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Windisch is a municipality in the district of Brugg in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. Windisch is situated at the site of the Roman legion camp Vindonissa. A Celtic God, the name Vindos points to a widespread prehistorical cult of Vindos and the most origin of the Windisch place name. In 1064 the current municipality was mentioned as Vinse, in 1175 as Vindisse; until the 19th Century the official name was Windisch und Oberburg. Windisch grew into a regional power following the foundation of Königsfelden Abbey in 1309 in memory of the regicide of King Albert I of Germany in the previous year. Albert was on the way to suppress a revolt in Swabia when he was murdered on May 1, 1308, near Windisch on the Reuss, by his nephew John of Swabi, afterwards called "the Parricide" or "John Parricida", whom he had deprived of his inheritance. After the foundation of the Abbey, the village was placed under the authority of the Abbey. Starting in 1348 the rights to high and low justice were held by Agnes of Hungary, a daughter of Albert I.

In 1411 those rights transferred back to the monastery. The abbey church in antiquity under the patronage of St. Martin but in the Middle Ages under the patronage of Mary, is built on the site of the 6th Century Bishop's church; the present building, with a late-Romanesque nave and Gothic choir, was built between 1310-30. The church's charnel house was rebuilt in 1793 into a schoolhouse. After the conquest of the Aargau by Bern and the introduction of the Reformation the monastery was suppressed; until 1798 it served as the residence of the Bernese bailiffs. People from Windisch worked in the bailiff's residence as servants and workmen, while the poor came to the former abbey for alms; the main sources of income in Windisch included handicrafting, fisheries, shipping and iron ore mining in Lindhof, but agriculture was the major contributor. There was a ferry over the Reuss on the Bern-Zurich road; this was replace in 1799 by a bridge. Plague epidemics and the restrictive immigration policies of the municipality prevented growth.

However, during the 18th Century, the emergence of new occupations, led to a significant population increase. These new industries included cap and stocking weaving, water powered light industry. At the same time improved agriculture techniques allowed more food to be produced from the fields; the nearest neighbor to Windisch was the town of Brugg. The close proximity led to centuries of conflicts over grazing rights, city monopolies and the location of the municipal boundary. In 1863, due to a border adjustment, Windisch lost 45 hectares to Brugg. In the 19th Century the economy of the village changed. In 1825 Henry Kunz founded the cotton mill Kunz which had 567 employees in 1846, they built a village school. In 1804 part of Königsfelden Abbey converted into a District Hospital. In 1872 a new building was built and since 1887 it has been a psychiatric clinic; the construction of the railway network transformed Brugg and Windisch into a railroad hub with a large depot and repair shop. These innovations resulted in the influx of factory workers and trained staff.

This led to a restructuring of the population: for example, the locally born and working population fell from 88%, 55% and 21% to 4%, while the proportion of Catholics rose from 9% to 45%. Agriculture employs only 0.6% of the population. In 1965, a Higher Technical School of Windisch opened; the changing population structure led to political shifts in favor of the Social Democratic Party. With a pronounced emphasis on political independence, Windisch grew together structurally and economically with Brugg. Windisch has an area, as of 2009, of 4.91 square kilometers. Of this area, 1.16 square kilometers or 23.6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 1.22 square kilometers or 24.8% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 2.23 square kilometers or 45.4% is settled, 0.31 square kilometers or 6.3% is either rivers or lakes. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 5.3% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 21.6% and transportation infrastructure made up 9.6%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 1.8% uof the area while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 7.1%.

22.4% of the total land area is forested and 2.4% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 13.8% is used for growing crops and 6.9% is pastures, while 2.9% is used for orchards or vine crops. All the water in the municipality streams; the municipality is located in the Brugg district, between the Aare and Reusss in the region known as the Wasserschloss. It consists of the former linear villages of Windisch and Oberburg as well as the hamlets of Fahrgut, Schürhof and Bachtalen and the region around the former Königsfelden Abbey; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Or on a Sevenfold Mount Vert a Castle embattled Sable towered on dexter and to its sinister a Lion rampant Gules. The coat of arms represents the nearby Habsburg Castle and the lion of the House of Habsburg upon the verdant fields of the parish. Windisch has a population of 7,668 As of June 2009, 29.1% of the population are foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 4.5%.

