Action Center is a notification center included with Windows Phone 8.1, Windows 10 and Windows 10 Mobile. It was first introduced with Windows Phone 8.1 in July 2014, the Action Center replaces the charms in Windows 10. Action Center allows for four quick settings, and in Windows 10 users can expand the view to all of the quick settings. Notifications are sorted into categories by app, and users can swipe right to clear notifications, Action Center supports actionable notifications starting with Windows 10. On the desktop version, the user can invoke Action Center by clicking on its icon on the taskbar, or by swiping from the right
Disk Cleanup is a computer maintenance utility included in Microsoft Windows designed to free up disk space on a computers hard drive. The utility first searches and analyzes the hard drive for files that are no longer of any use, the option of removing hibernation data may not be ideal for some users as this may remove the hibernate option. Aside from removing unnecessary files, users have the option of compressing files that have not been accessed over a set period of time and this option provides a systematic compression scheme. Infrequently accessed files are compressed to free up disk space while leaving the frequently used files uncompressed for faster access times. If after file compression, a user wishes to access a compressed file, the access times may be increased and vary from system to system
Microsoft Office 2007
Microsoft Office 2007 is a version of Microsoft Office, a family of office suites and productivity software for Windows and published by Microsoft. It was preceded by Office 2003 and succeeded by Office 2010, Office 2007 introduced a new graphical user interface called the Fluent User Interface, which uses ribbons and an Office menu instead of menu bars and toolbars. Office 2007 introduced Office Open XML file formats as the file formats in Excel, PowerPoint. The new formats are intended to facilitate the sharing of information between programs, improve security, reduce the size of documents, and enable new recovery scenarios. With Microsoft FrontPage discontinued, Microsoft SharePoint Designer, which is aimed towards development of SharePoint portals and its designer-oriented counterpart, Microsoft Expression Web, is targeted for general web development. However, neither application has been included in Office 2007 software suites, Speech recognition functionality has been removed from the individual programs in the Office 2007 suite, as Windows Speech Recognition was integrated into Windows Vista.
Windows XP users must install a version of Office to use speech recognition features. According to Forrester Research, as of May 2010, Microsoft Office 2007 is used in 81% of enterprises it surveyed, the first beta of Microsoft Office 2007, referred to as Beta-1 in emails sent to a small number of testers, was released on November 16,2005. The Beta-1 Technical Refresh was released to testers on March 13,2006, the Technical Refresh fixed issues in installing with Windows Vista build 5308. Microsoft revealed the ribbon on March 9,2006 at CeBIT in Germany, Office 2007 Beta 2 was announced by Bill Gates at WinHEC2006, and was initially released to the public at no cost from Microsofts web site. However, because of a number of downloads, a fee of $1.50 was introduced for each product downloaded after August 2,2006. The beta was updated on September 14,2006 in Beta 2 Technical Refresh and it included an updated user interface, better accessibility support, improvements in the robustness of the platform, and greater functionality.
The beta versions continued to function in a reduced functionality mode after February 1,2007, if users downloaded the Technical Refresh to update Beta 2, users could use its full functionality until March 31,2007 for client products and May 15,2007 for server products. The Beta program ended on November 8,2006, when Microsoft declared the product Released to Manufacturing, after RTM, the availability of the beta download ended. Office 2007 was released to volume licensing customers on November 30,2006, since the initial release of Microsoft Office 2007, three service packs containing updates as well as additional features have been released. Microsoft Office 2007 Service Packs are cumulative, so previous Service Packs are not a prerequisite for installation, Microsoft Office 2007 Service Pack 1 was released on December 11,2007. Official documentation claims that SP1 is not simply a rollup of publicly released patches, Microsoft Office 2007 Service Pack 2 was released on April 28,2009. It added improved support for ODF, XPS and PDF standards, Microsoft Office 2007 Service Pack 3 was released on October 25,2011
Control Panel (Windows)
Additional applets can be provided by third party software. The Control Panel has been an inherent part of the Microsoft Windows operating system since Windows 2.0, these applets are stored as. cpl files. For example, the Add or Remove Programs applet is stored under the name appwiz. cpl in the SYSTEM32 folder, many of the individual Control Panel applets can be accessed in other ways. For instance, Display Properties can be accessed by right-clicking on an empty area of the desktop, the classic view consists of shortcuts to the various control panel applets, usually without any description. The categories are seen if the user use Details view, the category view consists of categories, which when clicked on display the control panel applets related to the category. In Windows Vista, the category used applets below the name of the category, the Control Panel can be accessed quickly by typing control in the Run dialog box. HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\Current Version\Explorer\ControlPanel\Namespace This contains the location of the CLSID variables for all the panels not included as cpl files and these are commonly folders or shell applets, though Windows Vista allows physical programs themselves to be registered as well.
