The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is Microsoft's core set of application programming interfaces available in the Microsoft Windows operating systems. The name Windows API collectively refers to several different platform implementations that are referred to by their own names. All Windows programs interact with the Windows API. On the Windows NT line of operating systems, a small number use the Native API. Developer support is available in the form of a software development kit, Microsoft Windows SDK, providing documentation and tools needed to build software based on the Windows API and associated Windows interfaces; the Windows API is focused on the programming language C in that its exposed functions and data structures are described in that language in recent versions of its documentation. However, the API may be used by any programming language compiler or assembler able to handle the low-level data structures along with the prescribed calling conventions for calls and callbacks; the internal implementation of the API's function has been developed in several languages, historically.
Despite the fact that C is not an object-oriented programming language, the Windows API and Windows have both been described as object-oriented. There have been many wrapper classes and extensions for object-oriented languages that make this object-oriented structure more explicit. For instance, Windows 8 provides the Windows API and the WinRT API, implemented in C++ and is object-oriented by design; the functions provided by the Windows API can be grouped into eight categories: Base Services Provide access to the basic resources available to a Windows system. Included are things like file systems, processes and error handling; these functions reside in kernel.exe, krnl286.exe or krnl386.exe files on 16-bit Windows, kernel32.dll, KernelBase.dll on 32 and 64 bit Windows. These files reside in the folder "System32", in the "Windows" directory on 64 bit Windows, the "Windows" directory on 16 bit versions of Windows Advanced Services Provide access to functions beyond the kernel. Included are things like the Windows registry, shutdown/restart the system, start/stop/create a Windows service, manage user accounts.
These functions reside in advapires32.dll on 32-bit Windows. Graphics Device Interface Provides functions to output graphics content to monitors and other output devices, it resides in gdi.exe on 16-bit Windows, gdi32.dll on 32-bit Windows in user-mode. Kernel-mode GDI support is provided by win32k.sys which communicates directly with the graphics driver. User Interface Provides the functions to create and manage screen windows and most basic controls, such as buttons and scrollbars, receive mouse and keyboard input, other functions associated with the graphical user interface part of Windows; this functional unit resides in user.exe on 16-bit Windows, user32.dll on 32-bit Windows. Since Windows XP versions, the basic controls reside in comctl32.dll, together with the common controls. Common Dialog Box Library Provides applications the standard dialog boxes to open and save files, choose color and font, etc; the library resides in a file called commdlg.dll on 16-bit Windows, comdlg32.dll on 32-bit Windows.
It is grouped under the User Interface category of the API. Common Control Library Gives applications access to some advanced controls provided by the operating system; these include things like status bars, progress bars and tabs. The library resides in a dynamic-link library file called commctrl.dll on 16-bit Windows, comctl32.dll on 32-bit Windows. It is grouped under the User Interface category of the API. Windows Shell Component of the Windows API allows applications to access functions provided by the operating system shell, to change and enhance it; the component resides in shell.dll on 16-bit Windows, shell32.dll on 32-bit Windows. The Shell Lightweight Utility Functions are in shlwapi.dll. It is grouped under the User Interface category of the API. Network Services Give access to the various networking abilities of the operating system, its subcomponents include NetBIOS, NetDDE, remote procedure call and many more. This component resides in netapi32.dll on 32-bit Windows. The Internet Explorer web browser exposes many APIs that are used by applications, as such could be considered a part of the Windows API.
IE has been included with the operating system since Windows 95 OSR2 and has provided web-related services to applications since Windows 98. It is used to provide: An embeddable web browser control, contained in shdocvw.dll and mshtml.dll. The URL moniker service, held in urlmon.dll, which provides COM objects to applications for resolving URLs. Applications can provide their own URL handlers for others to use. An HTTP client library which takes into account system-wide Proxy settings. A library to assist international text support. DirectX Transforms, a set of image filter components. XML support. Access to the Windows Address Books; the classic windows Multimedia API is placed in winmm.dll and contains functions to play sound files, to send and receive MIDI messages, to access joysticks, to facilitate all other features of the so-called MC
The platform economy is economic and social activity facilitated by platforms. Such platforms are online matchmakers or technology frameworks. By far the most common type are "transaction platforms" known as "digital matchmakers". Examples of transaction platforms include Amazon, Airbnb and Baidu. A second type is the "innovation platform", which provides a common technology framework upon which others can build, such as the many independent developers who work on Microsoft's platform. Forerunners to contemporary digital economic platforms can be found throughout history in the second half of the 20th century, yet it was only in the year 2000 that the "platform" metaphor started to be used to describe digital matchmakers and innovation platforms. After the financial crises of 2008, companies operating with the new "platform business model" have swiftly come to control an increasing share of the world's overall economic activity, sometimes by disrupting traditional business. Examples include the decline of BlackBerry and Nokia due to competition from platform companies, the closing down of Blockbuster due to competition from the Netflix platform, or the many other brick and mortar retailers that have closed in part due to competition from Amazon and other online retailers.
