead; the front section of the tailplane is called the tailplane or horizontal stabiliser and is used to provide pitch stability.
The rear section is called the elevator, is hinged to the horizontal stabiliser. The elevator is a movable aerofoil that controls changes in pitch, the up-and-down motion of the aircraft's nose; some aircraft employ an all-moving stabiliser and elevators in one unit, known as a stabilator or "full-flying stabiliser". The vertical tail structure has a fixed front section called the vertical stabiliser, used to restrict side-to-side motion of the aircraft; the rear section of the vertical fin is the rudders, a movable aerofoil, used to turn the aircraft's nose to one side or the other. When used in combination with the ailerons, the result is a banking turn referred to as a "coordinated turn"; some aircraft are fitted with a tail assembly, hinged to pivot in two axes forward of the fin and stabiliser, in an arrangement referred to as a movable tail. The entire empennage is rotated vertically to actuate the horizontal stabiliser, sideways to actuate the fin; the aircraft's cockpit voice recorder, flight data recorder and Emergency locator transmitter are located in the empennage, because the aft of the aircraft provides better protection for these in most aircraft crashes.
In some aircraft trim devices are provided to eliminate the need for the pilot to maintain constant pressure on the elevator or rudder controls. The trim device may be: a trim tab on the rear of the elevators or rudder which act to change the aerodynamic load on the surface. Controlled by a cockpit wheel or crank. an adjustable stabiliser into which the stabiliser may be hinged at its spar and adjustably jacked a few degrees in incidence either up or down. Controlled by a cockpit crank. A bungee trim system. Controlled by a cockpit lever. An anti-servo tab used to trim some elevators and stabilators as well as increased control force feel. Controlled by a cockpit wheel or crank. A servo tab used to move the main control surface, as well as act as a trim tab. Controlled by a cockpit wheel or crank. Multi-engined aircraft have trim tabs on the rudder to reduce the pilot effort required to keep the aircraft straight in situations of asymmetrical thrust, such as single engine operations. Aircraft empennage designs may be classified broadly according to the fin and tailplane configurations.
The overall shapes of individual tail surfaces are similar to wing planforms. The tailplane comprises the tail-mounted fixed horizontal movable elevator. Besides its planform, it is characterised by: Number of tailplanes - from 0 to 3 Location of tailplane - mounted high, mid or low on the fuselage, fin or tail booms. Fixed movable elevator surfaces, or a single combined stabilator or flying tail; some locations have been given special names: Cruciform tail - The horizontal stabilisers are placed midway up the vertical stabiliser, giving the appearance of a cross when viewed from the front. Cruciform tails are used to keep the horizontal stabilisers out of the engine wake, while avoiding many of the disadvantages of a T-tail. Examples include Douglas A-4 Skyhawk. T-tail - The horizontal stabiliser is mounted on top of the fin, creating a "T" shape when viewed from the front. T-tails keep the stabilisers out of the engine wake, give better pitch control. T-tails have a good glide ratio, are more efficient on low speed aircraft.
However, the T-tail has several disadvantages. It is more to enter a deep stall, is more difficult to recover from a spin. For this reason a small secondary stabiliser or tail-let may be fitted lower down where it will be in free air when the aircraft is stalled. A T-tail must be stronger, therefore heavier than a conventional tail. T-tails tend to have a larger radar cross section. Examples include the Gloster Javelin and McDonnell Douglas DC-9; the fin comprises rudder. Besides its profile, it is characterised by: Number of fins - one or two. Location of fins - on the fuselage, tail booms or wingsTwin fins may be mounted at various points: Twin tail A twin tail called an H-tail, consists of two small vertical stabilisers on either side of the horizontal stabiliser. Examples include the Antonov An-225 Mriya, B-25 Mitchell, Avro Lancaster, ERCO Ercoupe. Twin boom A twin boom has two fuselages or booms, with a vertical stabiliser on each, a horizontal stabiliser between them. Examples include the P-38 Lightning, de Havilla
Unmanned aerial vehicle
An unmanned aerial vehicle known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are a component of an unmanned aircraft system; the flight of UAVs may operate with various degrees of autonomy: either under remote control by a human operator or autonomously by onboard computers. Compared to manned aircraft, UAVs were used for missions too "dull, dirty or dangerous" for humans. While they originated in military applications, their use is expanding to commercial, recreational and other applications, such as policing and surveillance, product deliveries, aerial photography and drone racing. Civilian UAVs now vastly outnumber military UAVs, with estimates of over a million sold by 2015. Multiple terms are used for unmanned aerial vehicles, which refer to the same concept; the term drone, more used by the public, was coined in reference to the early remotely-flown target aircraft used for practice firing of a battleship's guns, the term was first used with the 1920s Fairey Queen and 1930's de Havilland Queen Bee target aircraft.