Most of the population speaks Germa

Maryland Route 702

Maryland Route 702 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Maryland. Known as Southeast Boulevard, the state highway runs 4.17 miles from Interstate 695 in Rosedale east to Back River Neck Road near Essex. MD 702 is a controlled-access spur; the state highway was constructed as a freeway from I-695 to Old Eastern Avenue east of MD 150 in the early 1970s. MD 702 was extended as a divided highway to its present terminus around 1990. MD 702 begins at a directional-T interchange with I-695 near Rosedale. I-695 toward Towson and MD 702 toward Essex form the mainline of the interchange while I-695 toward Glen Burnie forms the stem of the T. Within the interchange, MD 702 crosses over Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and Northeast Creek, a tributary of the Back River that receives Stemmers Run; the state highway heads southeast into Essex as a four-lane freeway through a partial cloverleaf interchange with MD 150. There is no direct access from northbound MD 702 to MD 150 or from MD 150 to southbound MD 702.

The missing movements are made via MD 702's intersection with Old Eastern Avenue, where the freeway ends. MD 702 continues southeast as a six-lane controlled-access boulevard on which trucks heavier than 5 short tons are prohibited; the state highway passes between residential subdivisions, crosses Deep Creek, passes under a pedestrian walkway before reaching Middleborough Road, where the highway reduces to four lanes. MD 702 meets Hyde Park Road at a roundabout and intersects Turkey Point Road before reaching its eastern terminus; the roadway continues south as Back River Neck Road, a two-lane county road that leads through a forested area to Rocky Point Park and Essex Skypark at the southern end of Back River Neck. Back River Neck Road splits from the highway in the other direction back toward the center of Essex. MD 702 is a part of the National Highway System as a principal arterial for its entire length. Much of MD 702 parallels Back River Neck Road, the north–south portion of the Back River Neck Turnpike.

The MD 702 designation was applied to Jones Bridge Road from US 240 east along the southern edge of the National Naval Medical Center complex in Bethesda by 1946 and removed by 1958. The Southeast Freeway was one of three freeways—with the Windlass Freeway and Patapsco Freeway—planned to be built in southeastern Baltimore County as extensions or supplements to the Baltimore Beltway; the Southeast Freeway would head southeast from the Beltway's terminus at US 40 in Rosedale through Essex. By 1972, MD 702 was assigned to the Southeast Freeway, under construction from the Windlass Freeway to Old Eastern Avenue. MD 702 was completed in 1974 from the Windlass Freeway east to Old Eastern Avenue. MD 702's interchange with the Beltway was planned to accommodate an eastward extension of the Windlass Freeway as late as 1981. Construction on MD 702's boulevard extension was underway in 1989 and completed in January 1990; the state highway's roundabout at Hyde Park Road was installed in 2005. The entire route is in Baltimore County.

Maryland Roads portal MDRoads: MD 702 Steve Anderson's Southeast Boulevard

W.A.K.O. European Championships 1977

W. A. K. O. European Championships 1977 were the first W. A. K. O. European kickboxing championships introduced by the pioneer of German Karate Georg Brueckner and the first event hosted by the W. A. K. O. Organization – known as the W. M. A. A. Who itself had only just been founded in 1976. There had been an amateur kickboxing European championships held a year but this event was not recognized by any federation; the W. A. K. O. Championships were open to amateur men based in Europe only and all bouts were fought under Full-Contact kickboxing rules, with each country allowed more than one competitor in each weight category. By the end of the championships the Netherlands were the most successful nation, with West Germany second, Norway a distant third - more detail on the winners and medal tables can be found in the sections below; the event was held in 1977 in Austria. The first European championships were sparse when compared with the present day version, hosting only one style – Full-Contact kickboxing – for men only.

