Appleby Grammar School
Not to be confused with Sir John Moore Church of England Primary School, known as Appleby Grammar School Appleby Grammar School is a mixed secondary school and sixth form in Appleby-in-Westmorland, Cumbria for students aged 11 to 18. Since August 2011, it has been an Academy; until 9 September 2013, the school was a registered charity. The current headteacher is Andrew Lund, replacing Terry Hobson, who announced his retirement from the school in July 2007, after starting as head of biology in 1974, before becoming deputy head in 1995 becoming headteacher in 1997; the origins of Appleby Grammar School lie in the three chantries established in the town's two medieval churches. These chantries, constituted to celebrate masses for the souls of their founders, were endowed with monies to enjoin the chaplain to teach a free grammar school in the borough in the church itself, as a part of his duty; the first mention of a school in Appleby is shown by a sale in 1452, of a burgage house made by John Marshall, Vicar of St Michaels, to Thomas Lord Clifford, in which the property is described as "on the west side of Kirkgate extending in length to a certain narrow lane called Schoolhouse Gate".
In consideration of the loss sustained by the Dissolution of the Chantries, in the time of Edward VI, Queen Mary granted to the school at Appleby a yearly rent charge of £5 10s. 8d. Its revenues being replaced by a grant payable from the income of the Rectory of Crosby Ravensworth, further bequests were made from the wills of Robert Langton and Dr Miles Spencer; these legacies enabled the Borough to purchase Royal Letters Patent, endowed by Queen Elizabeth I on 22 March 1574, so provide a firm basis for the continued establishment and survival of the Grammar School, "with ten governors, who are to appoint successors, nominate the master and usher, make statutes for the regulation of the school, receive lands and possessions, so as they exceed not the clear yearly value of £40", but this limitation has been exceeded. The incumbent headmaster in 1574, John Boste a Catholic convert and martyr was followed in 1580 by Reginald Bainbrigg, a considerable scholar, who made tours of Hadrian's Wall in 1599 and 1601, corresponded with William Camden and Sir Robert Cotton on antiquarian matters.
On his death he bequeathed some 295 volumes to the school library, which grew in size as witnessed by the catalogues of 1656, 1782 and 1847, its funds being augmented each year by contributions from leaving pupils. The library is now in the care of the University Library of Newcastle upon Tyne. Official criticism of the school in 1869 by the Schools Inquiry Commission, which examined endowed grammar schools under the chairmanship of Lord Taunton, revealed an uncertain future as a high grade classical school. In 1868 there were only 16 pupils attending. Fruitless proposals were made by the governors to rebuild and amend the existing buildings, in 1887, construction of a new school was completed at Battlebarrow, on the outskirts of the town, on a site provided by land purchased from St Anne's Hospital and Lord Hothfield. A new scheme for the administration of the school along more modern lines was implemented in 1891. Thereafter, there followed a steady growth in pupil numbers, from 45 in 1887, 68 in 1914, 135 in 1940 to 170 in 1955, when girls were first admitted.
In the early 1950s, due to the extended width of the catchment area and problems students would face under adverse weather conditions, there were Government proposals for comprehensive education to be provided on larger sites, for pupils of all academic abilities, offering modern and technical courses. Westmorland County Council, suggested a development plan for North Westmorland, considered and agreed upon by the governors of both Appleby and Kirkby Stephen Grammar Schools for defined catchment areas to be set in place. Appleby would take pupils from an area including Appleby, the Fellside villages and villages to the west of the A66; the catchment area would extend to Cliburn, Newby and Sleagill. With the addition of an extension at Appleby to accommodate Domestic Science, Woodwork and Art Rooms, a girls' cloakroom on the ground floor level, plus the new school finished at Kirkby Stephen, as well as both schools becoming co-educational, the autumn term of 1955 was to see significant changes to secondary education in the Eden Valley.
