Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
Microsoft Windows version history
Microsoft Windows was announced by Bill Gates on November 10, 1983. Microsoft introduced Windows as a graphical user interface for MS-DOS, introduced a couple of years earlier. In the 1990s, the product line evolved from an operating environment into a complete, modern operating system over two lines of development, each with their own separate codebase; the first versions of Windows were graphical shells that run from MS-DOS on, Windows 95, though still being based on MS-DOS, was its own operating system, using a 16-bit DOS-based kernel and a 32-bit user space. Windows 95 introduced many features that have been part of the product since, including the Start menu, the taskbar, Windows Explorer. In 1997, Microsoft released Internet Explorer 4 which included the controversial Windows Desktop Update, it aimed to integrate Internet Explorer and the web into the user interface and brought many new features into Windows, such as the ability to display JPEG images as the desktop wallpaper and single window navigation in Windows Explorer.
In 1998, Microsoft released Windows 98, which included the Windows Desktop Update and Internet Explorer 4 by default. The inclusion of Internet Explorer 4 and the Desktop Update led to an anti-trust case in the United States. Windows 98 includes plug and play, which allows devices to work when plugged in without requiring a system reboot or manual configuration, USB support out of the box. Windows ME, the last DOS-based version of Windows, was aimed at consumers and released in 2000, it introduced System Restore and Support Center, updated versions of the Disk Defragmenter and other system tools. In 1993, Microsoft released Windows NT 3.1, the first version of the newly-developed Windows NT operating system. Unlike the Windows 9x series of operating systems, it is a 32-bit operating system. NT 3.1 introduced NTFS, a file system designed to replace the older File Allocation Table, used by DOS and the DOS-based Windows operating systems. In 1996, Windows NT 4.0 was released, which includes a 32-bit version of Windows Explorer written for it, making the operating system work just like Windows 95.
Windows NT was designed to be used on high-end systems and servers, however with the release of Windows 2000, many consumer-oriented features from Windows 95 and Windows 98 were included, such as the Windows Desktop Update, Internet Explorer 5, USB support and Windows Media Player. These consumer-oriented features were continued and further extended in Windows XP, which introduced a new theme called Luna, a more user-friendly interface, updated versions of Windows Media Player and Internet Explorer, extended features from Windows Me, such as the Help and Support Center and System Restore. Windows Vista focused on securing the Windows operating system against computer viruses and other malicious software by introducing features such as User Account Control. New features include Windows Aero, updated versions of the standard games, Windows Movie Maker, Windows Mail to replace Outlook Express. Despite this, Windows Vista was critically panned for its poor performance on older hardware and its at-the-time high system requirements.
Windows 7 followed two and a half years and despite technically having higher system requirements, reviewers noted that it ran better than Windows Vista. Windows 7 removed many extra features, such as Windows Movie Maker, Windows Photo Gallery and Windows Mail, instead requiring users download a separate Windows Live Essentials to gain those features and other online services. Windows 8 and Windows 8.1, a free upgrade for Windows 8, introduced many controversial changes, such as the replacement of the Start menu with the Start Screen, the removal of the Aero glass interface in favor of a flat, colored interface as well as the introduction of "Metro" apps and the Charms Bar user interface element, all of which received considerable criticism from reviewers. The current version of Windows, Windows 10, reintroduced the Start menu and added the ability to run Universal Windows Platform apps in a window instead of always in full screen. Windows 10 was well-received, with many reviewers stating that Windows 10 is what Windows 8 should have been.
Windows 10 marks the last version of Windows to be traditionally released. Instead, "feature updates" are released twice a year with names such as "Creators Update" and "Fall Creators Update" that introduce new capabilities; the first independent version of Microsoft Windows, version 1.0, released on November 20, 1985, achieved little popularity. The project was codenamed "Interface Manager" before the windowing system was developed - contrary to popular belief that it was the original name for Windows and Rowland Hanson, the head of marketing at Microsoft, convinced the company that the name Windows would be more appealing to customers. Windows 1.0 was not a complete operating system, but rather an "operating environment" that extended MS-DOS, shared the latter's inherent flaws and errors. The first version of Microsoft Windows included a simple graphics painting program called Windows Paint, it included the MS-DOS Executive and a game called Reversi. Microsoft had worked with Apple Computer to develop applications for Apple's new Macintosh computer, which featured a graphical user interface.
As part of the related business negotiations, Microsoft had licensed certain aspects of the Macintosh user interface from Apple.