The CLSID allows items such as the icon and category to be set, the control panel uses these lists to locate the applets and load them into the control panel program when started by the user. In addition to using the panel, a user can invoke the applets manually via the command processor. For instance, the syntax Control. exe inetcpl. cpl or control. exe /name Microsoft. InternetOptions will run the internet properties applet in Windows XP or Vista respectively, while both syntax examples are accepted on Windows Vista, only the former one is accepted on Windows XP. These are options in the panel that show devices connected to the computer. They do not actually offer a direct interface to control these devices, such applets include and Cameras Game Controllers Portable Media Devices Third-party software vendors have released many applets. Although it is impossible to mention all of them, some of them are listed here, System Preferences – same purpose program on macOS How to run Control Panel tools by typing a command at Microsoft. com
Debugging is the process of finding and resolving of defects that prevent correct operation of computer software or a system. The terms bug and debugging are popularly attributed to Admiral Grace Hopper in the 1940s, indeed, in an interview Grace Hopper remarked that she was not coining the term. The moth fit the already existing terminology, so it was saved, a letter from J. Robert Oppenheimer used the term in a letter to Dr. Ernest Lawrence at UC Berkeley, dated October 27,1944, regarding the recruitment of additional technical staff. The Oxford English Dictionary entry for debug quotes the term debugging used in reference to airplane engine testing in a 1945 article in the Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society, an article in Airforce refers to debugging, this time of aircraft cameras. Hoppers bug was found on September 9,1947, the term was not adopted by computer programmers until the early 1950s. The seminal article by Gill in 1951 is the earliest in-depth discussion of programming errors, in the ACMs digital library, the term debugging is first used in three papers from 1952 ACM National Meetings.
Two of the three use the term in quotation marks, by 1963 debugging was a common enough term to be mentioned in passing without explanation on page 1 of the CTSS manual. Kidwells article Stalking the Elusive Computer Bug discusses the etymology of bug and debug in greater detail. Instead, an assessment can be made to determine if changes to remove an anomaly would be cost-effective for the system. Not all issues are life-critical or mission-critical in a system, also, it is important to avoid the situation where a change might be more upsetting to users, long-term, than living with the known problem. Debugging ranges in complexity from fixing simple errors to performing lengthy and tiresome tasks of data collection, debuggers are software tools which enable the programmer to monitor the execution of a program, stop it, restart it, set breakpoints, and change values in memory. The term debugger can refer to the person who is doing the debugging, high-level programming languages, such as Java, make debugging easier, because they have features such as exception handling that make real sources of erratic behaviour easier to spot.
In programming languages such as C or assembly, bugs may cause silent problems such as memory corruption, in those cases, memory debugger tools may be needed. In certain situations, general purpose software tools that are specific in nature can be very useful. These take the form of code analysis tools. These tools look for a specific set of known problems, some common and some rare. All such issues detected by these tools would rarely be picked up by a compiler or interpreter, thus they are not syntax checkers, some tools claim to be able to detect 300+ unique problems. Both commercial and free tools exist in various languages and these tools can be extremely useful when checking very large source trees, where it is impractical to do code walkthroughs
Windows Vista is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, tablet PCs and media center PCs. Development was completed on 8 November 2006, and over the three months, it was released in stages to computer hardware and software manufacturers, business customers. On 30 January 2007, it was released worldwide and was available for purchase. It was succeeded by Windows 7, which was released to manufacturing on 22 July 2009, Vista aimed to increase the level of communication between machines on a home network, using peer-to-peer technology to simplify sharing files and media between computers and devices. Windows Vista included version 3.0 of the. NET Framework, Microsofts primary stated objective with Windows Vista was to improve the state of security in the Windows operating system. One common criticism of Windows XP and its predecessors was their commonly exploited security vulnerabilities and overall susceptibility to malware, Microsoft stated that it prioritized improving the security of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 above finishing Windows Vista, thus delaying its completion.