Appleby was to lose all its boarders at the end of the summer term that same year. On 3 September 1959, whilst retaining the title of Grammar School and Kirkby Stephen schools became comprehensive and expanded so that by 1974, 400 years after the establishment of the Elizabethan post chantry Grammar School, there were over 560 pupils on the school roll. In January 2008, Ian Holloway, the headteacher of Appleby Grammar School from 1980 to 1997, became a town councillor; the father and half brothers of the founding President of the United States, George Washington, all attended the school. On his death, the widow of Washington's paternal grandfather, Lawrence Washington of Virginia, Mildred mar
Virgin Galactic is a spaceflight company within the Virgin Group. It is developing commercial spacecraft and aims to provide suborbital spaceflights to space tourists and suborbital launches for space science missions. Virgin Galactic plans to provide orbital human spaceflights as well. SpaceShipTwo, Virgin Galactic's suborbital spacecraft, is air launched from beneath a carrier airplane known as White Knight Two. Virgin Galactic's founder, Richard Branson, had suggested that he hoped to see a maiden flight by the end of 2009, but this date has been delayed on a number of occasions, most by the October 2014 in-flight loss of SpaceShipTwo VSS Enterprise. Branson stated that Virgin Galactic was “in the best position in the world” to provide rocket-powered, point-to-point 3000 mph air travel on Earth. In October 2017, Branson suggested that he could travel to space aboard a SpaceShipTwo within six months. On 13 December 2018 VSS Unity reached an altitude of 82.7 km entering outer space by US standards.
Virgin Galactic was founded in 2004 by British entrepreneur Sir Richard Branson, who had founded Virgin Atlantic airline and the Virgin Group, who had a long personal history of balloon and surface record-breaking activities. As part of Branson's promotion of the firm, he has added a variation of the Virgin Galactic livery to his personal business jet, the Dassault Falcon 900EX "Galactic girl"; the Spaceship Company was founded by Richard Branson through Virgin Group, Burt Rutan through Scaled Composites, to build commercial spaceships and launch aircraft for space travel. From the time of TSC’s formation in 2005, the launch customer was Virgin Galactic, which contracted to purchase five SpaceShipTwos and two WhiteKnightTwos. By July 2014, TSC was only halfway through the completion of a second SpaceShipTwo, had commenced construction of a second WhiteKnightTwo. In July 2008, Richard Branson predicted. In October 2009, Virgin Galactic announced that initial flights would take place from Spaceport America "within two years."
That year, Scaled Composite announced that White Knight Two's first SpaceShipTwo captive flights would be in early 2010. Both aircraft did fly together in March 2010; the credibility of the earlier promises of launch dates by Virgin Galactic were brought into question in October 2014 by its chief executive, George Whitesides, when he told The Guardian: “We’ve changed as a company. When I joined in 2010 we were a marketing organisation. Right now we can design, build and fly a rocket motor all by ourselves and all in Mojave, which I don’t think is done anywhere else on the planet”. On December 7, 2009, SpaceShipTwo was unveiled at the Mojave Spaceport. Branson told the 300 people attending, each of whom had booked rides at $200,000 each, that flights would begin “in 2011”. However, in April 2011, Branson announced further delays, saying “I hope 18 months from now, we’ll be sitting in our spaceship and heading off into space”. By February 2012, SpaceShipTwo had completed 15 test flights attached to White Knight Two, an additional 16 glide tests, the last of which took place in September 2011.
A rocket-powered test flight of SpaceShipTwo took place on April 29, 2013, with an engine burn of 16 seconds duration. The brief flight began at an altitude of 47,000 feet, reached a maximum altitude of 55,000 feet. While the SS2 achieved a speed of Mach 1.2, this was less than half the 2,000 mph speed predicted by Richard Branson. SpaceShipTwo’s second supersonic flight achieved a speed of 1,100 mph for 20 seconds. However, Branson still announced his spaceship would be capable of "launching 100 satellites every day". On May 14, 2013, Richard Branson stated on Virgin Radio Dubai's Kris Fade Morning Show that he would be aboard the first public flight of SpaceShipTwo, which had again been rescheduled, this time to December 25, 2013. "Maybe I’ll dress up as Father Christmas", Branson said. The third rocket-powered test flight of SpaceShipTwo took place on January 10, 2014 and tested the spaceship’s Reaction Control System and the newly installed thermal protection coating on the vehicle’s tail booms.
