Windows 8 is a personal computer operating system, produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. The operating system was released to manufacturing on August 1, 2012, with general availability on October 26, 2012. Windows 8 introduced major changes to the operating system's platform and user interface to improve its user experience on tablets, where Windows was now competing with mobile operating systems, including Android and iOS. In particular, these changes included a touch-optimized Windows shell based on Microsoft's "Metro" design language, the Start screen, a new platform for developing "apps" with an emphasis on touchscreen input, integration with online services, Windows Store, an online store for downloading and purchasing new software. Windows 8 added support for USB 3.0, Advanced Format hard drives, near field communications, cloud computing. Additional security features were introduced, such as built-in antivirus software, integration with Microsoft SmartScreen phishing filtering service and support for UEFI Secure Boot on supported devices with UEFI firmware, to prevent malware from infecting the boot process.
Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception. Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was criticized for being confusing and difficult to learn when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen. Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses were sold through January 2013, a number that included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs. On October 17, 2013, Microsoft released Windows 8.1. It addressed some aspects of Windows 8 that were criticized by reviewers and early adopters and incorporated additional improvements to various aspects of the operating system. Windows 8 was succeeded by Windows 10 in July 2015. Microsoft stopped providing support and updates for Windows 8 RTM on January 12, 2016, per Microsoft lifecycle policies regarding service packs, Windows 8.1 must be installed to maintain support and receive further updates.
Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped in 2009. At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARM system-on-chips alongside the existing x86 processors produced by vendors AMD and Intel. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise." Details began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store. Three milestone releases of Windows 8 leaked to the general public. Milestone 1, Build 7850, was leaked on April 12, 2011, it was the first build where the text of a window was written centered instead of aligned to the left. It was probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, its wallpaper had the text shhh... let's not leak our hard work.
However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22, 2010. The leaked copy was Enterprise edition; the OS still reads as "Windows 7". Milestone 2, Build 7955, was leaked on April 25, 2011; the traditional Blue Screen of Death was replaced by a new black screen, although this was scrapped. This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. Build 7959, with minor changes but the first 64-bit version was leaked on May 1, 2011; the "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". On June 17, 2011, build 7989 64-bit edition was leaked, it introduced a new boot screen featuring the same fish as the default Windows 7 Beta wallpaper, scrapped, the circling dots as featured in the final. It had the text Welcome below them, although this was scrapped. On June 1, 2011, Microsoft unveiled Windows 8's new user interface, as well as additional features at both Computex Taipei and the D9: All Things Digital conference in California; the "Building Windows 8" blog launched on August 15, 2011, featuring details surrounding Windows 8's features and its development process.
Microsoft unveiled more Windows 8 features and improvements on the first day of the Build conference on September 13, 2011. Microsoft released the first public beta build of Windows Developer Preview at the event. A Samsung tablet running the build was distributed to conference attendees; the build was released for download in the day in standard 32-bit and 64-bit versions, plus a special 64-bit version which included SDKs and developer tools for developing Metro-style apps. The Windows Store was not available in this build. According to Microsoft, there were about 535,000 downloads of the developer preview within the first 12 hours of its release. Set to expire on March 11, 2012, in February 2012 the Developer Preview's expiry date was changed to January 15, 2013. On February 19, 2012, Microsoft unveiled a new logo to be adopted for Windows 8. Designed by Pentagram partner Paula Scher, the Windows logo was changed to resemble a set of four window panes. Additionally, the entire logo is now rend
The Start menu is a graphical user interface element used in Microsoft Windows since Windows 95 and in some other operating systems. It provides a central launching point for performing other tasks, it has different names in different operating systems and window managers, such as Kickoff Application Launcher in KDE, Dash in GNOME and Unity, Start screen in Windows 8. Traditionally, the Start menu provided a customizable nested list of programs for the user to launch, as well as a list of most opened documents, a way to find files and obtain assistance, access to the system settings. Enhancements via Windows Desktop Update included access to special folders such as "My Documents" and "Favorites". Windows XP's Start menu was expanded to encompass various My Documents folders, transplanted other items like My Computer and My Network Places from the Windows desktop; until Windows Vista, the Start menu was expanded across the screen as the user navigated through its cascading sub-menus. In Microsoft Windows, the Start menu in some form appears in Windows 9x, Windows NT 4.0 and all subsequent versions in the Windows NT family, as well as Windows CE, Windows Mobile and Windows Phone.