While these new features and security improvements have garnered positive reviews, Vista has been the target of much criticism, as a result of these and other issues, Windows Vista had seen initial adoption and satisfaction rates lower than Windows XP. In May 2010, Windows Vistas market share had a range from 15% to 26%. On 22 October 2010, Microsoft ceased sales of copies of Windows Vista. As of March 2017, Vistas market share was 0. 72%, Microsoft stopped providing mainstream support for Windows Vista on 10 April 2012. Extended support will end on 11 April 2017, Microsoft began work on Windows Vista, known at the time by its codename Longhorn, in May 2001, five months before the release of Windows XP. It was originally expected to ship sometime late in 2003 as a step between Windows XP and Blackcomb, which was planned to be the companys next major operating system release. Gradually, Longhorn assimilated many of the important new features and technologies slated for Blackcomb, in some builds of Longhorn, their license agreement said For the Microsoft product codenamed Whistler.
Many of Microsofts developers were re-tasked to build updates to Windows XP, faced with ongoing delays and concerns about feature creep, Microsoft announced on 27 August 2004, that it had revised its plans. Longhorn became known as Vista in 2005, the early development stages of Longhorn were generally characterized by incremental improvements and updates to Windows XP. After several months of relatively little news or activity from Microsoft with Longhorn, Microsoft released Build 4008 and it was privately handed out to a select group of software developers. An optional new taskbar was introduced that was thinner than the previous build, the most notable visual and functional difference, came with Windows Explorer. The incorporation of the Plex theme made blue the dominant color of the entire application, the Windows XP-style task pane was almost completely replaced with a large horizontal pane that appeared under the toolbars
GoDaddy Inc. is an American publicly traded Internet domain registrar and web hosting company. As of December 2014, GoDaddy served approximately 13 million customers and had 4,908 employees worldwide, the company is known for its advertising. It has been involved in controversies related to censorship. GoDaddy was founded in 1997 by Baltimore, entrepreneur Bob Parsons, prior to GoDaddy, Parsons sold his financial software services company, Parsons Technology, Inc. to Intuit for $64m in 1994. Parsons came out of his retirement in 1997 to launch Jomax Technologies, GoDaddy received a strategic investment from top venture capital funds, KKR, Silver Lake, and Technology Crossover Ventures. In 1999, a group of employees at Jomax Technologies were brainstorming, an employee said, How about Big Daddy. However, the name had already been purchased. Parsons replied, How about Go Daddy, the name was available, so he bought it. Parsons said the company stuck with the name because it made people smile, the company changed its name branding from Go Daddy to GoDaddy in February 2006.
In 2001, soon after Network Solutions was no longer the place to register a domain, GoDaddy was approximately the same size as competitors Dotster. In April 2005, GoDaddy became the largest ICANN-accredited registrar on the Internet, in July 2012, GoDaddy announced it would acquire Outright for an undisclosed amount. In August 2013, GoDaddy announced it would acquire Locu for $70 million, in September 2013, GoDaddy acquired domain marketplace Afternic from NameMedia. GoDaddy will acquire domain parking service SmartName and business name generator NameFind, on October 15,2013, GoDaddy acquired web hosting service provider Media Temple. In a newsletter sent to its customers, Media Temple said that they will continue operating as an independent, in July 2014, GoDaddy acquired Canary, a small Cambridge-based smart calendar service. On August 20,2014, GoDaddy acquired Mad Mimi, a Brooklyn-based email marketing service, in April 2015 and November 2015, GoDaddy acquired the domain portfolios of Marchex and Worldwide Media respectively.
On May 17,2016, GoDaddy acquired FreedomVoice for $42 million in cash, FreedomVoice is a provider of cloud-based VoIP phone systems across the United States. On December 6,2016, GoDaddy announced its acquisition of Host Europe Group, in 2013, GoDaddy was reported as the largest ICANN-accredited registrar in the world, at the size of four times their closest competitor. They have a 270,000 square foot facility in Phoenix,2010 – BBB of Great Arizona Business Ethics Awards finalist
File Explorer, previously known as Windows Explorer, is a file manager application that is included with releases of the Microsoft Windows operating system from Windows 95 onwards. It provides a user interface for accessing the file systems. It is the component of the system that presents many user interface items on the monitor such as the taskbar. Controlling the computer is possible without Windows Explorer running, Windows Explorer was first included with Windows 95 as a replacement for File Manager, which came with all versions of Windows 3. x operating systems. Explorer could be accessed by double-clicking the new My Computer desktop icon, there is a shortcut key combination, Windows key + E. Collectively, these features are known as the Windows shell. After a user logs in, the process is created by userinit process. Userinit performs some initialization of the environment and looks in the registry at the Shell value and creates a process to run the system-defined shell – by default. This is why Explorer.