Virgin Galactic CEO George Whitesides said “We are progressively closer to our target of starting commercial service in 2014". Interviewed by The Observer at the time of her 90th birthday in July 2014, Branson’s mother, told reporter Elizabeth Day of her intention of going to space herself. Asked when that might be, she replied: “I think it’s the end of the year”, adding after a pause, “It’s always ‘the end of the year’ ”. In September 2014, Richard Branson described the intended date for the first commercial flight as February or March of 2015. By September of 2014, the three test flights of the SS2 had only reached an altitude of around 71,000 ft 13 miles. Following the announcement of further delays, UK newspaper The Sunday Times reported that Branson faced a backlash from those who had booked flights with Virgin Galactic, with the company having received $80 million in fares and deposits. Tom Bower, author of Branson: The Man behind the Mask, told the Sunday Times: "They spent 10 years trying
The Lakes School
The Lakes School is a coeducational secondary school and sixth form located in Troutbeck Bridge, Windermere, in the English county of Cumbria. It is a comprehensive community school administered by Cumbria County Council, its catchment area includes: Grasmere, Langdale Valley, Troutbeck, Bowness on Windermere and Staveley. The school offers evening adult education classes to the local community; the Lakes School is one of the first purpose built comprehensive schools and was opened by Tony Crosland MP, Secretary of State for Education, on 8 October 1965 the same year he issued Circular 10/65 promoting comprehensive education. The school was first thought of in 1936 and brought together three existing schools, Windermere Grammar for boys, Ambleside and Old College, for girls. Windermere Grammar School is in the Guinness Book of Records as the first comprehensive school formed in 1945 after the 1944 Education Act. Chris Acland, drummer with Lush. Attended the school from 1978-1985. Michael Cumming, filmmaker.
Best known for his award winning comedy directing on Brass Eye, Toast Of London. Attended the school from 1974-1981; the Lakes School official website
Windermere is the largest natural lake in England. It is a ribbon lake formed in a glacial trough after the retreat of ice at the start of the current interglacial period, it has been one of the country's most popular places for holidays and summer homes since the arrival of the Kendal and Windermere Railway's branch line in 1847. Forming part of the border between Lancashire and Westmorland, it is now within the county of Cumbria and the Lake District National Park; the word'Windermere' is thought to translate as "'Winand or Vinand's lake'... The specific has been identified with an Old Swedish personal name'Vinandr', genitive singular'Vinandar'"... although "the personal noun is of restricted distribution in Sweden." Another possibility is that it refers to a "Continental Germanic personal noun,'Wīnand'... Since this name could not have been current until the 12th century, the fact that the Old Norse genitive singular'-ar-' has been added to it, it would suggest that Old Norse was still a living language in the area at that time."
Alternative spellings may be'Wynhendermere' and'Wynenderme' The second element is Old English'mere', meaning'lake' or'pool'. It was known as "Winander Mere" or "Winandermere" until at least the 19th century, its name suggests it is a mere, a lake, broad in relation to its depth, but despite the name this is not the case for Windermere, which in particular has a noticeable thermocline, distinguishing it from typical meres. Until the 19th century, the term "lake" was, not much used by or known to the native inhabitants of the area, who referred to it as Windermere/Winandermere Water, or Windermer Watter; the name Windermere or Windermer was used of the parish that had taken its name from the water. The poet Norman Nicholson comments on the use of the phrase'Lake Windermere': "a certain excuse for the tautology can be made in the case of Windermere, since we need to differentiate between the lake and the town, though it would be better to speak of'Windermere Lake' and Windermere Town', but no one can excuse such ridiculous clumsiness as'Lake Derwentwater' and'Lake Ullswater."The extensive parish included most of Undermilbeck, Applethwaite and Ambleside-below-Stock, that is, the part of Ambleside that lay south of Stock Beck.
The parish church was at Bowness in Undermilbeck. Windermere is long and narrow, like many other ribbon lakes, lies in a steep-sided pre-glacial river valley that has become deepened by successive glaciations; the current lake was formed after the Last Glacial Maximum during the retreat of the British and Irish Ice Sheet some time between 17,000 and 14,700 years ago, just before the start of the Windermere Interstadial. The lake water was sourced from the meltwater of retreating ice in the catchment, which receded up the Troutbeck valley and up the valleys that now contain the rivers Rothay and Brathay. There were at least nine ice retreat phases; the lake has two separate basins – north and south – with different characteristics influenced by the geology. This consists of softer shales in the south; the lake is drained from its southernmost point by the River Leven. It is replenished by the rivers Brathay, Trout Beck, Cunsey Beck and several other lesser streams; the lake is surrounded by foothills of the Lake District which provide pleasant low-level walks.