Platform expert David S. Evans wrote that in 2015, three of the top five companies in the world used the platform business model, as did seven of the ten top start-up companies. Traditional businesses need not always be harmed by platforms however. According to a 2016 survey by Accenture "81% of executives say platform-based business models will be core to their growth strategy within three years." In the year 2000 there were only a handful of large firms that could be described as platform companies. As of 2016, there were over 170 platform companies valued at US$1 billion or more; the creation and usage of digital platforms is increasing in the government and NGO sectors. The rise of platforms has been met by a mixed response from commentators. Many have been enthusiastic, arguing that platforms can improve productivity, reduce costs, reduce inefficiencies in existing markets, help create new markets, provide flexibility and accessibility for workers, be helpful for less developed countries.
Arguments against platforms include that they may worsen technological unemployment, that they contribute to the replacement of traditional jobs with precarious forms of employment that have much less labour protection, that they can worsen declining tax revenues, that excessive use of platforms can be psychologically damaging and corrosive to communities. Since the early 2010s, the platform economy has been the subject of many reviews by academic groups and NGOs, by national governments and by transnational organisations like the EU. Early reviews were against the imposition of heavy regulation for the platform economy. Since 2016, in 2017, some jurisdictions began to take a more interventionist approach. The'platform' metaphor has long been used in a variety of ways. In the context of platform economy, 21st-century usage of the word platform sometimes refers to online matchmakers – such as Uber, TaskRabbit etc. Academic work and some business books use the term in a wider sense, to include non-digital matchmakers like a business park or a nightclub, to other entities whose function is not to support transactions.
Platform co-author Alex Moazed explains that “platforms don’t own the means of production, they create the means of connection.” Platforms scholars Professor Carliss Y. Baldwin and Dr C. Jason Woodard have offered a generalised definition of economic platforms where the focus was on the technical side of the platform: "a set of stable components that support variety and evolvability in a system by constraining the linkages among the other components". Woodard and Baldwin have stated that at a high level of abstraction, the architecture of all platforms is the same: a system partitioned into a set of core components with low variety and a complementary set of peripheral components with high variety. Others define it based on the ecosystem perspective where the focus was on the actors around the platform ecosystem. For more discussion of definitions, see the paper Digital Platforms: A Review and Future Directions Also known as the digital platform or online platform economy, the platform economy is economic and social activity facilitated by platforms.