In terms of weight categories there were seven weight divisions ranging from 57 kg/125.4 lbs to over 84 kg/+184.8 lbs. More detail on Full-Contact's rules-set can be found at the W. A. K. O. Website, although be aware that the rules have changed since 1977; the medal winners of each division are shown below. The Netherlands was the most dominant nation at the 1977 W. A. K. O. European Championships picking up four gold, two silver and three bronze medals. List of WAKO Amateur European Championships List of WAKO Amateur World Championships WAKO World Association of Kickboxing Organizations Official Site

Fathali M. Moghaddam

Fathali M. Moghaddam is an Iranian psychologist, professor of psychology at Georgetown University and director of the Interdisciplinary Program in Cognitive Science, Department of Government, Georgetown University. Moghaddam has proposed that there are two types of behavior: a first, causally determined and a second, normatively regulated; the mistake of traditional psychology, social sciences more broadly, is to try to explain all behavior by applying causal models. He has attempted to demonstrate how causal and normative accounts can combine to create a more complete science of behavior. Second, through concepts such as the embryonic fallacy and interobjectivity, Moghaddam gives priority to collective over individual processes, argues that personal worldview and identity emerge from collective worldview and identity; this sets him apart from traditional research, which he argued is reductionist. Third, Moghaddam has criticized traditional psychology as reflecting the international power structure, with the United States as the only superpower of psychology stamping the discipline with its individualistic,'self help' ideology.

He has criticized what he claims is a'wholesale' exportation of American psychology to the rest of the world, argued for the need for an appropriate psychology for the non western world. His concept of double reification describes the process of Western culture being exported to the modern sector of non-Western societies being'discovered' by cross-cultural researchers and reported as a'universal.' Since 9/11, Moghaddam has applied his'collectivist/normative' approach to explaining radicalization and terrorism in the context of accelerating fractured globalization. His staircase model of terrorism is a concrete outcome of this approach, his solution to radicalization is a new policy to managing intergroup relations, based on his alternative policy of omniculturalism, which focused on human commonalities and rejects both assimilation and multiculturalism. He has worked to establish an empirical basis for universal human rights, to explain the rise and fall of dictatorships through his springboard model.

His claim is that in terms of personality characteristics, there are potential dictators in all human groups. The key is to understand the conditions that give rise to the springboard, which enables a potential dictator to spring to power. Although Moghaddam was trained as an experimental researcher using the minimal group paradigm, he has used qualitative methods, collaborating with Rom Harré on positioning theory and exploring the role of language in conflicts, his interest in diverse methods have extended to cross-disciplinary interest in psychology and literature. Since 2013 he is the editor of Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology. Since 2010 he has focused his research on two new concepts; the first is political plasticity, how fast and how much cognition and action in the political domain can change. Limits on political plasticity underlie the failure of political revolutions to create open societies and slow the pace of change toward democracy; the second new concept is mutual radicalization, the processes through which groups and nations radicalize and push one another to extremes.

Drawing from well‑established psychological principles, in his book ‘Mutual Radicalization’ Moghaddam presents a dynamic, cyclical three‑stage model of mutual radicalization that explains how groups gather under extremist ideologies, establish rigid norms under authoritarian leadership, develop antagonistic worldviews that exaggerate the threats posed by each other. This process leads to intensifying aggressive actions that can reach the point of mutual destruction. Moghaddam applies his model to 10 real‑world case studies of mutual radicalization that focus on three main areas: the conflict between Islamist radicals and extreme nationalists in the West, he offers practical solutions for achieving deradicalization and highlights historical successes, such as German reunification. Moghaddam, F. M.. Mutual radicalization: How groups and nations push one another to extremes. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association Press. Wagoner, B. Moghaddam, F. M. Valsiner, J.. The psychology of radical social change: From rage to revolution.