A text editor is a type of computer program that edits plain text. Such programs are sometimes known following the naming of Microsoft Notepad. Text editors are provided with operating systems and software development packages, can be used to change files such as configuration files, documentation files and programming language source code. There are important differences between rich text. Plain text consists of character representation; each character is represented by a fixed-length sequence of one, two, or four bytes, or as a variable-length sequence of one to four bytes, in accordance to specific character encoding conventions, such as ASCII, ISO/IEC 2022, UTF-8, or Unicode. These conventions define many printable characters, but non-printing characters that control the flow of the text, such space, line break, page break. Plain text contains no other information about the text itself, not the character encoding convention employed. Plain text is stored in text files, although text files do not store plain text.
In the early days of computers, plain text was displayed using a monospace font, such that horizontal alignment and columnar formatting were sometimes done using whitespace characters. For compatibility reasons, this tradition has not changed. Rich text, on the other hand, may contain metadata, character formatting data, paragraph formatting data, page specification data. Rich text can be complex. Rich text can be saved in binary format, text files adhering to a markup language, or in a hybrid form of both. Text editors are intended to open and save text files containing either plain text or anything that can be interpreted as plain text, including the markup for rich text or the markup for something else. Before text editors existed, computer text was punched into cards with keypunch machines. Physical boxes of these thin cardboard cards were inserted into a card-reader. Magnetic tape and disk "card-image" files created from such card decks had no line-separation characters at all, assumed fixed-length 80-character records.
An alternative to cards was punched paper tape. It could be created by some teleprinters; the first text editors were "line editors" oriented to teleprinter- or typewriter-style terminals without displays. Commands effected edits to a file at an imaginary insertion point called the "cursor". Edits were verified by typing a command to print a small section of the file, periodically by printing the entire file. In some line editors, the cursor could be moved by commands that specified the line number in the file, text strings for which to search, regular expressions. Line editors were major improvements over keypunching; some line editors could be used by keypunch. Some common line editors supported a "verify" mode in which change commands displayed the altered lines; when computer terminals with video screens became available, screen-based text editors became common. One of the earliest full-screen editors was O26, written for the operator console of the CDC 6000 series computers in 1967. Another early full-screen editor was vi.
Written in the 1970s, it is still a standard editor on Linux operating systems. Written in the 1970s was the UCSD Pascal Screen Oriented Editor, optimized both for indented source code as well as general text. Emacs, one of the first free and open source software projects, is another early full-screen or real-time editor, one, ported to many systems. A full-screen editor's ease-of-use and speed motivated many early purchases of video terminals; the core data structure in a text editor is the one that manages the string or list of records that represents the current state of the file being edited. While the former could be stored in a single long consecutive array of characters, the desire for text editors that could more insert text, delete text, undo/redo previous edits led to the development of more complicated sequence data structures. A typical text editor uses a gap buffer, a linked list of lines, a piece table, or a rope, as its sequence data structure; some text editors are simple, while others offer broad and complex functions.
For example and Unix-like operating systems have the pico editor, but many include the vi and Emacs editors. Microsoft Windows systems come with the simple Notepad, though many people—especially programmers—prefer other editors with more features. Under Apple Macintosh's classic Mac OS there was the native SimpleText, replaced in Mac OS X by TextEdit, which combines features of a text editor with those typical of a word processor such as rulers and multiple font selection; these features are not available but must be switched by user command, or through the program automatically determining the file type. Most word processors can read and write files in plain text format, allowing them to open files saved from text editors. Saving these files from a word processor, requires ensuring the file is written in plain text format, that any text encoding or BOM settings won'
Tandy Corporation was an American family-owned leather goods company based in Fort Worth, United States. Tandy Leather was founded in 1919 as a leather supply store and acquired a number of craft retail companies, including RadioShack in 1963. In 2000, the Tandy Corporation name was dropped and the entity became the RadioShack Corporation. Tandy began in 1919 when two friends, Norton Hinckley and Dave L. Tandy, decided to start the Hinckley-Tandy Leather Company and concentrated their efforts on selling sole leather and other supplies to shoe repair dealers in Texas. Hinckley and Tandy opened their first branch store in 1927 in Beaumont, Texas and in 1932, Dave Tandy moved the store from Beaumont to Houston, Texas. Tandy's business survived the economic storms of the Depression, gathered strength and developed a firm presence in the shoe findings business. Dave Tandy had a son, Charles Tandy, drafted into the business during his early twenties. Charles obtained a B. A degree at Texas Christian University began attending the Harvard Business School to further expand his education.
