Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art and taste and with the creation or appreciation of beauty. In its more technical epistemological perspective, it is defined as the study of subjective and sensori-emotional values, or sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. Aesthetics studies how artists imagine and perform works of art, it studies how they feel about art—why they like some works and not others, how art can affect their moods and attitude toward life. The phrase was coined in English in the 18th century. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art and nature". In modern English, the term aesthetic can refer to a set of principles underlying the works of a particular art movement or theory: one speaks, for example, of the Cubist aesthetic; the word aesthetic is derived from the Greek αἰσθητικός, which in turn was derived from αἰσθάνομαι (aisthanomai, meaning "I perceive, sense" and related to αἴσθησις. Aesthetics in this central sense has been said to start with the series of articles on “The Pleasures of the Imagination” which the journalist Joseph Addison wrote in the early issues of the magazine The Spectator in 1712.
The term "aesthetics" was appropriated and coined with new meaning by the German philosopher Alexander Baumgarten in his dissertation Meditationes philosophicae de nonnullis ad poema pertinentibus in 1735. Aesthetics, a not tidy intellectual discipline, is a heterogeneous collection of problems that concern the arts but relate to nature. Even though his definition in the fragment Aesthetica is more referred to as the first definition of modern aesthetics. Aesthetics is for the artist; some separate aesthetics and philosophy of art, claiming that the former is the study of beauty while the latter is the study of works of art. However, most Aesthetics encompasses both questions around beauty as well as questions about art, it examines topics such as aesthetic objects, aesthetic experience, aesthetic judgments. For some, aesthetics is considered a synonym for the philosophy of art since Hegel, while others insist that there is a significant distinction between these related fields. In practice, aesthetic judgement refers to the sensory contemplation or appreciation of an object, while artistic judgement refers to the recognition, appreciation or criticism of art or an art work.
Philosophical aesthetics has not only to speak about art and to produce judgments about art works, but has to give a definition of what art is. Art is an autonomous entity for philosophy, because art deals with the senses and art is as such free of any moral or political purpose. Hence, there are two different conceptions of art in aesthetics: art as knowledge or art as action, but aesthetics is neither epistemology nor ethics. Aestheticians compare historical developments with theoretical approaches to the arts of many periods, they study the varieties of art in relation to their physical and culture environments. Aestheticians use psychology to understand how people see, imagine, think and act in relation to the materials and problems of art. Aesthetic psychology studies the creative process and the aesthetic experience. Aesthetics examines our affective domain response to an object or phenomenon Judgments of aesthetic value rely on our ability to discriminate at a sensory level. However, aesthetic judgments go beyond sensory discrimination.
For David Hume, delicacy of taste is not "the ability to detect all the ingredients in a composition", but our sensitivity "to pains as well as pleasures, which escape the rest of mankind." Thus, the sensory discrimination is linked to capacity for pleasure. For Immanuel Kant, "enjoyment" is the result when pleasure arises from sensation, but judging something to be "beautiful" has a third requirement: sensation must give rise to pleasure by engaging our capacities of reflective contemplation. Judgments of beauty are sensory and intellectual all at once. Kant observed of a man "If he says that canary wine is agreeable he is quite content if someone else corrects his terms and reminds him to say instead: It is agreeable to me," because "Everyone has his own taste"; the case of "beauty" is different from mere "agreeableness" because, "If he proclaims something to be beautiful he requires the same liking from others. Roger Scruton has argued similarly. Viewer interpretations of beauty may on occasion be observed to possess two concepts of value: aesthetics and taste.