There is debate as to whether the stretch of water between Newby Bridge and Lakeside at the southern end of the lake should be considered part of Windermere, or a navigable stretch of the River Leven. This affects the stated length of the lake, 18.08 km long if measured from the bridge at Newby Bridge, or 16.9 km if measured from Lakeside. The lake varies in width up to a maximum of 1.49 km, covers an area of 14.73 km2. With a maximum depth of 66.7 m and an elevation above sea level of 39 m, the lowest point of the lake bed is well below sea level. There is only one town or village directly on the lakeshore, Bowness-on-Windermere, as the village of Windermere does not directly touch the lake and the centre of Ambleside is one mile to the north of Waterhead; the village of Windermere is about 20 minutes' walk from Millerground, the nearest point on the lakeshore. It did not exist before the arrival of the railway in 1847; the station was farmland in the township of Applethwaite. The nearest farm was Birthwaite, which gave its name to the station and the village that began to grow up near it.
In about 1859, the residents began to call their new village by the name of Windermere, much to the chagrin of the people of Bowness, the centre of the parish of Windermere for many centuries. Since 1907 the two places have been under one council and, although there are still two separate centres, the area between is built up, albeit bordering on woodland and open fields. Windermere railway station is a hub for train and bus connections to the surrounding areas and is 1 1⁄4 miles from the Waterbus jetty. There is a regular train service to Oxenholme on the West Coast Main Line, where there are fast trains to Edinburgh, Manchester Airport and London; the lake contains eighteen islands. By far the largest is the owned Belle Isle opposite Bowness and around a kilometre in length, its older name was Lang Holme, 800 years ago it was the centre of the manor of Windermere and in effect, of a moiety of
Windermere, Cumbria (town)
Windermere is a town and civil parish in the South Lakeland District of Cumbria, England. It has a population of 8,245 increasing to 8,359 at the 2011 Census, lies about half a mile away from the lake, Windermere. Although the town Windermere does not touch the lake, it has now grown together with the older lakeside town of Bowness-on-Windermere, though the two retain distinguishable town centres. Tourism is popular in the town owing to its proximity to local scenery. Boats from the piers in Bowness sail around the lake, many calling at Ambleside or at Lakeside where there is a restored railway. Windermere Hotel opened at the same time as the railway. A part of Westmorland, Windermere town was known as Birthwaite prior to the arrival of the Kendal and Windermere Railway, which stimulated its development. Windermere station offers train and bus connections to the surrounding area, Manchester Airport and the West Coast Main Line; the geological formations around the area take their name from the town.
They are called the Windermere Group of sedimentary rocks. The town's name is given to the Rt. Hon. Dr David Clark, Baron Clark of Windermere, who now lives in Windermere; the word "Windermere" is thought to translate as "Winand or Vinand's lake". The specific has been identified with an Old Swedish personal name Vinandr; the other possibility is for a Continental Germanic name Wīnand. The second element is Old English'mere', meaning'lake' or'pool'. There is a reference to "Wynandermer" in 1396. Windermere was from 1894 to 1974 governed by an urban district council which in 1905 absorbed the former Bowness-on-Windermere UDC although Bowness remained a separate civil parish until 1974. Windermere UDC had slight boundary changes in 1934 and was abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 replacing it with South Lakeland District Council; the Windermere coat of arms was designed by local schoolgirl, Sheila West. Windermere railway station was built in 1847, was the reason the town was established; the station serves trains run by Northern to Oxenholme on the West Coast Main Line.