The Start menu was introduced in Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0, but had been worked on at Microsoft since 1992 being labelled as "System" to testers of the time. It was made to overcome the shortcomings of Program Manager in previous operating systems. Program Manager consisted of a simple multiple document interface which allowed users to open separate "program groups" and execute the shortcuts to programs contained within, it lacked the ability to nest groups within other groups. Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0 replaced Program Manager with Start menu. The latter was comparable in some respects with the Apple menu in Mac OS operating systems and did not have the mentioned limitations of Program Manager: Being a menu, it allowed nested grouping while keeping only one group open at the time. Items could be added to the Start menu by dragging and dropping them; the menu offered the ability to shut down and log off from their computer. Developments in Internet Explorer and subsequent Windows releases make it possible to customize the Start menu and to access and expand Internet Explorer Favorites, My Documents and Administrative Tools from the Start menu.
Although Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 introduced a new version of Start menu, they offered the ability to switch back to this version of Start menu. This version of the Start menu is available in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. However, it is absent in Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2 and other Windows releases; the first major overhaul to the Start menu was introduced in Windows XP and was included in Windows Server 2003. The Start menu was expanded to two columns: the left-hand column focuses on installed programs, while the right-hand column provides access to My Documents, My Pictures, My Music and other special folders; this column includes shortcuts for Computer and Network, which were placed on the Desktop in prior versions of Windows. The contents of this column can be customized. Used programs are automatically displayed in the left-hand menu. Users may opt to "pin" programs to this side of the Start menu. A sub-menu item at the bottom of this column grants access to all items of Start menu.
When this menu item is selected, a scrolling list of start menu programs replaces the user/recent list. Windows Vista and its successors added minor changes to the menu. Prior to Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008, the Start menu consisted of a group of menus and sub-menus that cascaded and expanded, obscuring the visible portions of the screen beneath them. In Windows Vista, cascading menus were replaced by a sliding window in the left pane of the Start menu. Whenever All Programs item is clicked, the contents of the left pane slide off the left edge of the Start menu and the All Programs menu slides in from the right edge of the left column; this menu presents a tree view of it hierarchy that expands towards the bottom, with a vertical scrollbar whenever needed. Added in Windows Vista is a Search box that allows users to search for the Start menu shortcuts or other files and folders; the search box features incremental search: If indexing is not turned off, the search box returns results on-the-fly as users type into it.
Since the found items can be opened, the Start menu search box replaces the function of Run command from previous versions of Windows. The Run command can be added separately to the right column in the Start menu. In Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2, the search results pane covers both columns of the Start menu; the search box is extended to support searching Control Panel items. The right column in Windows 7 links to Libraries instead of ordinary folders. Most however, items on the Start menu support Jump lists through cascade buttons on their right. Unlike prior versions, the ability to revert to the "Classic" Start menu design is no longer available. On Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012, an update to the Start menu known as the "Start screen" was introduced, it no longer features the right column. It shows much larger tiles for programs and, whenever possible, displays dynamic content supplied by the program directly on the tile itself, behaving to a widget. For instance, the live tile for an email client may display the number of unread emails.
The Start screen allows users to uninstall their progr
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
Windows Live Messenger
MSN Messenger rebranded as Windows Live Messenger, was a cross-platform instant messaging client developed by Microsoft. It connected to the Microsoft Messenger service while having compatibility with Yahoo! Messenger and Facebook Messenger; the client was first released as MSN Messenger Service on July 22, 1999, was marketed under the MSN branding until 2005 when it was rebranded under Windows Live and has since been known by its present name, although its previous name was still used colloquially by most of its users. In June 2009, Microsoft reported the service attracted over 330 million active users each month, placing Messenger among the most used instant messaging clients in the world. Versions of MSN/Windows Live Messenger were released for Windows, Xbox 360, Mac OS X, BlackBerry OS, iOS, Java ME, S60 on Symbian OS 9.x, Zune HD, Windows Phone, Windows Mobile and Windows CE. Following the acquisition of Skype Technologies in May 2011, Microsoft added interoperability between Skype and Microsoft accounts, allowing Skype to communicate with Messenger contacts.