Aesthetics is the philosophical notion of beauty. Taste is a result of an education process and awareness of elite cultural values learned through exposure to mass culture. Bourdieu examined how the elite in society define the aesthetic values like taste and how varying levels of exposure to these values can result in variations by class, cultural background, education. According to Kant, beauty is universal. In the opinion of Władysław Tatarkiewicz, there are
Alt+Tab ↹ is the common name for a keyboard shortcut, in Microsoft Windows since Windows 3.0. This shortcut switches between application-level windows without using the mouse; the most common use of Alt+Tab ↹ is to alternate between a full-size window and the desktop, but it can be used to switch to any running program that has an application-level window. Thus, it can be used alternate between the two most recent tasks; the window environment maintains a Z-order list of top-level windows with the most used tasks at the front and the desktop at the bottom, so the most used tasks can be switched to the most quickly. The Alt+Tab ↹ keyboard combination has been incorporated in other operating systems and desktop environments such as macOS and iOS, KDE, GNOME; the use of the modifier key Alt in using Alt+Tab ↹ differs from typical modifier key use in the following ways: There is a difference in behavior when the user releases Alt and presses Alt+Tab ↹ again vs. holding Alt continuously while pressing Tab ↹ repeatedly.
Releasing Alt has an immediate effect: it closes the task switcher and switches to the selected task. There are many subtleties to the behavior of Alt+Tab ↹, they have remained unchanged over the years; the behavior follows these rules: If there is more than one top-level window, the task list appears as soon as Tab ↹ is pressed for the first time while Alt is being held down. The task list remains open. Tab ↹ moves the cursor forward in the list. Tab ↹ or ⇧ Shift + Tab ↹ will autorepeat. With the initial press of Tab ↹ or ⇧ Shift+Tab ↹, the selection cursor starts on the window following or preceding the active one. If there are no topmost windows above the active window, an initial ⇧ Shift+Tab ↹ wraps the cursor around to the end of the list. Using the mouse to click on a task icon in the task window switches to that task. Pressing Esc or clicking the mouse outside of the task window while Alt is still down cancels the switch; the windows are listed by their Z-order. Any windows that are "always on top" are placed at the front of the Z-order sequence, followed by the current window and the windows underneath it.
The desktop is given a window. This no longer works on Windows 10. Switching to a window moves it to the front of the Z-order, with the exception that "always on top" windows remain topmost and at the front of the list; when the Alt+Tab ↹ task switcher window is not active, Alt+Esc places the active window at the bottom of the Z-order. In Windows 8 the behavior has changed: the window will be moved one level down the Z-order instead of going to the end. Alt+⇧ Shift+Esc is equivalent to one Alt+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹ except that minimized windows are selected without being restored. Minimizing a window sends it to the back of the Z-order in the same way as Alt+Esc; the rules have the following consequences: In the absence of "always on top" windows such as Task Manager, pressing Alt, pressing Tab ↹, releasing Tab ↹, releasing Alt will always alternate between the two most recent tasks. Alt+⇧ Shift+Tab ↹ can restore the most minimized window. Pressing Alt+Tab ↹-Tab ↹ performs the same quick switch back and forth, but between three programs.
Any number of Tab ↹ presses can be used to achieve this with any number of windows. When the task list is activated by pressing Alt+Tab ↹, the list is populated in this order: Any'always-on-top' top-level windows according to Z-order, front-to-back. All ordinary top-level windows according to Z-order, front-to-back; the task list does not change order while it is open, but the order of tasks can change between invocations of the task list. Windows Vista changed the default behavior with its Flip interface; the six most used items in the Flip order work as described remaining windows are ordered alphabetically by application path. Windows 10 removed the desktop from the task list. Windows may be divided into two categories,'always-on-top' and ordinary; when a task is switched to, it is moved to the head of its category. For the following example, suppose there are no'always-on-top' windows. Let A be the current window title. Hold down Alt and press and release Tab once, leaving Alt pressed; the window list comes up.