These two were followed in service by the similarly-named Airspeed Queen Wasp and Miles Queen Martinet, before ultimate replacement by the GAF Jindivik. The term unmanned aircraft system was adopted by the United States Department of Defense and the United States Federal Aviation Administration in 2005 according to their Unmanned Aircraft System Roadmap 2005–2030; the International Civil Aviation Organization and the British Civil Aviation Authority adopted this term used in the European Union's Single-European-Sky Air-Traffic-Management Research roadmap for 2020. This term emphasizes the importance of elements other than the aircraft, it includes elements such as data links and other support equipment. A similar term is an unmanned-aircraft vehicle system, remotely piloted aerial vehicle, remotely piloted aircraft system. Many similar terms are in use. A UAV is defined as a "powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload".
Therefore, missiles are not considered UAVs because the vehicle itself is a weapon, not reused, though it is unmanned and in some cases remotely guided. The relation of UAVs to remote controlled model aircraft is unclear. UAVs may not include model aircraft; some jurisdictions base their definition on weight. For recreational uses, a drone is a model aircraft that has first-person video, autonomous capabilities, or both; the earliest recorded use of an unmanned aerial vehicle for warfighting occurred on July 1849, serving as a balloon carrier in the first offensive use of air power in naval aviation. Austrian forces besieging Venice attempted to launch some 200 incendiary balloons at besieged city; the balloons were launched from land. At least one bomb fell in the city. UAV innovations started in the early 1900s and focused on providing practice targets for training military personnel. UAV development continued during World War I, when the Dayton-Wright Airplane Company invented a pilotless aerial torpedo that would explode at a preset time.
The earliest attempt at a powered UAV was A. M. Low's "Aerial Target" in 1916. Nikola Tesla described a fleet of unmanned aerial combat vehicles in 1915. Advances followed including the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane; this developments inspired the development of the Kettering Bug by Charles Kettering from Dayton, Ohio. This was meant as an unmanned plane that would carry an explosive payload to a predetermined target; the first scaled remote piloted vehicle was developed by film star and model-airplane enthusiast Reginald Denny in 1935. More emerged during World War II – used both to train antiaircraft gunners and to fly attack missions. Nazi Germany used various UAV aircraft during the war. Jet engines entered service after World War II in vehicles such as the Australian GAF Jindivik, Teledyne Ryan Firebee I of 1951, while companies like Beechcraft offered their Model 1001 for the U. S. Navy in 1955, they were little more than remote-controlled airplanes until the Vietnam War. In 1959, the U.