In 2013, Windows Live Messenger was discontinued and Microsoft began ceasing service to existing clients. The service in China remained active for another 18 months, ceased operations on October 31, 2014. Before the product was renamed Windows Live Messenger, it was named "MSN Messenger" from 1999 to 2006. During that time, Microsoft released seven major versions; the first version of MSN Messenger Service, version 1.0, was released July 22, 1999. It included only basic features, such as a simplistic contact list; when it was first released, it featured support for access to America Online's AIM network. America Online continually tried to block Microsoft from having access to their service until the feature was removed, it has not re-surfaced in any versions of the software. AOL did this by exploiting a buffer overflow bug in AIM, which causes it to execute a bit of machine code sent by the server; when this code runs, it determines if the client is AIM and sends a message back to verify the client.
Since the software has only allowed connections to its own service, requiring a Windows Live ID account to connect. Microsoft released the first major update, version 2.0, on November 16, 1999. It included a rotating advertising banner and the ability to customize the appearance of the chat window, it came as an install option for Windows Me. This version was followed the next year by version 3.0, released May 29, 2000. It included file transfers and PC-to-PC and PC-to-phone audio capabilities with Net2Phone and Callserve, two of the larger VoIP providers. Along with the release of Windows XP came version 4.6 of MSN Messenger, on October 23, 2001. It included major changes to the user interface, the ability to group contacts, support for voice conversations. In this version, the client software was renamed from "MSN Messenger Service" to just "MSN Messenger," while the underlying service became known as ". NET Messenger Service"; this version was only compatible with Windows 95, 98, ME, NT 4.0, 2000, because Microsoft provided a scaled-down new program for Windows XP, called Windows Messenger.
Version 5.0 of MSN Messenger was released on October 24, 2002. It was the first version, allowed to be installed along with Windows Messenger on Windows XP, it included UPnP based file transfers, minor changes to the user interface artwork, a Windows Media Player interface plug-in. Version 6.0 of MSN Messenger was released July 17, 2003. MSN Messenger 6.0 was a major overhaul of the whole platform, upgrading its simple text-based interface to include customizable elements such as emoticons, personalized avatars, backgrounds. An update, version 6.1, focused on improvements to the conversation window, enabling users to hide the window frame and menu bar, the ability to change the theme color. The theme color could be set differently for each user. Another update, version 6.2, was released April 22, 2004, it was the last version of the MSN Messenger 6 series. The most notable changes were a dedicated Mobile group for mobile contacts, a connection troubleshooter, the Launch Site feature was renamed to Fun & Games.
MSN Messenger received a major upgrade to version 7.0 on April 7, 2005. This version brought wink features that were only available in threedegrees; this version advertised items to sell to you including animated display pictures and backgrounds. The contact list window style was updated to match instant message windows; this version introduced the Xbox Live Integration feature. This version introduced digital ink and handwriting recognition support, it is the last version of MSN Messenger to support Windows 98, Windows Me and Windows 2000. The last version of MSN Messenger before the name change, version 7.5, was released August 23, 2005. New features included the Dynamic Backgrounds feature and the "msnim" protocol handler, which allowed Web sites to provide links which automatically add a contact or start conversations. Additionally, a new Voice Clips feature allowed users to hold down F2 and record a message for a maximum of 15 seconds and send it to the recipient; the window for conversations was changed with an added video button.
This version introduced the Windows Installer for its auto-update feature. As part of Microsoft's Windows Live effort, which rebranded many existing MSN services and programs, MSN Messenger was renamed "Windows Live Messenger" beginning with version 8.0. The first beta of the
Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, licenses and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, related services, its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers; as of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public offering, subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android; the company produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search, the digital services market, mixed reality, cloud computing and software development. Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, envisioned a "devices and services" strategy; this began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999. In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010. Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he dropped out of school to work at Honeywell; the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's Altair 8800 microcomputer, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration.
Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC. Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO; the original name of "Micro-Soft" was suggested by Allen. In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft". Microsoft moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer.
For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, though IBM rebranded it to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft became the leading PC operating systems vendor; the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease. Allen claimed that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough. After leaving Microsoft, Allen lost billions of dollars on ill-conceived or mistimed technology investments.
He invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate. Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in
Outlook.com is a web-based suite of webmail, contacts and calendaring services from Microsoft. One of the world's first webmail services, it was founded in 1996 as Hotmail by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith in Mountain View and headquartered in Sunnyvale. Microsoft acquired Hotmail in 1997 for an estimated $400 million and launched it as MSN Hotmail rebranded to Windows Live Hotmail as part of the Windows Live suite of products. Microsoft released the final version of Hotmail in October 2011 and it was replaced by Outlook.com in 2013. Hotmail service was founded by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith, was one of the first webmail services on the Internet along with Four11's RocketMail, it was commercially launched on July 4, 1996, symbolizing "freedom" from ISP-based email and the ability to access a user's inbox from anywhere in the world. The name "Hotmail" was chosen out of many possibilities ending in "-mail" as it included the letters HTML, the markup language used to create web pages; the limit for free storage was 2 MB.
Hotmail was backed by venture capital firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson. By December 1997, it reported more than 8.5 million subscribers. Hotmail ran under Solaris for mail services and Apache on FreeBSD for web services, before being converted to Microsoft products, using Windows Services for UNIX in the migration path. Hotmail was sold to Microsoft in December 1997 for a reported $400 million, it joined the MSN group of services. Hotmail gained in popularity as it was localized for different markets around the globe, became the world's largest webmail service with more than 30 million active members reported by February 1999. Hotmail ran on a mixture of FreeBSD and Solaris operating systems. A project was started to move Hotmail to Windows 2000. In June 2001, Microsoft claimed. In 2002 Hotmail still ran its infrastructure on UNIX servers, with only the front-end converted to Windows 2000. Development saw the service tied with Microsoft's web authentication scheme, Microsoft Passport, integration with Microsoft's instant messaging and social networking programs, MSN Messenger and MSN Spaces.
In 1999, hackers revealed a security flaw in Hotmail that permitted anybody to log in to any Hotmail account using the password'eh'. At the time it was called "the most widespread security incident in the history of the Web". In 2001, the Hotmail service was compromised again by computer hackers who discovered that anyone could log in to their Hotmail account and pull messages from any other Hotmail account by crafting a URL with the second account's username and a valid message number, it was such a simple attack that by the time the patch was made, dozens of newspapers and hundreds of web sites published exact descriptions allowing tens of thousands of hackers to run rampant across Hotmail. The exploitable vulnerability exposed millions of accounts to tampering between August 7, 2001 and August 31, 2001. In 2004, Google announced Gmail. Featuring greater storage space and interface flexibility, this new competitor spurred a wave of innovation in webmail; the main industry heavyweights – Hotmail and Yahoo!
Mail – introduced upgraded versions of their email services with greater speed and advanced features. Microsoft's new email system was announced on November 1, 2005, under the codename "Kahuna", a beta version was released to a few thousand testers. Other webmail enthusiasts wanting to try the beta version could request an invitation granting access; the new service was built from scratch and emphasized three main concepts of being "faster and safer". New versions of the beta service were rolled out over the development period, by the end of 2006 the number of beta testers had reached the millions; the Hotmail brand was planned to be phased-out when Microsoft announced that the new mail system would be called Windows Live Mail, but the developers soon backtracked after beta-testers were confused with the name change and preferred the well-known Hotmail name, decided on Windows Live Hotmail. After a period of beta testing, it was released to new and existing users in the Netherlands on November 9, 2006, as a pilot market.