A is guaranteed to be first in the list. Suppose the complete list is A W Z E U B C; the selection cursor will be on W. Suppose we want to switch to window U. Without releasing Alt, press Tab three more times and release Alt. Hold down Alt and press-release Tab once leaving Alt down; the window list will now show U A W Z E B C. Tab over to E and release Alt, selecting window E. Press and hold down Alt and press-release Tab once leaving Alt down; the window list will now show E U A W Z B C. Note that the windows switched to with Alt+Tab ↹ are in order of how they were switched to. Now Tab over to A and release Alt. Press and hold down Alt and press-release Tab leaving Alt down; the window list will show A E U W Z B C. The effect of this most-recently used behavior is that to return to the most recent task, Tab is pressed once, for the second most recent task Tab is pressed twice, so on for all tasks; the priority of a window in terms of Alt+Tab ↹ accessibility is
Dots per inch
Dots per inch is a measure of spatial printing, video or image scanner dot density, in particular the number of individual dots that can be placed in a line within the span of 1 inch. The more newly introduced dots per centimeter refers to the number of individual dots that can be placed within a line of 1 centimeter. Monitors do have pixels. Many resources, including the Android developer guide, use the terms DPI and PPI interchangeably. DPI is used to describe the resolution number of dots per inch in a digital print and the printing resolution of a hard copy print dot gain, the increase in the size of the halftone dots during printing; this is caused by the spreading of ink on the surface of the media. Up to a point, printers with higher DPI produce more detailed output. A printer does not have a single DPI measurement; the range of DPI supported by a printer is most dependent on the print head technology. A dot matrix printer, for example, applies ink via tiny rods striking an ink ribbon, has a low resolution in the range of 60 to 90 DPI.
An inkjet printer sprays ink through tiny nozzles, is capable of 300–720 DPI. A laser printer applies toner through a controlled electrostatic charge, may be in the range of 600 to 2,400 DPI; the DPI measurement of a printer needs to be higher than the pixels per inch measurement of a video display in order to produce similar-quality output. This is due to the limited range of colors for each dot available on a printer. At each dot position, the simplest type of color printer can either print no dot, or print a dot consisting of a fixed volume of ink in each of four color channels or 24 = 16 colors on laser and most inkjet printers, of which only 14 or 15 may be discernible depending on the strength of the black component, the strategy used for overlaying and combining it with the other colors, whether it is in "color" mode. Higher-end inkjet printers can offer 5, 6 or 7 ink colors giving 32, 64 or 128 possible tones per dot location. Contrast this to a standard sRGB monitor where each pixel produces 256 intensities of light in each of three channels.
While some color printers can produce variable drop volumes at each dot position, may use additional ink-color channels, the number of colors is still less than on a monitor. Most printers must therefore produce additional colors through a halftone or dithering process, rely on their base resolution being high enough to "fool" the human observer's eye into perceiving a patch of a single smooth color; the exception to this rule is dye-sublimation printers, which can apply a much more variable amount of dye—close to or exceeding the number of the 256 levels per channel available on a typical monitor—to each "pixel" on the page without dithering, but with other limitations: lower spatial resolution, which can make text and lines look somewhat rough lower output speed a wasteful dye-film roll cartridge system occasional color registration errors, which necessitate recalibrating the printer to account for slippage and drift in the paper feed system. These disadvantages mean that, despite their marked superiority in producing good photographic and non-linear diagrammatic output, dye-sublimation printers remain niche products, devices using higher resolution, lower color depth, dither patterns remain the norm.
This dithered printing process could require a region of four to six dots in order to faithfully reproduce the color in a single pixel. An image, 100 pixels wide may need to be 400 to 600 dots in width in the printed output. Fittingly, 600 dpi is now the typical output resolution of entry-level laser printers and some utility inkjet printers, with 1200/1440 and 2400/2880 being common "high" resolutions; this contrasts with the 300/360 dpi of early models, the approximate 200 dpi of dot-matrix printers and fax machines, which gave faxed and computer-printed documents—especially those that made heavy use of graphics or colored block text—a characteristic "digitized" appearance, because of their coarse, obvious dither patterns, inaccurate colors, loss of clarity in photographs, jagged edges on some text and line art. In printing, DPI refers to the output resolution of a printer or imagesetter, PPI refers to the input resolution of a photograph or image. DPI refers to the physical dot density of an image when it is reproduced as a real physical entity, for example printed onto paper.
