Windows XP is a personal computer operating system produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on August 24, 2001, broadly released for retail sale on October 25, 2001. Development of Windows XP began in the late 1990s as "Neptune", an operating system built on the Windows NT kernel, intended for mainstream consumer use. An updated version of Windows 2000 was originally planned for the business market; as such, Windows XP was the first consumer edition of Windows not to be based on MS-DOS. Upon its release, Windows XP received positive reviews, with critics noting increased performance and stability, a more intuitive user interface, improved hardware support, expanded multimedia capabilities. However, some industry reviewers were concerned by the new licensing model and product activation system. Extended support for Windows XP ended on April 8, 2014, after which the operating system ceased receiving further support or security updates to most users.
As of March 2019, 1.75% of Windows PCs run Windows XP, the OS is still most popular in some countries with up to 38% of the Windows share. In the late 1990s, initial development of what would become Windows XP was focused on two individual products. However, the projects proved to be too ambitious. In January 2000, shortly prior to the official release of Windows 2000, technology writer Paul Thurrott reported that Microsoft had shelved both Neptune and Odyssey in favor of a new product codenamed "Whistler", after Whistler, British Columbia, as many Microsoft employees skied at the Whistler-Blackcomb ski resort; the goal of Whistler was to unify both the consumer and business-oriented Windows lines under a single, Windows NT platform: Thurrott stated that Neptune had become "a black hole when all the features that were cut from were re-tagged as Neptune features. And since Neptune and Odyssey would be based on the same code-base anyway, it made sense to combine them into a single project". At PDC on July 13, 2000, Microsoft announced that Whistler would be released during the second half of 2001, unveiled the first preview build, 2250.
The build notably introduced an early version of Windows XP's visual styles system. Microsoft released the first beta build of Whistler, build 2296, on October 31, 2000. Subsequent builds introduced features that users of the release version of Windows XP would recognise, such as Internet Explorer 6.0, the Microsoft Product Activation system and the Bliss desktop background. On February 5, 2001, Microsoft announced that Whistler would be known as Windows XP, where XP stands for "eXPerience". In June 2001, Microsoft indicated that it was planning to, in conjunction with Intel and other PC makers, spend at least 1 billion US dollars on marketing and promoting Windows XP; the theme of the campaign, "Yes You Can", was designed to emphasize the platform's overall capabilities. Microsoft had planned to use the slogan "Prepare to Fly", but it was replaced due to sensitivity issues in the wake of the September 11 attacks. On August 24, 2001, Windows XP build. During a ceremonial media event at Microsoft Redmond Campus, copies of the RTM build were given to representatives of several major PC manufacturers in briefcases, who flew off on decorated helicopters.
While PC manufacturers would be able to release devices running XP beginning on September 24, 2001, XP was expected to reach general, retail availability on October 25, 2001. On the same day, Microsoft announced the final retail pricing of XP's two main editions, "Home" and "Professional". While retaining some similarities to previous versions, Windows XP's interface was overhauled with a new visual appearance, with an increased use of alpha compositing effects, drop shadows, "visual styles", which changed the appearance of the operating system; the number of effects enabled are determined by the operating system based on the computer's processing power, can be enabled or disabled on a case-by-case basis. XP added ClearType, a new subpixel rendering system designed to improve the appearance of fonts on liquid-crystal displays. A new set of system icons was introduced; the default wallpaper, Bliss, is a photo of a landscape in the Napa Valley outside Napa, with rolling green hills and a blue sky with stratocumulus and cirrus clouds.
The Start menu received its first major overhaul in XP, switching to a two-column layout with the ability to list and display used applications opened documents, the traditional cascading "All Programs" menu. The taskbar can now group windows opened by a single application into one taskbar button, with a popup menu listing the individual windows; the notification area hides "inactive" icons by default. A "common tasks" list was added, Windows Explorer's sidebar was updated to use a new task-based design with lists of common actions. Fast user switching allows additional users to log into a Windows XP machine without existing users having to close their programs and loggin
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
A graphics tablet is a computer input device that enables a user to hand-draw images and graphics, with a special pen-like stylus, similar to the way a person draws images with a pencil and paper. These tablets may be used to capture data or handwritten signatures, it can be used to trace an image from a piece of paper, taped or otherwise secured to the tablet surface. Capturing data in this way, by tracing or entering the corners of linear poly-lines or shapes, is called digitizing; the device consists of a flat surface upon which the user may "draw" or trace an image using the attached stylus, a pen-like drawing apparatus. The image is displayed on the computer monitor, though some graphic tablets now incorporate an LCD screen for a more realistic or natural experience and usability; some tablets are intended as a replacement for the computer mouse as the primary pointing and navigation device for desktop computers. The first electronic handwriting device was the Telautograph, patented by Elisha Gray in 1888.