Such activity is wider than just commercial transactions, including for example online collaboration on projects such as Wikipedia. While scholarship on platforms sometimes includes discussion of non digital platforms, the term "platform economy" is used in a sense that encompasses only online platforms. "Platform economy" is one of a number of terms aiming to capture subsets of the overall economy which are now mediated by digital technology. The terms are used with sometimes overlapping meanings. Other scholars and commentators do attempt to draw distinctions and use the various terms to delineate different parts of the wider digital economy; the term "platform economy" can be viewed as narrower in scope than "digital economy", but wider in scope than terms like "on demand economy", "sharing economy" or "gig economy". Several scholars have argued that "platform economy" is the preferable term for discussing several aspects of emergent digital phenomena in the early 21st century; the term Digital economy refers to all or nearly all economic activity r
Married to the Mob is a soundtrack album for the 1988 film Married to the Mob. It features early songs by Sinéad O'Connor and Chris Isaak as well as a Brian Eno cover of William Bell's soul classic "You Don't Miss Your Water". "Jump in the River" - Sinéad O'Connor - 4:03 "Bizarre Love Triangle" - New Order - 3:56 "Suspicion of Love" - Chris Isaak - 3:59 "Liar, Liar" - Debbie Harry - 3:01 "Time Bums" - Ziggy Marley and the Melody Makers - 4:37 "Devil Does Your Dog Bite?" - Tom Tom Club - 3:40 "Goodbye Horses" - Q. Lazzarus - 3:08 "Queen of Voudou" - Voodooist Corporation - 3:39 "Too Far Gone" - The Feelies - 3:32 "You Don't Miss Your Water" - Brian Eno - 3:47
Leonid Milov was a prominent Soviet and Russian historian. He worked at the Faculty of History in Lomonosov Moscow State University, his primary scientific interests were history of serfdom and genesis of capitalism in the Russian Empire, but he specialized in Russian medieval law and Byzantine law. Milov was a pioneer of cliometrics in Russia along with others. Author of more than 150 works, in 1998 he published his opus magnum - Russian Plowman and Special Aspects of Russian Historical Process. Having conducted a thorough research of Russian agriculture and peasant life in the 16th and 17th centuries he argued that Russian serfdom as economical institute was a "compensational mechanism for survival", his works on Russian economic history are considered important today. In last years of his life, Milov was in charge of creating a new textbook on Russian history based on post-Soviet science; the result was a book in three volumes written by a collective of historians. It was published in 2006. Anton Gorsky in the Memory of Leonid Milov A detailed biography on site of Faculty of History in Lomonosov Moscow State University Full bibliography from 1957 to 2009
Franjo Ksaver Tomašić was a Croatian baron and a Lieutenant Field Marshal of the Austrian Empire's Army who served as a First Governor of Kingdom of Dalmatia between 1815 and 1831. Baron Franjo Ksaver Tomašić was born in a port-town of Rijeka on October 2, 1761 in a noble Croatian family, connected to the famous Mogorović family. At the age of 15, he entered the Vienna Army Academy of Engineering from which he graduated as one of the most capable cadets. At the age of 20, Tomašić became a cadet at the Men's Choir, he soon became an officer and expressed his diligence in the construction of the Josefov Fortress in present-day Czech Republic. Tomašić demonstrated his courage for the first time in a war defending Le Quesnoy Fortress in 1793, in which he participated as a captain of the Engineering Corps. During the conflict, Tomašić was captured by French, he survived thanks to the end of Reign of Terror and help by the Fortress commander, Colonel Beck who praised him before the emperor Francis II for his courage and merit.
In 1797, he was promoted to the rank of Major in the Engineering Corps and was, as a sign of special Emperors' confidence, appointed associate of the Austrian ambassador to the court of Russian Emperor Paul I and has thus moved to the Petrograd. However, he did not stay long on the position because he was given the command to join general Alexander Suvorovs' units that Russia sent to Italy to assist France during the French Revolutionary Wars. Tomašić was assigned to the corps of general Franz Seraph of Orsini-Rosenberg, had participated in all the events of the conflict. In the 1800s, he demonstrated his heroism at a Fayle Hill. Namely, on April 11, in an attack on the Italian fortress Bochetto, Tomašić, in order to encourage his troops, stood at their forehead and had skillfully and bravely led them to the attack. However, he was mortally wounded through his chest, his wound left him consequences of which he suffered for the rest of his life. On April 30, 1802, he was awarded the Military Order of Maria Theresa on the 68th promotion, was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, afterwards Colonel.
On July 29, 1808, he was given a title of the baron, transferred to his younger brother Nikola, at the time army major, colonel. At the time of the Napoleonic Wars in 1809, at the Siege of Palmanus', Tomašić was assigned to the main Austrian army headquarters and promoted to the rank of Major General on August 22. After French occupied parts of the Austrian Empire, from which they created Kingdom of Illyria, he was named commander of Leopoldstadt, become a member of a commission, led by general baron Knežević, that set new borders between France and Austria on the Croatian territory. After that, Tomašić became the commander of Zagreb, at the time an important border point between Austrian and French territories. During the 1813-14 War of the Sixth Coalition, Tomašić was given a tough task to reclaim Dalmatia, he had few people and weak resources available. In October 1813, he started his campaign with 2,900 soldiers. On the night of October 29 to October 30, he occupied the lower part of the town of Knin with one of the battalions composed of men from Lika under the command of colonel Popović, called for French soldiers that barracked themselves in the Knin Fortress to surrender.