There are services to Manchester Airport. The town is near a major road running through the Lake District from Kendal to Keswick. There are three primary schools located in the town. Secondary education is provided by The Lakes School and Windermere School, both of which are located on the outskirts. Bowness-on-Windermere Windermere Listed buildings in Windermere, Cumbria Windermere Town Council Cumbria County History Trust: Windermere and Bowness The Cumbria Directory - Windermere
Katherine Emily Holt is a British photojournalist, who works across Africa and the Middle East to gather humanitarian and development stories for NGOs and private companies, as well as the UK and global media. She is the director of communications agency, Arete. Holt was born in Zimbabwe in 1972 to South African parents, she grew up in Newfoundland and was educated in the UK at St Anne's, from the age of eleven. Before going to university, she spent a year working in the Negru Voda Orphanage in Romania with HIV positive and disabled children, she returned there each summer during her years as a student. She completed her studies with a History Masters from St Andrew's University, a Post Graduate Diploma in Photojournalism from The London School of Printing, London. Holt began her career with the BBC, working on Breakfast News and BBC News 24, her first field experiences were in Kosovo, documenting the effects of the conflict on the civilian population. From there she went on to write her first investigative report which uncovered the trafficking of young girls from Eastern Europe into Bosnia and on to the UK.
This work was published in The Observer. It was the first time the issue of trafficking of women from Eastern Europe for sexual purposes was exposed. In 1999, Holt moved to Kenya, to cover news events throughout East and West Africa. In 2001, after the September 11 attacks in the US, Holt travelled to Pakistan and documented the influx of refugees over the border form Afghanistan as US and British troops closed in on the Taliban. In 2003, Holt traveled into Iraq with the first medical convoy to offer support to both Basra and Nazariyah as the coalition troops toppled Saddam Hussein. In 2009, Holt relocated to Kabul and spent three years covering the ongoing conflict there for a variety of British newspapers including the Daily Mail, The Guardian and the Financial Times. In February 2012, Holt launched Arete, a media and communications agency specialising in humanitarian storytelling, media strategy and training, which produces content for NGOs, charities and corporations in order to tell "stories that make a difference".
In 2013, Holt was the first journalist to expose rape as a weapon of war being used by Somali soldiers against women living in refugee camps throughout Mogadishu. The story was published by The Guardian and subsequently numerous human rights groups have become engaged in the issue. A year in 2014, Holt was the first journalist to expose the sexual abuse of women in South Sudan following the return to war between South Sudanese Government soldiers and opposition forces. Holt covered the siege of the Westgate shopping Centre in Nairobi after it was attacked by Terrorists in 2013 and produced a series of photographs and stories for media outlets including the BBC. Now based in the UK, Holt travels to document the experiences of refugees and the effects of war and poverty on women and children in conflicts in countries like the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Iraq and Haiti, she photographs for non-governmental organisations including UNICEF, Care International, the International Committee of the Red Cross, Médecins Sans Frontières and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Holt is a regular contributor to The Guardian and The Mail on Sunday. Her work has been published in The Independent, The Times, The Observer, Daily Mail, The Daily Telegraph and Financial Times. In 2004 and 2005, Holt uncovered a story of sexual exploitation by United Nations Peacekeepers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in a series of articles for The Independent; the story led to Kofi Annan announcing a'Zero Tolerance' policy on the issue. Holt went on to publish an article concerning an apparent cover-up by the UN in New York of sexual harassment by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the former Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Ruud Lubbers, her article concerned an OIOS report. The report, reviewed following challenges to its verdict, was found to be deficient in reasoning as there was no corroboratory evidence from the other witnesses to the alleged harassment. For this reason, the UN decided not to publish the report. Ruud Lubbers resigned from his post after Holt's article was published due to the negative publicity, although he maintained that he was innocent of any allegations.
Kofi Annan, whilst accepting his resignation stated that the findings that the allegations had no substance, were still valid. Holt is a trustee of the Royal Humane Society. In February 2012, Holt launched Arete – a media and communications agency that specialises in humanitarian storytelling, media strategy, content production and training for NGOs, charities and corporations, she is director of the company and undertakes assignments for Arete's clients. In 1996, while at St Andrews, the University awarded Holt a prize for exceptional services to a community for her work in Romanian orphanages. Holt has been nominated twice for the Amnesty Award for Humanitarian Reporting. Once in 2005 for her series of articles entitled when peacemakers become predators and again in 2010 for a photographic series on Elderly people in Zimbabwe, she was commended by Amnesty International for her coverage of the drought crisis in the Horn of Africa in 2011. In 2003, Holt traveled to Iraq and photographed the impact of the UK and US invasion on the civilian population in Basra and Nazariah.