The first graphic tablet resembling contemporary tablets and used for handwriting recognition by a computer was the Stylator in 1957. Better known is the RAND Tablet known as the Grafacon, introduced in 1964; the RAND Tablet employed a grid of wires under the surface of the pad that encoded horizontal and vertical coordinates in a small magnetic signal. The stylus would receive the magnetic signal, which could be decoded back as coordinate information; the acoustic tablet, or spark tablet, used a stylus. The clicks were triangulated by a series of microphones to locate the pen in space; the system was complex and expensive, the sensors were susceptible to interference by external noise. Digitizers were popularized in the mid-1970s and early 1980s by the commercial success of the ID and BitPad manufactured by the Summagraphics Corp; the Summagraphics digitizers were sold under the company's name but were private labeled for HP, Textronix and Sutherland and several other graphic system manufacturers.
The ID model was the first graphics tablet to make use of what was at the time, the new Intel microprocessor technology. This embedded processing power allowed the ID models to have twice the accuracy of previous models while still making use of the same foundation technology. Key to this accuracy improvement were two US Patents issued to Stephen Domyan, Robert Davis, Edward Snyder; the Bit Pad model was the first attempt at a low cost graphics tablet with an initial selling price of $555 when other graphics tablets were selling in the $2,000 to $3,000 price range. This lower cost opened up the opportunities for would be entrepreneurs to be able to write graphics software for a multitude of new applications; these digitizers were used as the input device for many high-end CAD systems as well as bundled with PCs and PC-based CAD software like AutoCAD. Summagraphics made an OEM version of its BitPad, sold by Apple Computer as the Apple Graphic Tablet accessory to their Apple II; these tablets used a magnetostriction technology which used wires made of a special alloy stretched over a solid substrate to locate the tip of a stylus or the center of a digitizer cursor on the surface of the tablet.
This technology allowed Proximity or "Z" axis measurement. The first home computer graphic tablet was the KoalaPad. Though designed for the Apple II, the Koala broadened its applicability to all home computers with graphic support, examples of which include the TRS-80 Color Computer, Commodore 64, Atari 8-bit family. Competing tablets were produced. In 1981, musician Todd Rundgren created the first color graphic tablet software for personal computers, licensed to Apple as the Utopia Graphic Tablet System. In the 1980s, several vendors of graphic tablets began to include additional functions, such as handwriting recognition and on-tablet menus. Tablets are characterized by size of the device, drawing area, its resolution size, pressure sensitivity, number of buttons and types and number of interfaces: Bluetooth, USB; the actual drawing accuracy is restricted to pen's nib size. There have been many attempts to categorize the technologies that have been used for graphic tablets: Passive tablets Passive tablets, most notably those manufactured by Wacom and Parblo, for example, make use of electromagnetic induction technology, where the horizontal and vertical wires of the tablet operate as both transmitting and receiving coils.
The tablet generates an electromagnetic signal, received by the LC circuit in the stylus. The wires in the tablet change to a receiving mode and read the signal generated by the stylus. Modern arrangements provide pressure sensitivity and one or more buttons, with the electronics for this information present in the stylus. On older tablets, changing the pressure on the stylus nib or pressing a button changed the properties of the LC circuit, affecting the signal generated by the pen, which modern ones encode into the signal as a digital data stream. By using electromagnetic signals, the tablet is able to sense the stylus position without the stylus having to touch the surface, powering the pen with this signal means that devices used with the tablet never n
A tablet computer shortened to tablet, is a mobile device with a mobile operating system and touchscreen display processing circuitry, a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package. Tablets, being computers, do what other personal computers do, but lack some input/output abilities that others have. Modern tablets resemble modern smartphones, the only differences being that tablets are larger than smartphones, with screens 7 inches or larger, measured diagonally, may not support access to a cellular network; the touchscreen display is operated by gestures executed by finger or digital pen, instead of the mouse and keyboard of larger computers. Portable computers can be classified according to the appearance of physical keyboards. Two species of tablet, the slate and booklet, do not have physical keyboards and accept text and other input by use of a virtual keyboard shown on their touchscreen displays. To compensate for their lack of a physical keyboard, most tablets can connect to independent physical keyboards by wireless Bluetooth or USB.