A digitally stored image has no inherent physical dimensions, measured in centimeters. Some digital file formats record a DPI value, or more a PPI value, to be used when printing the image; this number lets the printer or software know the intended size of the image, or in the case of scanned images, the size of the original scanned object. For e
Comics is a medium used to express ideas through images combined with text or other visual information. Comics takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Textual devices such as speech balloons and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, sound effects, or other information; the size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics. Common forms include comic strips and gag cartoons, comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comic albums, tankōbon have become common, while online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century with the advent of the internet; the history of comics has followed different paths in different cultures. Scholars have posited a pre-history as far back as the Lascaux cave paintings in France. By the mid-20th century, comics flourished in the United States, western Europe, Japan; the history of European comics is traced to Rodolphe Töpffer's cartoon strips of the 1830s, but the medium became popular in the 1930s following the success of strips and books such as The Adventures of Tintin.
American comics emerged as a mass medium in the early 20th century with the advent of newspaper comic strips. Histories of Japanese comics and cartooning propose origins as early as the 12th century. Modern comic strips emerged in Japan in the early 20th century, the output of comics magazines and books expanded in the post-World War II era with the popularity of cartoonists such as Osamu Tezuka. Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and academics; the term comics is used as a singular noun when it refers to the medium, but becomes plural when referring to particular instances, such as individual strips or comic books. Though the term derives from the humorous work that predominated in early American newspaper comic strips, it has become standard for non-humorous works too. In English, it is common to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics.
There is no consensus amongst historians on a definition of comics. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has only made definition more difficult. Examples of early comics The European and Japanese comics traditions have followed different paths. Europeans have seen their tradition as beginning with the Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer from as early as 1827 and Americans have seen the origin of theirs in Richard F. Outcault's 1890s newspaper strip The Yellow Kid, though many Americans have come to recognize Töpffer's precedence. Japan had a long prehistory of satirical comics leading up to the World War II era; the ukiyo-e artist Hokusai popularized the Japanese term for comics and cartooning, manga, in the early 19th century. In 1930s, Mr. Chester, an early founder of "the Golden Age of Comics", which make the comics flourished after World War II. In the post-war era modern Japanese comics began to flourish when Osamu Tezuka produced a prolific body of work.
Towards the close of the 20th century, these three traditions converged in a trend towards book-length comics: the comic album in Europe, the tankōbon in Japan, the graphic novel in the English-speaking countries. Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, William Hogarth's 18th-century sequential engravings, amongst others. Illustrated humour periodicals were popular in 19th-century Britain, the earliest of, the short-lived The Glasgow Looking Glass in 1825; the most popular was Punch. On occasion the cartoons in these magazines appeared in sequences. American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck and Life; the success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and the New York American Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips.
Early Sunday strips were full-page and in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. In Britain, the Amalgamated Press established a popular style of a sequence of images with text beneath them, including Illustrated Chips and Comic Cuts. Humour strips predominated at first, in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama became popular. Thin periodicals called
The Windows logo key is a keyboard key, introduced on the Microsoft Natural keyboard in 1994. This key became a standard key on PC keyboards. In Windows tapping the key brings up the start menu. Ctrl + Esc performs the same function, in case; the addition of two Windows keys and a menu key marked the change from the 101/102-key to 104/105-key layout for PC keyboards. Compared to the former layout, a Windows key was placed between the left Ctrl and the left Alt and another Windows key and the menu key were placed between the right Alt and the right Ctrl key. In laptop and other compact keyboards it is common to have just one Windows key. On Microsoft's Entertainment Desktop sets, the Windows key is in the middle of the keyboard, below all other keys. On Windows 8 tablet computers, hardware certification requirements mandated that the Windows key be centered on the bezel below the screen, except on a convertible laptop, where the button is allowed to be off-center in a tablet configuration; this requirement was relaxed in Windows 8.1, allowing the Windows key to be placed on any bezel or edge of the unit, though a centered location along the bottom bezel is still preferred.