As World War II escalated Charles was called to serve his country in the military and relocated to Hawaii. He wrote to his father from overseas suggesting that leathercraft might offer new possibilities for growing the shoe finding business since the same supplies were used in Navy and Army hospitals and recreation centers. Leathercraft gave the men something useful to do and their handiwork, in addition to being therapeutic, had genuine value. Charles Tandy returned home from the service as a Lieutenant Commander in 1948 and negotiated to operate the fledgling leathercraft division himself, he had encouraged and followed the development of that venture through correspondence with his father. Within a short time Charles succeeded in opening the first of two retail stores in 1950 that specialized in leathercraft. Mr. Hinckley did not share the enthusiasm of Dave and Charles Tandy for the new leathercraft division; as a result, the two original founders came to an agreement in 1950 that Hinckley would continue to pursue the shoe findings business and the Tandy partners would specialize in promoting leathercrafts.
The first Tandy Catalog, only 8 pages long, was mailed to readers of Popular Science magazine who had responded to two-inch test ads that were placed by Tandy. From 1950 forward Tandy operated; this successful formula helped the company expand into a chain of some 150 leathercraft stores. A growing'do-it-yourself movement' prompted by a shortage of consumer goods and high labor costs continued to gather momentum; the fifteen leathercraft stores opened during this division's first two years of operation became quite successful. Tandy began expanding by gaining new product lines. Sixteen additional retail stores were opened in 1953, by 1955 Tandy Leather was a thriving company with leased sales sites in 75 cities across the United States. Tandy Leather became an attractive commodity and was purchased in 1955 by the American Hide and Leather Company of Boston. Charles continued to maintain control of managing the Tandy Leather division while owned by GAI. During 1956, General American Industries acquired three other companies unrelated to the leather industry and a struggle for control of the parent company began.
Charles saw the need to emancipate from the direction initiated by GAI. He used all his resources, raised additional money, exercised his right to purchase the 500,000 shares of stock that were included in the original settlement; when the votes were counted on the day of that pivotal stockholders meeting, the Tandy group took management control of General American Industries. In 1961 the company name was changed to Tandy Corporation and the corporate headquarters were moved to Fort Worth, Texas where Charles Tandy became the President and Chairman of the Board. Tandy Leather was operating 125 stores in 105 cities of the United States and Canada and expansion was the name of the game. Tandy acquired the assets of Merribee Art Embroidery Co. manufacturer and retailer of needlecraft items, as well as 5 other companies, including Cleveland Crafts Inc. and brought on the owner, Werner Magnus, to help run the newly acquired Merribee division. The first Tandy Mart had twenty-eight different shops all devoted to craft and hobby merchandise and included American Handicraft, Tandy Leather, Electronics Crafts and Merribee in an area of about 40,000 square feet.
Charles Tandy became intrigued with the potential for rapid growth that he saw in the electronics retail industry during 1962. He found RadioShack in Boston, a mail order company that had started in the twenties selling to ham operators and electronics buffs. By April 1963, the Tandy Corporation acquired management control of RadioShack Corporation and within two years, RadioShack's $4 million loss was turned into a profit under the leadership of Charles Tandy. Sales were going well for Tandy during this time; the "beads & fringe" days were in full swing with the hippy era and the "Nature-Tand" look was a big seller for belts, purses and wristbands. Under the leadership of Lloyd Redd and Al Patten, the company prospered; the number of Tandy store-fronts skyrocketed over the next five to six years by growing from 132 sites in 1969 to 269 sites in 1975. Ground broke in downtown Fort Worth for the construction of the Tandy Towers in 1975; the 18-story office building was initiated as Phase I of a m
Raster graphics editor
A raster graphics editor is a computer program that allows users to create and edit images interactively on the computer screen and save them in one of many "bitmap" or "raster" formats such as JPEG, PNG, GIF. Vector graphics editors are contrasted with raster graphics editors, yet their capabilities complement each other; the technical difference between vector and raster editors stem from the difference between vector and raster images. Vector graphics are created mathematically; each element is manipulated numerically. Raster images include digital photos. A raster image is made up of rows and columns of dots, called pixels, is more photo-realistic; this is the standard form for digital cameras. The image is represented pixel like a microscopic jigsaw puzzle. Vector editors tend to be better suited for graphic design, page layout, logos, sharp-edged artistic illustrations, e.g. cartoons, clip art, complex geometric patterns, technical illustrations and flowcharting. Advanced raster editors, like GIMP and Adobe Photoshop, use vector methods for general layout and elements such as text, but are equipped to deal with raster images down to the pixel and have special capabilities in doing so, such as brightness/contrast, adding "lighting" to a raster image or photograph.
Select a region for editing Draw lines with simulated brushes of different color, size and pressure Fill a region with a single color, gradient of colors, or a texture Select a color using different color models, e.g. RGB, HSV, or by using a color dropper Edit and convert between various color models. Add typed letters in various font styles Remove imperfections from photo images Composite editing using layers Apply filters for effects including sharpening and blurring Convert between various image file formats Comparison of raster graphics editors Vector graphics editor Texture map Text editor 3D modelling software Media related to Bitmap graphics editors at Wikimedia Commons
Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, licenses and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, related services, its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers; as of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public offering, subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android; the company produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search, the digital services market, mixed reality, cloud computing and software development. Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, envisioned a "devices and services" strategy; this began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999. In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010. Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he dropped out of school to work at Honeywell; the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's Altair 8800 microcomputer, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration.
Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC. Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO; the original name of "Micro-Soft" was suggested by Allen. In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft". Microsoft moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer.
For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, though IBM rebranded it to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft became the leading PC operating systems vendor; the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease. Allen claimed that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough. After leaving Microsoft, Allen lost billions of dollars on ill-conceived or mistimed technology investments.
He invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate. Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in
Reversi is a strategy board game for two players, played on an 8×8 uncheckered board. There are sixty-four identical game pieces called disks, which are light on one side and dark on the other. Players take. During a play, any disks of the opponent's color that are in a straight line and bounded by the disk just placed and another disk of the current player's color are turned over to the current player's color; the object of the game is to have the majority of disks turned to display your color when the last playable empty square is filled. Reversi was most marketed by Mattel under the trademark Othello; the game Reversi was invented in 1883 by either of two Englishmen, Lewis Waterman or John W. Mollett, gained considerable popularity in England at the end of the nineteenth century; the game's first reliable mention is in the 21 August 1886 edition of The Saturday Review. Mention includes an 1895 article in The New York Times: "Reversi is something like Go Bang, is played with 64 pieces." In 1893, the German games publisher Ravensburger started producing the game as one of its first titles.
Two 18th-century continental European books dealing with a game that may or may not be Reversi are mentioned on page fourteen of the Spring 1989 Othello Quarterly, there has been speculation, so far without documentation, that the game has older origins. The modern version of the game — the most used rule-set, the one used in international tournaments — is marketed and recognized as Othello, it was patented in Japan in 1971 by Goro Hasegawa a 38-year-old salesman. There is one difference from the original game: The first four pieces go in the center, but in a standard diagonal pattern, rather than being placed by players. According to Ben Seeley, another difference of Reversi from Othello is that in the first one the game ends as soon as either player cannot make a move, while in the latter the player without a move passes. Hasegawa established the Japan Othello Association on March 1973, held the first national Othello championship on April 4, 1973 in Japan; the Japanese game company Tsukuda Original launched Othello in late April, 1973 in Japan under Hasegawa’s license, which led to an immediate commercial success.
The name was selected by Hasegawa as a reference to the Shakespearean play Othello, the Moor of Venice, referring to the conflict between the Moor Othello and Iago, more controversially, to the unfolding drama between Othello, black, Desdemona, white. The green color of the board is inspired by the image of the general Othello, valiantly leading his battle in a green field, it can be likened to a jealousy competition, since players engulf the pieces of the opponent, thereby turning them to their possession. Othello was first launched in the U. S. in 1975 by Gabriel Industries and it enjoyed commercial success there. Othello game sales have exceeded $600 million and more than 40 million classic games have been sold in over 100 different countries. Hasegawa wrote How to Othello in Japan in 1974, translated into English and published in the U. S. in 1977 as How to Win at Othello. Kabushiki Kaisha Othello, owned by Hasegawa, registered the trademark "OTHELLO" for board games in Japan and Tsukuda Original registered the mark in the rest of the world.
All intellectual property regarding Othello outside Japan is now owned by MegaHouse, a Japanese toy company that acquired PalBox, the successor to Tsukuda Original. Each of the disks' two sides corresponds to one player; the game may for example be played with a chessboard and Scrabble pieces, with one player letters and the other backs. The historical version of Reversi starts with an empty board, the first two moves by each player are in the four central squares of the board; the players place their disks alternately with their color facing up and no captures are made. A player may choose to not play both pieces on the same diagonal, different from the standard Othello opening, it is possible to play variants of Reversi and Othello wherein the second player's second move may or must flip one of the opposite-colored disks. For the specific game of Othello, the rules state that the game begins with four disks placed in a square in the middle of the grid, two facing white side up, two pieces with the dark side up, with same-colored disks on a diagonal with each other.
Convention has initial board position such that the disks with dark side up are to the north-east and south-west, though this is only marginally meaningful to play. If the disks with dark side up are to the north-west and south-east, the board may be rotated by 90° clockwise or counterclockwise; the dark player moves first. Dark must place a piece with the dark side up on the board, in such a position that there exists at least one straight occupied line between the new piece and another dark piece, with one or more contiguous light pieces between them. In the below situation, dark has the following options indicated by translucent pieces: After placing the piece, dark turns over all light pieces lying on a straight line b