The Fortress was surrendered on October 31, all soldiers in French service were allowed to leave freely. On November 3, he came with his units before the city of Zadar, the capital of Dalmatia, defended by French general César Antoine Roize. After weeks of fighting, general Roize proclaimed capitulation on December 6. For the occasion of his entrance to the town on 11 November 1813, Girolamo Alesani composed a serentata to the libretto by Giovanni Kreglianovich Albinoni; such celebration was an exceptional event because serenatas of this kind were composed and performed only for the anniversaries of the emperor and empress. On December 15, Tomašić sent his adjutant, general Bogdan Milutinović with two battalions and one additional troop to reclaim Kotor and Fort Norin; the campaign was successful. He expelled all the French troops led by three generals from Dalmatia and sent them as prisoners of war to Italy. On December 26, 1813, Tomašić was awarded Order of Leopold, promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Field Marshal, appointed provisional governor of Dalmatia.
In 1816, Emperor named him the second owner of the 22nd Infantry Regiment of Prince Leopold Sicilian. Baron Tomašić died in Zadar on August 12, 1831, before he could receive his last recognition from the Emperor, who awarded him the Order of the Iron Crown shortly before his death
The Copa Amsterdam known as the Gestion Copa Amsterdam, is an annual youth football tournament and hosted by AFC Ajax for under-19 youth teams which takes place at the Olympic Stadium in Amsterdam. The tournament has been contested by some of the strongest under-19 teams in football, with FC Barcelona and Cruzeiro amongst the participating clubs; the tournament is named after its main sponsor, the insurance company AEGON and was named after the publishing company Gestion, is broadcast online in over 59 countries via Eredivisie Live and Fox Sports. Established in 2005 as part of the annual Amsterdam Sport Weekend, a citywide sponsored initiative to promote'sports and recreation' within the city of Amsterdam, the Copa Amsterdam is an international football youth tournament held in the historic Olympic Stadium since 2010, it was held at Sportpark Sloten, home of Blauw-Wit Amsterdam from its inception in 2005 up until 2009. Each summer the city of Amsterdam and AFC Ajax invites U-19 teams from various top clubs from around the World to play in the tournament.
Seven teams are invited and participate in the competition every year with the ninth edition of the tournament having occurred in 2013. Over the years, clubs such as Barcelona, Olympique de Marseille, Real Madrid have had their senior youth teams participate in the tournament. While hosts Ajax have won the tournament twice, Cruzeiro from Brazil have won it the most, holding a total of three titles to their name. Other teams who have brought home the cup include AZ, Chelsea and Ajax Cape Town; the prizes and awards were handed out by Johan Cruijff in 2009 and 2011, in 2010 it was done by Daley Blind and by Sjaak Swart two years later. Since the 2011 edition, the tournament has been broadcast live on Eredivisie Live on Dutch national television and over the internet with commentary by Leo Driessen, Mark van Rijswijk and Ron de Rijk; the tournament is attended by prominent local football legends such as Frits Barend, Johan Cruijff and Danny Blind, is frequented by many talent scouts. In accordance with the theme of the annual Amsterdam Sport Weekend however, an amateur team is put together consisting of local youth players, coached by former Ajax players such as Ronald de Boer did with Men United in the 9th Edition of the tournament.
In order to promote sport and recreation in the community, to give young players an opportunity to present themselves at a high competitive level, coming from Amsterdam and the Region. Other teams that were assembled include the AT5 United, an all-star team composed of local Amsterdam talent, as well as FC NH, an assembled selection of youth talent from the Dutch province of Noord Holland as a whole, not limited to Amsterdam; the Board of Advisors for the tournament consists of seven members, namely John Jaakke, Theo van Duivenbode, Jaap de Groot, René Zegerius, Oege Boonstra, Ronald de Boer and Maarten Oldenhof. For the first time in 12 years the tournament was not held in 2017 due to scheduling issues, with the organizational body making an official statement, that the tournament would presume the following year; the following year the tournament was withheld once more. On April 25th, 2019 Ajax announced that the tournament would presume, will be held on the 29th and 30th of June at the Olympic Stadium.
The invited teams include Sagan Tosu and Sparta Rotterdam. The players below are part of the Copa Amsterdam Hall of Fame. Amsterdam Tournament Future Cup Copa Amsterdam Official website Biggest social media event at Olympic Stadium