Microsoft regulates the appearance of the Windows key logo picture with a specially crafted license for keyboard manufacturers. With the introduction of a new Microsoft Windows logo, first used with Windows XP, the agreement was updated to require that the new design be adopted for all keyboards manufactured after 1 September 2003. However, with the release of Windows Vista, Microsoft published guidelines for a new Windows Logo key that incorporates the Windows logo recessed in a chamfered lowered circle with a contrast ratio of at least 3:1 with respect to background that the key is applied to. In Common Building Block Keyboard Specification, all CBB compliant keyboards were to comply with the Windows Vista Hardware Start Button specification beginning in 1 June 2007. On Windows 9x and Windows NT families of Windows operating system, tapping the Windows key by itself traditionally revealed Windows Taskbar and opened the Start menu. In Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8, this key doesn't show the taskbar.
However, this feature was added back into Windows 10. Pressing the key in combination with other keys allows invoking many common functions through the keyboard. Holding down Ctrl+Esc will not substitute for the Windows key in these combinations. Which Windows key combinations are available and active in a given Windows session depends on many factors, such as accessibility options, the type of the session, the Windows version, the presence of specific software such as IntelliType and Group Policy if applicable. Below is a list of notable shortcuts. Unless otherwise noted, they are valid in the next version of Windows; the following shortcuts are valid in Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0. ⊞ Win opens the Start Menu ⊞ Win+D shows the desktop, or restores hidden windows when pressed a second time. ⊞ Win+E opens Windows Explorer with folder pane on left side of window. ⊞ Win + F opens Find folders. ⊞ Win+M minimizes all windows. ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+M restores windows that were minimized with Winkey+M. ⊞ Win + R opens the "Run File" Window.
⊞ Win+U runs Utility Manager. ⊞ Win+Pause or ⊞ Win+Break opens properties of My Computer. ⊞ Win+F1 opens Windows Help. ⊞ Win+Control+F opens Find computers. ⊞ Win+Tab ↹ cycles through taskbar buttons. This key combination is reassigned in Windows Vista. Windows 2000 adds the following: ⊞ Win+L locks the desktop. Windows XP adds the following: ⊞ Win+B selects the first icon in the Notification Area. ⊞ Win+Ctrl+F opens Search for Computers. Requires Active Directory Domain Services. ⊞ Win + L shows the user selection screen. Windows XP Media Center Edition adds the following: ⊞ Win+Alt+↵ Enter starts Windows Media Center. Windows Vista adds the following shortcuts: ⊞ Win+Space bar brings the Windows Sidebar to the front. ⊞ Win+G selects next Windows Sidebar gadget item, bringing all gadgets to the foreground in process. Gadgets were discontinued in Windows 8. ⊞ Win+X invokes Windows Mobility Center. Works only if portable computer features are installed; this key combination is reassigned in Windows 8. ⊞ Win+Tab ↹ switches active app using Aero Flip 3D.
Requires desktop composition, a feature of Windows Aero. Aero Flip 3D is discontinued in Windows 8 and this key is reassigned. ⊞ Win+Ctrl+Tab ↹ is same as above, but Aero Flip 3D remains when this key combination is released. Arrow keys or mouse may be used to navigate between windows. ⊞ Win+1 through ⊞ Win+9, ⊞ Win+0 starts the corresponding Quick Launch Bar program. ⊞ Win+0 runs the tenth item. Quick Launch is discontinued in Windows 7, but continued from Windows 8 onward. Windows 7 used the following shortcuts: ⊞ Win+Space bar activates Aero Peek. Reassigned in Windows 8. ⊞ Win + P toggles between the devices. The default is computer monitor only. Other options are video projector only, both showing the same image and both showing a portion of a larger desktop. ⊞ Win+↑ maximizes the active window. ⊞ Win + ↓ restores the default window state of the active window, if maximized. Otherwise, minimizes the active window. ⊞ Win + → to align the window to the corresponding side of the screen, tiled vertically.
⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+← or → to move the window to the next or previous monitor, if multi
Desktop Window Manager
Desktop Window Manager is the window manager in Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 10 that enables the use of hardware acceleration to render the graphical user interface of Windows. It was created to enable portions of the new "Windows Aero" user experience, which allowed for effects such as transparency, 3D window switching and more, it is included with Windows Server 2008, but requires the "Desktop Experience" feature and compatible graphics drivers to be installed. The Desktop Window Manager is a compositing window manager; this means. By comparison, the stacking window manager in Windows XP and earlier comprises a single display buffer to which all programs write. DWM works in different ways depending on the operating system and on the version of the graphics drivers it uses. Under Windows 7 and with WDDM 1.1 drivers, DWM only writes the program's buffer to the video RAM if it is a graphics device interface program. This is because Windows 7 supports hardware acceleration for GDI and in doing so does not need to keep a copy of the buffer in system RAM so that the CPU can write to it.
Because the compositor has access to the graphics of all applications, it allows visual effects that string together visuals from multiple applications, such as transparency. DWM uses DirectX 9 to perform the function of compositing and rendering in the GPU, freeing the CPU of the task of managing the rendering from the off-screen buffers to the display. However, it does not affect applications painting to the off-screen buffers – depending on the technologies used for that, this might still be CPU-bound. DWM-agnostic rendering techniques like GDI are redirected to the buffers by rendering the user interface as bitmaps. DWM-aware rendering technologies like WPF directly make the internal data structures available in a DWM-compatible format; the window contents in the buffers are converted to DirectX textures. The desktop itself is a full-screen Direct3D surface, with windows being represented as a mesh consisting of two adjacent triangles, which are transformed to represent a 2D rectangle; the texture, representing the UI chrome, is mapped onto these rectangles.
Window transitions are implemented as transformations of the meshes. With Windows Vista, the transitions are limited to the set of built-in shaders that implement the transformations. Greg Schechter, a developer at Microsoft has suggested that this might be opened up for developers and users to plug in their own effects in a future release. DWM only maps the primary desktop object as a 3D surface; because all applications render to an off-screen buffer, they can be read off the buffer embedded in other applications as well. Since the off-screen buffer is updated by the application, the embedded rendering will be a dynamic representation of the application window and not a static rendering; this is how the live thumbnail previews and Windows Flip work in Windows Vista and Windows 7. DWM exposes a public API; the size of the thumbnail is not fixed. Windows Flip 3D does not use the public thumbnail APIs as they do not allow for directly accessing the Direct3D textures. Instead, Flip 3D is implemented directly in the DWM engine.
The Desktop Window Manager uses Media Integration Layer, the unmanaged compositor which it shares with Windows Presentation Foundation, to represent the windows as composition nodes in a composition tree. The composition tree represents the desktop and all the windows hosted in it, which are rendered by MIL from the back of the scene to the front. Since all the windows contribute to the final image, the color of a resultant pixel can be decided by more than one window; this is used to implement effects such as per-pixel transparency. DWM allows custom shaders to be invoked to control how pixels from multiple applications are used to create the displayed pixel; the DWM includes built-in Pixel Shader 2.0 programs which compute the color of a pixel in a window by averaging the color of the pixel as determined by the window behind it and its neighboring pixels. These shaders are used by DWM to achieve the blur effect in the window borders of windows managed by DWM, optionally for the areas where it is requested by the application.
Since MIL provides a retained mode graphics system by caching the composition trees, the job of repainting and refreshing the screen when windows are moved is handled by DWM and MIL, freeing the application of the responsibility. The background data is in the composition tree and the off-screen buffers and is directly used to render the background. In pre-Vista Windows OSs, background applications had to be requested to re-render themselves by sending them the WM_PAINT message. DWM uses double-buffered graphics to prevent tearing when moving windows; the compositing engine uses optimizations such as culling to improve performance, as well as not redrawing areas that have not changed. Because the compositor is multi-monitor aware, DWM natively supports this too. During full-screen applications, such as games, DWM does not perform window compositing and therefore performance will not appreciably decrease. On Wind
A video card is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display device. These are advertised as discrete or dedicated graphics cards, emphasizing the distinction between these and integrated graphics. At the core of both is the graphics processing unit, the main part that does the actual computations, but should not be confused as the video card as a whole, although "GPU" is used to refer to video cards. Most video cards are not limited to simple display output, their integrated graphics processor can perform additional processing, removing this task from the central processor of the computer. For example, Nvidia and AMD produced cards render the graphics pipeline OpenGL and DirectX on the hardware level. In the 2010s, there has been a tendency to use the computing capabilities of the graphics processor to solve non-graphic tasks; the graphics card is made in the form of a printed circuit board and inserted into an expansion slot, universal or specialized. Some have been made using dedicated enclosures, which are connected to the computer via a docking station or a cable.