The work produced was exhibited in Angers in France. The exhibition, entitled'Victory' was supported by
The Lake District known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes and mountains, its associations with William Wordsworth and other Lake Poets and with Beatrix Potter and John Ruskin; the National Park covers an area of 2,362 square kilometres. It was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2017; the Lake District is located within the county of Cumbria. All the land in England higher than 3,000 feet above sea level lies within the National Park, including Scafell Pike, the highest mountain in England, it contains the deepest and largest natural lakes in England, Wast Water and Windermere respectively. The Lake District National Park includes all of the central Lake District, though the town of Kendal, some coastal areas, the Lakeland Peninsulas are outside the park boundary; the area was designated a national park on 9 May 1951. It retained its original boundaries until 2016 when it was extended by 3% in the direction of the Yorkshire Dales National Park to incorporate areas such as land of high landscape value in the Lune Valley.
It is the most visited national park in the United Kingdom with 15.8 million annual visitors and more than 23 million annual day visits, the largest of the thirteen national parks in England and Wales, the second largest in the UK after the Cairngorms National Park. Its aim is to protect the landscape by restricting unwelcome change by commerce. Most of the land in the park is in private ownership, with about 55% registered as agricultural land. Landowners include: Individual farmers and other private landowners, with more than half of the agricultural land farmed by the owners; the National Trust owns about a quarter of the total area. The Forestry Commission and other investors in forests and woodland. United Utilities owns 8% Lake District National Park Authority The National Park Authority is based at offices in Kendal, it runs a visitor centre on Windermere at a former country house called Brockhole, Coniston Boating Centre, Information Centres. It is reducing its landholding. In common with all other national parks in England, there is no restriction on entry to, or movement within the park along public routes, but access to cultivated land is restricted to public footpaths and byways.
Much of the uncultivated land has statutory open access rights. The lakes and mountains combine to form impressive scenery. Farmland and mining have altered the natural scenery, the ecology has been modified by human influence for millennia and includes important wildlife habitats. Having failed in a previous attempt to gain World Heritage status as a natural World Heritage Site, because of human activities, it was successful in the category of cultural landscape and was awarded the status in 2017; the precise extent of the Lake District was not defined traditionally, but is larger than that of the National Park, the total area of, about 912 square miles. The park extends just over 32 miles from east to west and nearly 40 miles from north to south, with areas such as the Lake District Peninsulas to the south lying outside the National Park; the Lake District is one of the most populated national parks. There are, only a handful of major settlements within this mountainous area, the towns of Keswick, Windermere and Bowness-on-Windermere being the four largest.
Significant towns outside the boundary of the national park include Millom, Barrow-in-Furness, Ulverston, Dalton-in-Furness, Cockermouth and Grange-over-Sands. Villages such as Coniston, Glenridding, Pooley Bridge, Broughton-in-Furness, Newby Bridge, Lindale and Hawkshead are more local centres; the economies of all are intimately linked with tourism. Beyond these are a scattering of hamlets and many isolated farmsteads, some of which are still tied to agriculture; the Lake District National Park is contained within a box of trunk routes. It is flanked to the east by the A6 road; the A590 which connects the M6 to Barrow-in-Furness, the A5092 trunk roads cut across its southern fringes and the A66 trunk road between Penrith and Workington cuts across its northern edge. The A595 trunk road runs through the coastal plains to the west of the area, linking the A66 with the A5092. Besides these, a few A roads penetrate the area itself, notably the A591 which runs north-westwards from Kendal to Windermere and on to Keswick.
It continues up the east side of Bassenthwaite Lake. "The A591, Lake District" was short-listed in the 2011 Google Street View awards in the Most Romantic Street category. The A593 and A5084 link the Ambleside and Coniston areas with the A590 to the south whilst the A592 and A5074 link Windermere with the A590; the A592 continues northwards from Windermere to Ullswater and Penrith by way of the Kirkstone Pass. Some valleys which are not penetrated by A roads are served by B roads; the B5289 serves links via the Honister Pass with Borrowdale. The B5292 ascends the Whinlatter Pass from Lorton Vale before dropping down to Braithwaite near Keswick; the B5322 serves the valley of St John's in the Vale whilst Great Langdale is served by the B5343. Other valle