Development of the beta was finished in April 2007, Windows Live Hotmail was released to new registrations on May 7, 2007, as the 260 million MSN Hotmail accounts worldwide gained access to the new system. The old MSN Hotmail interface was accessible only by users who registered before the Windows Live Hotmail release date and had not chosen to update to the new service; the roll-out to all existing users was completed in October 2007. Windows Live Hotmail was awarded PC Magazine's Editor's Choice Award in February 2007, March 2007, February 2011. In 2008 it was announced that the service would be updated with focus on improving the speed, increasing the storage space, better user experience and usability features, that sign-in and email access speeds would be up to 70 percent faster; the classic and full versions of Windows Live Hotmail were combined in the new release. As a result of user feedback, Hotmail was updated so that scrolling works for users who have the reading pane turned off, it was expected that Hotmail team would be moving the advertisement from the top of page to the side, adding more themes, increasing the number of messages on each page and adding the ability to send instant messages from the user's inbox in future release
Business cards are cards bearing business information about a company or individual. They are shared during formal introductions as a memory aid. A business card includes the giver's name, company or business affiliation and contact information such as street addresses, telephone number, fax number, e-mail addresses and website. Before the advent of electronic communication business cards might include telex details. Now they may include social media addresses such as LinkedIn and Twitter. Traditionally many cards were simple black text on white stock. Business cards are printed on some form of card stock, the visual effect, method of printing and other details varying according to cultural or organizational norms and personal preferences; the common weight of a business card varies some by location. Business cards are printed on stock, 350 g/m2, 45 kg, or 12 pt. High quality business cards without full-color photographs are printed using spot colors on sheet-fed offset printing presses; some companies have gone so far as to trademark their spot colors.
If a business card logo is a single color and the type is another color, the process is considered two-color. More spot colors can be added depending on the needs of the card. With the onset of digital printing, batch printing, it is now cost effective to print business cards in full color. To simulate the effect of printing with engraved plates, a less-expensive process called thermography was developed that uses the application of a plastic powder, which adheres to the wet ink; the cards are passed through a heating unit, which melts the plastic onto the card. Spot UV varnish onto matte laminate can have a similar effect. Full color cards, or cards that use many colors, are printed on sheetfed presses as well. Screens of each color overprinted on one another create a wide gamut of color; the downside to this printing method is that screened colors if examined will reveal tiny dots, whereas spot color cards are printed solid in most cases. Spot colors should be used for simple cards with line art or non-black type, smaller than 5 points.
Some terminology in reference to full-color printing: 4/0 - Full color front / No print on back 4/1 - full color front / One color on reverse 4/4 - full color front / Full color backThese names are pronounced as "four over zero," "four over one," and "four over four". A business card can be coated with a UV glossy coat; the coat is applied just like another ink using an additional unit on a sheetfed press. That being said, UV coats can be applied as a spot coating - meaning areas can be coated, other areas can be left uncoated; this creates additional design potential. UV Coating is not to be confused with coated stock, which has a gloss or semi gloss finish, applied before printing. Business cards can be printed with a digital copier, which uses toner fused onto the surface of the card, however many modern printing firms instead utilise high end "Digital Presses," now distinct from office copiers, which range from light production units such as the Bizhub 5500 from Konica Minolta, to state of the art units such as the latest HP Indigo Digital Presses.
While some of the older office copiers may have had problems running heavy business card stock, the newest digital presses can print on stock as heavy as 407 g/m2, special substrates such as polypropylene. Available in both sheet-fed and web-fed models, many modern digital presses can emulate Pantone spot colors, print in up to seven colours in one pass, some contain embedded spectrophotometers and air-assisted feeding systems. UV coats, other coatings such as aqueous coatings are used to speed manufacturing of the cards. Cards that are not dry will "offset", i.e. the ink from the front of one card will mark up back of the next one. UV coatings are highly glossy but are more to fingerprint, while aqueous coatings are not noticeable but increase the life of the card, it is possible to use a dull aqueous coating on uncoated stock and get some durable uncoated cards, using UV coating or plastic lamination can be applied to thicken thin stocked cards and make them more durable as well. When cards are designed, they are given bleeds if color extends to the edge of the finished cut size.
This is to help ensure that the paper will cut without white edges due to small differences in where the blade cuts the cards, it is impossible to cut the cards properly without. Just being a hair off can result in white lines, the blade itself will pull the paper while cutting; the image on the paper can shift from page to page, called a bounce, off by a hairline on an offset press, but can be quite large on lower end equipment such as a copier or a duplicator press. Bleeds are an extra 3.175 to 6.35 mm to all sides of the card. Bleed size: 95.25 × 57.15 mm Standard cut size: 89 × 51 mm Bleed size: 91 × 61 mm Standard cut size: 85 × 55 mm Fold-over or "tent" cards, side fold cards are popular as well. These cards will fold to the standard size. Cards can be printed with a different language on each side. Aspect ratios range from 1.42 t