exe is shown by various process explorers with no parent – its parent has exited, in 1995, Microsoft first released test versions of a shell refresh, named the Shell Technology Preview, and often referred to informally as NewShell. The update was designed to replace the Windows 3. x Program Manager/File Manager based shell with Windows Explorer, the release provided capabilities quite similar to that of the Windows Chicago shell during its late beta phases, however was intended to be nothing more than a test release. There were two releases of the Shell Technology Preview, made available to MSDN and CompuServe users,26 May 1995 and 8 August 1995. Both held Windows Explorer builds of 3.51.1053.1, the Shell Technology Preview program never saw a final release under NT3.51. The entire program was moved across to the Cairo development group who finally integrated the new design into the NT code with the release of NT4.0 in July 1996. At the time these changes raised antitrust concerns about the incorporation of what was seen as an application feature, an address bar was added to Windows Explorer, which a user could type in directory paths directly, and be taken to that folder.
It operated as a URL bar for Internet addresses, web pages would open in the portion of the window. Another feature that was based on Internet Explorer technology was customized folders, such folders contained a hidden web page that controlled the way the Windows Explorer displayed the contents of the folder. This feature proved to have security due to its reliance on ActiveX objects and scripting. Other new features, The ability to add toolbars to the task bar. Active Desktop, which made it possible to turn the desktop background itself into a web page, single-click activation of icons in Windows Explorer, adhering to a web page paradigm
Windows XP is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on August 24,2001, however, in January 2000, both projects were shelved in favor of a single OS codenamed Whistler, which would serve as a single OS platform for both consumer and business markets. Windows XP was an advance from the MS-DOS based versions of Windows in security, stability. It introduced a significantly redesigned graphical user interface and was the first version of Windows to use product activation in an effort to reduce its copyright infringement. Despite some initial concerns over the new licensing model and product activation system, Windows XP eventually proved to be popular and widely used. It is estimated that at least 400 million copies of Windows XP were sold globally within its first five years of availability, sales of Windows XP licenses to original equipment manufacturers ceased on June 30,2008, but continued for netbooks until October 2010.
Windows XP remained popular even after the release of newer versions, vistas 2009 successor, Windows 7, only overtook XP in total market share at the end of 2011. Extended support for Windows XP ended on April 8,2014, as of November 2016, Windows XP desktop market share makes it the fourth most popular Windows version after Windows 7, Windows 10 and Windows 8.1. Windows XP is still popular in some countries, Africa as a whole and in Asia, e. g. in China. A number of activity centers were planned, serving as hubs for email communications, playing music, managing or viewing photos, searching the Internet, the project proved to be too ambitious. Microsoft discussed a plan to delay Neptune in favor of an interim OS known as Asteroid, which would have been an update to Windows 2000, and since Neptune and Odyssey would be based on the same code-base anyway, it made sense to combine them into a single project. In June 2000, Microsoft began the technical beta testing process, Whistler was expected to be available in Personal, Server, Advanced Server.
At PDC on July 13,2000, Microsoft announced that Whistler would be released during the half of 2001. Build 2257 featured further refinements to the Watercolor theme, along with the introduction of the two-column Start menu. Microsoft released Whistler Beta 1, build 2296, on October 31,2000, build 2410 in January 2001 introduced Internet Explorer 6.0 and the Microsoft Product Activation system. Making it very friendly for the user to use. Builds 2416 and 2419 added the File and Transfer Settings Wizard, on February 5,2001, Microsoft officially announced that Whistler would be known as Windows XP, where XP stands for experience. As a complement, the version of Microsoft Office was announced as Office XP
Windows Mobile is a family of mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones and Pocket PCs. Its origins dated back to Windows CE in 1996, though Windows Mobile itself first appeared in 2000 as PocketPC2000 and it was renamed Windows Mobile in 2003, at which point it came in several versions and was aimed at business and enterprise consumers. By 2007, it was the most popular software in the U. S. In February 2010, facing competition from rival OSs including iOS and Android, as a result, Windows Mobile has been deprecated. Windows Phone is incompatible with Windows Mobile devices and software, the last version of Windows Mobile, released after the announcement of Windows Phone, was 6.5.5. After this, Microsoft ceased development on Windows Mobile, in order to concentrate on Windows Phone, similarly to its desktop counterpart, it comes bundled with a set of applications that perform basic tasks. Internet Explorer Mobile is the web browser, and Windows Media Player is the default media player used for playing digital media.