S. Air Force, concerned about losing pilots over hostile territory, began planning for the use of unmanned aircraft. Planning intensified after the Soviet Union shot down a U-2 in 1960. Within days, a classified UAV program started under the code name of "Red Wagon"; the August 1964 clash in the Tonkin Gulf between naval units of the U. S. and North Vietnamese Navy initiated America's classified UAVs into their first combat missions of the Vietnam War. When the Chinese government showed photographs of downed U. S. UAVs via Wide World Photos, the official U. S. response was "no comment". During the War of Attrition the first tactical UAVs installed with reconnaissance cameras were first tested by the Israeli intelligence bringing photos from across the Suez canal; this was the first time that tacti
Lake Jackson, Texas
Lake Jackson is a city in Brazoria County, United States, within the Greater Houston metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 26,849. In 1942 a portion of Lake Jackson was first developed as a company town for workers of the Dow Chemical Company. An oxbow lake was named after the planter, whose house was located at the lake. Minor ruins of the Lake Jackson Plantation can now be seen in a park at the site; the city was built in the early 1940s as a planned community, designed by Alden B. Dow of Midland, Michigan for workers in support of a new plant of the Dow Chemical Company, which his father owned; the City of Lake Jackson was incorporated March 14, 1944, voted for home rule ten years in 1954. The city of Lake Jackson is located in south-central Brazoria County, is bordered to the east by the cities of Clute and Richwood, to the southwest by the Brazos River. Texas State Highway 288, the Nolan Ryan Expressway, runs through the city, leading 10 miles north to Angleton, the county seat, 52 miles north to downtown Houston, 9 miles southeast to Freeport on the Gulf of Mexico.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Lake Jackson has a total area of 20.9 square miles, of which 19.5 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles, or 7.11%, is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 26,849 people, 10,319 households, 7,134 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,386.0 people per square mile. There were 11,149 housing units at an average density of 550.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.36% White, 5.10% African American, 0.52% Native American, 3.14% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.44% from other races, 2.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.53% of the population. There were 9,588 households out of which 42.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.7% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.4% were non-families. Twenty percent of all households were made up of individuals, 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.18. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.41% under the age of 18, 5.61% from 20 to 24, 12.51% from 25 to 34, 20.60% from 35 to 49, 20.10% from 50 to 64, 12% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.06 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $60,901, the median income for a family was $69,053. Males had a median income of $60,143 versus $30,398 for females; the per capita income for the city was $25,877. About 5.4% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.5% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. Gas station and convenience store chain; the Dow Chemical Company and the Brazosport Independent School District are major employers of residents. Dow planned to develop this community in 1941 as a 5,000-acre residential area for workers at its Freeport plant.
Lake Jackson is now home to other chemical and manufacturing facilities, along with many other types of businesses. In Lake Jackson's early days, Dow helped to create a booming economy. In 2014 it announced an expansion project, estimated to bring nearly 2,000 employees to the area; the unemployment rate in Lake Jackson, TX, is 8.40%, with job growth of 2.40%. Future job growth over the next ten years is predicted to be 36.40%. The income per capita is $30,625, which includes all children; the median household income is $68,391. The sales tax rate in Lake Jackson, TX, is 8.25%. Sales tax income represents a population of over 70,000 indicating the draw of the retail shopping from the area; the Lake Jackson Library is a part of the Brazoria County Library System. Lake Jackson is represented by Randy Weber. Brazosport College is a public community college, upgraded to offer a baccalaureate degree in certain technical fields, it is distinguished for its professional music hall, The Clarion. Brazosport College's Music Department has been able to bring many successful music artists to Lake Jackson, including Jackie Evancho, Leann Rimes, Wynonna Judd, Keb' Mo', Los Lonely Boys, Michael Martin Murphey, Robert Earl Keen, Doc Severinsen, Dee Dee Bridgewater, Brandford Marsalis, Delfeayo Marsalis, Rita Coolidge, Lyle Lovett, Don McLean, Phil Woods, John Pizarelli.
The public schools in the city are operated by Brazosport Independent School District. K-5 elementary schools within Lake Jackson include: O. M. Roberts Elementary School A. P. Beutel Elementary School Bess Brannen Elementary School Elisabet Ney Elementary School T. W. Ogg ElementaryResidents are zoned to: Grady B. Rasco Middle School Lake Jackson Intermediate School Brazoswood High School Private schools within Lake Jackson include: Brazosport Christian School Our Lady Queen of Peace Foundation Preparatory Academy Brazoria County Airport serves Lake Jackson. Southern Brazoria County Transit provides bus service options for Lake Jackson, Clute and Angleton. Texas State Highway 332 extends from its west end SH 36 in Brazoria to its east end at Surfside Beach; the city's layout and the six designs for homes were completed by Michigan architect Alden B. Dow. All streets radiating from downtown end in the word "Way." Among the streets are Center Way, Winding Way, Cir
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Eglin Air Force Base
Eglin Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base in western Florida, located about three miles southwest of Valparaiso in Okaloosa County. The host unit at Eglin is the 96th Test Wing; the 96 TW is the test and evaluation center for Air Force air-delivered weapons and guidance systems and Control systems, Air Force Special Operations Command systems. Eglin AFB was established 84 years ago in 1935 as the Valparaiso Gunnery Base, it is named in honor of Lt. Col. Frederick I. Eglin, killed in a crash of his Northrop A-17 attack aircraft on a flight from Langley to Maxwell Field, Alabama. Eglin is an Air Force Materiel Command base serving as the focal point for all Air Force armaments. Eglin is responsible for the development, testing and sustainment of all air-delivered non-nuclear weapons; the base plans and conducts test and evaluation of U. S. and allied air armament and guidance systems, command and control systems. Severe-weather testing of aircraft and other equipment is carried out here at the McKinley Climatic Laboratory.