Standards such as MDA, CGA, HGC, Tandy, PGC, EGA, VGA, MCGA, 8514 or XGA were introduced from 1982 to 1990 and supported by a variety of hardware manufacturers. 3dfx Interactive was one of the first companies to develop a GPU with 3D acceleration and the first to develop a graphical chipset dedicated to 3D, but without 2D support. Now the majority of modern video cards are built with either AMD-sourced or Nvidia-sourced graphics chips; until 2000, 3dfx Interactive was an important, groundbreaking, manufacturer. Most video cards offer various functions such as accelerated rendering of 3D scenes and 2D graphics, MPEG-2/MPEG-4 decoding, TV output, or the ability to connect multiple monitors. Video cards have sound card capabilities to output sound – along with the video for connected TVs or monitors with integrated speakers. Within the industry, video cards are sometimes called graphics add-in-boards, abbreviated as AIBs, with the word "graphics" omitted; as an alternative to the use of a video card, video hardware can be integrated into the motherboard, CPU, or a system-on-chip.
Both approaches can be called integrated graphics. Motherboard-based implementations are sometimes called "on-board video". All desktop computer motherboards with integrated graphics allow the disabling of the integrated graphics chip in BIOS, have a PCI, or PCI Express slot for adding a higher-performance graphics card in place of the integrated graphics; the ability to disable the integrated graphics sometimes allows the continued use of a motherboard on which the on-board video has failed. Sometimes both the integrated graphics and a dedicated graphics card can be used to feed separate displays; the main advantages of integrated graphics include cost, compactness and low energy consumption. The performance disadvantage of integrated graphics arises because the graphics processor shares system resources with the CPU. A dedicated graphics card has its own random access memory, its own cooling system, dedicated power regulators, with all components designed for processing video images. Upgrading to a dedicated graphics card offloads work from the CPU and system RAM, so not only will graphics processing be faster, but the computer's overall performance may improve.
Both AMD and Intel have introduced CPUs and motherboard chipsets which support the integration of a GPU into the same die as the CPU. AMD markets CPUs with integrated graphics under the trademark Accelerated Processing Unit, while Intel markets similar technology under the "Intel HD Graphics and Iris" brands. With the 8th Generation Processors, Intel announced the Intel UHD series of Integrated Graphics for better support of 4K Displays. Although they are still not equivalent to the performance of discrete solutions, Intel's HD Graphics platform provides performance approaching discrete mid-range graphics, AMD APU technology has been adopted by both the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One video game consoles; as the processing power of video cards has increased, so has their demand for electrical power. Current high-performance video cards tend to consume a great deal of power. For example, the thermal design power for the GeForce GTX TITAN is 250 watts; when tested while gaming, the GeForce GTX 1080 Ti Founder's Edition averaged 227 watts of power consumption.
While CPU and power supply makers have moved toward higher efficiency, power demands of GPUs have continued to rise, so video cards may have the largest power consumption in a computer. Although power supplies are increasing their power too, the bottleneck is due to the PCI-Express connection, limited to supplying 75 watts. Modern video cards with a power consumption of over 75 watts include a combination of six-pin or eight-pin sockets that connect directly to the power supply. Providing adequate cooling becomes a challenge in such computers. Computers with multiple video cards may need power supplies in the 1000–1500 W range. Heat extraction becomes a major design consideration for computers with two or more high-end video cards. Video cards for desktop computers come in one of two size profiles, which can allow a graphics card to be added to small-sized PCs; some video cards are not of usual size, are thus categorized as being low profile. Video card profiles are based on height only, with low-profile cards taking up less than the height of a