The mobile version of Microsoft Office, is the office suite. Internet Connection Sharing, supported on compatible devices, allows the phone to share its Internet connection with computers via USB, Windows Mobile supports virtual private networking over PPTP protocol. Most devices with mobile connectivity have a Radio Interface Layer, the Radio Interface Layer provides the system interface between the Cell Core layer within the Windows Mobile OS and the radio protocol stack used by the wireless modem hardware. This allows OEMs to integrate a variety of modems into their equipment, the user interface changed dramatically between versions, only retaining similar functionality. The Today Screen, called the Home Screen, shows the current date, owner information, upcoming appointments, e-mails, the taskbar display the current time as well as the volume level. Devices with a cellular radio show the strength on said taskbar. Windows Mobile is based on the Windows CE kernel and first appeared as the Pocket PC2000 operating system and it includes a suite of basic applications developed with the Microsoft Windows API, and is designed to have features and appearance somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows.
It allowed third party developers to develop software for Windows Mobile with no restrictions imposed by Microsoft, software applications were purchasable from Windows Marketplace for Mobile during the services lifespan. Most early Windows Mobile devices came with a stylus, which can be used to enter commands by tapping it on the screen, the primary touch input technology behind most devices were resistive touchscreens which often required a stylus for input. Later devices used capacitive sensing which does not require a stylus, along with touchscreens, a large variety of form factors existed for the platform. Some devices featured slideout keyboards, while others featured minimal face buttons, Microsofts work on handheld portable devices began with research projects in 1990, with the work on Windows CE beginning in 1992
Verisign, Inc. com. net, and. name generic top-level domains and the. cc and. tv country-code top-level domains, and the back-end systems for the. jobs. gov, and. edu top-level domains. Verisign offers a range of security services, including managed DNS, distributed denial-of-service attack mitigation and cyber-threat reporting. In 2010, Verisign sold its business unit – which included SSL certificate, PKI, Verisign Trust Seal. The deal capped a multi-year effort by Verisign to narrow its focus to its core infrastructure, Verisign was founded in 1995 as a spin-off of the RSA Security certification services business. The new company received licenses to key cryptographic patents held by RSA, the new company served as a certificate authority and its initial mission was providing trust for the Internet and Electronic Commerce through our Digital Authentication services and products. Those core registry functions formed the basis for Verisign’s naming division, in 2002, Verisign was charged with violation of the Securities Exchange Act.
Verisign divested the Network Solutions retail business in 2003, retaining the name registry function as its core Internet addressing business. For the year ended December 31,2010, Verisign reported revenue of $681 million, verisigns share price tumbled in early 2014, hastened by the U. S. governments announcement that it would relinquish oversight of the Internets domain-naming system to a non-government entity. Ultimately the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers chose to continue VeriSigns role as the root zone maintainer, on August 9,2010 Symantec completed its approximately $1. Verisigns core business is its naming services division, the division operates the authoritative domain name registries for two of the Internets most important top-level domains. com and. net. It is the contracted registry operator for the. name and. gov top-level domains as well as the country code top-level domains. cc, in addition, Verisign is the primary technical subcontractor for the. edu, and.
Registry operators are the wholesalers of Internet domain names, while domain name registrars act as the “retailers”, Verisign operates two of the Internet’s thirteen root servers which are identified by the letters A-M. The root servers form the top of the hierarchical Domain Name System that supports all Internet communication, changes to the root zone were originally distributed via the A root server, but now they are distributed to all thirteen servers via a separate distribution system which Verisign maintains. Verisign is the one of the 12 root server operators to operate more than one of the thirteen root nameservers. In 2016 the Department of Commerce ended its role in managing the Internets DNS, while this initially negatively impacted VeriSigns stock, ICANN eventually chose to contract with VeriSign to continue its role as the root zone maintainer. As a result of new policies, Network Solutions divided itself into two divisions. The divisions were even geographically split with the NSI Registry moving from the headquarters in Herndon, Virginia, to nearby Dulles.
In 2000, VeriSign purchased Network Solutions taking over its role in the Internet DNS, the NSI Registry division eventually became VeriSigns naming services division while the remainder of Network Solutions was sold by VeriSign in 2003 to Pivotal Equity Group