Cambridge, UK.: Cambridge University Press. Moghaddam, F. M... The Sage encyclopedia of political behavior. Vols 1 & 2. London & Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. Moghaddam, F. M.. The psychology of democracy. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association Press. Harré, R. & Moghaddam, F. M.. Questioning causality: Scientific explorations of cause and consequence across social contexts. Santa Barbara, CA.: Praeger. Harré, R. & Moghaddam, F. M.. The psychology of friendship and enmity: Relationships in love, work and war. Vol.1: Intrapersonal and interpersonal processes. Praeger: Santa Barbara, CA. Harré, R. & Moghaddam, F. M.. The psychology of friendship and enmity: Relationships in love, work and war. Vol.2: Group and intergroup understanding. Praeger: Santa Barbara, CA. Moghaddam, F. M; the Psychology of Dictatorship. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Moghaddam, F. M. терроризм с точки зрения террористob «что они переживают и думают и почему обращаются к насилию. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.

Moghaddam, F. M; the New Global Insecurity. Westport, CT: Praeger Security Internati

Birnie Island

Birnie Island is a small, uninhabited coral island, 20 hectares in area, part of the Phoenix Island group, part of the Republic of Kiribati. It is located about 100 km SE of Kanton Island and 90 km WNW of Rawaki Island known as Phoenix Island, it lies at 03°35′S 171°33′W. Birnie island measures 0.5 km wide. There is no anchorage; the island is designated as the Birnie Island Wildlife Sanctuary. Kiribati declared the Phoenix Islands Protected Area in 2006, with the park being expanded in 2008; the 164,200-square-mile marine reserve contains eight coral atolls including Birnie Island. Birnie Island is low and dry, with a small, shallow lagoon in its southeast sector, all but dried up, it is treeless, covered with low shrubs and grasses, was once home to a colony of rabbits, which have since been eradicated. Because of the undisturbed nature of the island, its vegetation, the large colonies of seabirds which roost there, Birnie Island was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1975, it now forms part of the Phoenix Islands Protected Area, one of the world's largest marine protected area.

An expedition to carry out eradication of the population of Polynesian rat on Birnie Island was carried out in 2011. Birnie Island was discovered in 1823 by the London whaling ship Sydney Packet, T. Emmett and named after the ship's owner, the London firm Alexander Birnie & Co. In the 1860s, the island was claimed under the Guano Islands Act for the United States, though there is no evidence of guano being mined there. On July 10, 1889, the British flag was raised, the island was declared a protectorate of the U. K. A colony was never attempted. In 1899, the island was leased to Ltd.. In 1916, it was included among the islands leased for 87 years to Captain Allen of the Samoan Shipping and Trading Company; this lease was taken over by the Burns Philp Company. During all this time, no guano was mined on Birnie, no human use seems to have been made of it. Birnie Island became part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony in 1937, which belonged to the British, became part of Kiribati in 1979 when the country gained independence.

The US gave up its claim in favor of Kiribati in the 1979 Treaty of Tarawa. Birnie is visited today, though a New-Zealand funded scientific expedition to rid the island of rats and other invasive animal species was carried out in 2008. List of Guano Island claims Henry Evans: Of islands and men: studies in Pacific history. Pr. 1968 Jones, A. G. E.: Ships employed in the South Seas trade Vol. 1: 1775 - 1861. Bryan, E. H.: American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain: Honolulu, Hawaii: Tongg Publishing Company, 1942 Wildlife Sanctuary information More information and history

Felix Somary

Felix Somary was an Austrian-Swiss banker. The son of a lawyer, Somary studied law and economy at the University of Vienna, where his fellow-students included Emil Lederer, Joseph Schumpeter and Otto Bauer. During that time he wrote an economics essay, praised by Luigi Einaudi. After taking his PhD with Carl Menger, he worked for the Anglo-Austrian Bank, where he met Ernest Cassel. From 1910 to 1914 he taught at the Hochschule für Staatswissenschaftliche Fortbildung in Berlin, he was active in promoting commercial ties between Britain and Austria both in eastern Europe and the Near East, he said that without the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand "the large-scale catastrophe could have been averted, since all causes of the Anglo-German conflict had been eliminated". This opinion was contrary to a held view at the time that the war was the result of Anglo-German imperialism and economic competition. During World War I, he reorganized the national bank of occupied Belgium. While in Berlin in March 1916 he co-authored a famous report with Max Weber.