The residential portion of the base is a census-designated place. Eglin Air Force Base has 2,359 military family housing units. Unmarried junior enlisted members live in one of Eglin’s seven dormitories located near the dining hall, base gym, enlisted club, bus lines on base; each individual unit handles dormitory assignments. Bachelor officer quarters are not available. Several units and one dormitory were being renovated in 2011; the base covers 463,128 acres. Eglin is one of the few military air bases in the U. S. to have scheduled passenger airline service as the Destin–Fort Walton Beach Airport is co-located on the base property. The 96 TW is the test and evaluation wing for Air Force air-delivered weapons and guidance systems and Control systems, Air Force Special Operations Command systems; the Eglin Gulf Test Range provides 130,000 square miles of over water airspace. The 96 TW supports other tenant units on the installation with traditional military services as well as all the services of a small city, to include civil engineering, logistics, computer, security.
The 96 TW reports to the Air Force Test Center at Edwards AFB. The 33d FW "Nomads" is the largest tenant unit at Eglin; the 33 FW is a joint graduate flying and maintenance training wing for the F-35 Lightning II, organized under Air Education and Training Command's 19th Air Force. First established as the 33d Pursuit Group, the wing’s contribution to tactical airpower during its 50-year history has been significant with participation in campaigns around the world, while flying various fighter aircraft. Reactivated at Eglin on 1 April 1965 with F-4C Phantom IIs, the wing operated, successively, F-4D and E models into the 1970s before transitioning to the F-15 Eagle; as of 1 October 2009, the 33d FW transitioned to a training wing for the new F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. The final F-15s assigned to the 33d departed the base in September 2009; as the first of its kind in the Department of Defense, the joint wing is responsible for F-35 JSF pilot and maintainer training for the Air Force, Marine Corps and the Navy.
The first of 59 F-35s arrived from Fort Worth, Texas on 14 July 2011. The 58th FS "Mighty Gorillas" are authorized to operate 24 assigned F-35A aircraft and executing a training curriculum in support of Air Force and international partner pilot training requirements; the F-35A is a conventional-takeoff-and-landing low-observable multi-role fighter aircraft, designed with 5th-generation sensors and weapons, is able to perform air superiority, air interdiction and close air support missions. The F-35A made its first flight on 15 December 2006; the VFA-101 "Grim Reapers" are authorized to operate 15 assigned F-35C aircraft and executing a training curriculum in support of Navy aviator training requirements. The F-35C is a carrier-capable low-observable multi-role fighter aircraft; the F-35C bears structural modifications from the other variants, necessitated by the increased resiliency required for carrier operations. The 53 WG is headquartered at Eglin and serves as the Air Force’s focal point for operational test and evaluation of armament and avionics, aircrew training devices, chemical defense, aerial reconnaissance improvements, electronic warfare systems, is responsible for the QF-4 Phantom II Full Scale Aerial Target program and subscale drone programs.
The wing tests every fighter, unmanned aerial vehicle, associated weapon system in the Air Force inventory. The wing reports to the USAF Air Warfare Center at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, a Direct Reporting Unit to Headquarters, Air Combat Command. Squadron attached to the 53d Wing but located at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana)The squadron plans and reports ACC's weapon system evaluation programs for bombers and nuclear-capable fighters; these evaluations include operational effectiveness and suitability and control, performance of aircraft hardware and software systems, employment tactics, accuracy and reliability of associated precision weapons. These weapons include air-launched cruise missiles, standoff missiles, gravity bombs. Results and conclusions support acquisition decisions and development of war plans; the unit performs operational testing on new systems and tactics development for the B-52. The Armament Directorate, located