This warned Austria against intensifying the use of submarine warfare. Their argument was that intensification might provoke the US into entering the war on the side of Britain, the consequence of this would be to remove the possibility of a neutral source of post-war credit, which would be needed by the combatant nations once hostilities had ceased, he angered Ludendorff by writing a paper which stated that Poland could find a natural place in the multinational Austrian state. In 1919 he entered as a senior partner in Bankhaus Co. in Zurich. After the war, European banks were long on war bonds, worth nothing, he realised that the choice was between bankruptcy and hyperinflation, but although he favoured the former it was the latter which ensued. He had argued his viewpoint at a German association for economists called the Verein für Sozialpolitik, he predicted the Great Depression, which began in 1929, as early as September 1926 when he gave a lecture warning of the dangers of relying on the US for credit given the protectionist tendencies of that country.

It was because of this prediction that he became known as The Raven of Zurich, the raven being a bird associated with dire omens. He was one of several economists who expressed the view that the depression might not have occurred if there had not been a conjunction of events, including the election of Hitler in Germany and of Roosevelt in the US, he was in New York City when the stock markets were plummeting and, seeing that fellow bankers were buying recklessly, he sent a wire to Zurich telling his associates there to sell all equity. By 1931 he was so convinced of the economic power exercised by the US that he wrote "It is an intolerable thought that the U. S. A. will be the centre of industry, while Europe will act as hotel keeper to Americans."In the 1930s, he took the Swiss citizenship. He taught at the Heidelberg University as well as in US universities. At Chicago, he was a guest of his friend Schumpeter, with whom he shared the interest in the theory of the economic cycle. Before the start of World War II, he tried to convince Baron Rothschild to take his wealth and his person out of Germany but Rothschild did not listen to him and saved himself.

In August 1934 he was of the recipients - on a list that "reads like a Who is Who? in business cycle theory", according to Boianovsky and Trautwein - of a paper concerning theories of the business cycle, written by Gottfried Haberler. He was an advisor to the chief of the Swiss Federal Department of Public Economy, attending a meeting in Washington, D. C. in 1939 when the Swiss government was trying to obtain emergency war supplies from the US government. He, his wife, two sons and a daughter moved to the United States in 1940, taking the last ship bound for the US from Spain. Béla Bartók was on the same ship, as was the poet and writer Stefan Zweig, with whom Somary was one of the last people to speak before his suicide. From 1941 to 1943 he advised the American Department of Defense on finance issues, he had been consulted regarding the methods that should be deployed in order to establish a sound currency in the European and African war zones, this being seen prior to the allied landings in North Africa and France as an important pre-requisite for achieving economic stability.

When they told him that the Americans were thinking of abolishing the Japanese Emperor, he was outraged: "And – he asked – with whom are you going to sign a peace treaty?"His book Bankpolitik remains a standard work and was praised by Schumpeter in his Geschichte der ökonomischen Analyse. After the war, he had a role in the birth of Mediobanca; the Italian large banks were not enthusiastic about the idea of creating, ex novo, an Italian merchant bank. At this point, the Italians convinced themselves that the project was good, financed it. Somary, Felix. Bankpolitik. Tubingen: C B Mohr. Somary, Felix. Émile Lévasseur. Somary, Felix. Die Erfahrungen des letzten Jahres für die Kriegsbereitschaft des deutschen Geld- und Kapitalmarktes. Somary, Felix. Währungs-probleme Österreich-Ungarns. Von Philippovich, Eugen. Grundriss der politischen Oekonomie. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list von Philippovich, Eugen. Allgemeine Volkswirtschaftslehre (in Ge