The form of the tablet was conceptualized in the middle of the 20th century and prototyped and developed in the last two decades of that century. In 2010, Apple released the iPad. Thereafter tablets rose in ubiquity and soon became a large product category used for personal and workplace applications, with sales stabilizing in the mid-2010s; the tablet computer and its associated operating system began with the development of pen computing. Electrical devices with data input and output on a flat information display existed as early as 1888 with the telautograph, which used a sheet of paper as display and a pen attached to electromechanical actuators. Throughout the 20th century devices with these characteristics have been imagined and created whether as blueprints, prototypes, or commercial products. In addition to many academic and research systems, several companies released commercial products in the 1980s, with various input/output types tried out. Tablet computers appeared in a number of works of science fiction in the second half of the 20th century.
Examples include: Isaac Asimov described a Calculator Pad in his novel Foundation Stanislaw Lem described the Opton in his novel Return from the Stars Numerous similar devices were depicted in Gene Roddenberry's 1966 Star Trek: The Original Series Arthur C. Clarke's NewsPad was depicted in Stanley Kubrick's film 2001: A Space Odyssey Douglas Adams described a tablet computer in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy and the associated comedy of the same name The sci-fi TV series Star Trek The Next Generation featured tablet computers which were designated as PADDs. A device more powerful than today's tablets appeared in The Mote in God's Eye; the Star Wars franchise features datapads, first described in print in 1991's Heir to the Empire and depicted on screen in 1999's The Phantom Menace. Further, real-life projects either proposed or created tablet computers, such as: In 1968, computer scientist Alan Kay envisioned a KiddiComp. Adults could use a Dynabook, but the target audience was children.
In 1979, the idea of a touchscreen tablet that could detect an external force applied to one point on the screen was patented in Japan by a team at Hitachi consisting of Masao Hotta, Yoshikazu Miyamoto, Norio Yokozawa and Yoshimitsu Oshima, who received a US patent for their idea. In 1992, Atari showed developers the Stylus renamed ST-Pad; the ST-Pad was prototyped early handwriting recognition. Shiraz Shivji's company Momentus demonstrated in the same time a failed x86 MS-DOS based Pen Computer with its own graphical user interface. In 1994, the European Union initiated the NewsPad project, inspired by Clarke and Kubrick's fictional work. Acorn Computers developed and delivered an ARM-based touch screen tablet computer for this program, branding it the "NewsPad". During the November 2000 COMDEX, Microsoft used the term Tablet PC to describe a prototype handheld device they were demonstrating. In 2001, Ericsson Mobile Communications announced an experimental product named the DelphiPad, developed in cooperation with the Centre for Wireless Communications in Singapore, with a touch-sensitive screen, Netscape Navigator as a web browser, Linux as its operating system.
Following earlier tablet computer products such as the Pencept PenPad, the CIC Handwriter, in September 1989, GRiD Systems released the first commercially successful tablet computer, the GRiDPad. All three products were based on extended versions of the MS-DOS operating system. In 1992, IBM announced and shipped to developers the 2521 ThinkPad, which ran the GO Corporation's PenPoint OS. Based on PenPoint was AT&T's EO Personal Communicator from 1993, which ran on AT&T's own hardware, including their own AT&T Hobbit CPU. Apple Computer launched the Apple Newton personal digital assistant in 1993, it used Apple's own new Newton OS running on hardware manufactured by Motorola and incorporating an ARM CPU, that Apple had co-develop
Windows Error Reporting
Windows Error Reporting is a crash reporting technology introduced by Microsoft with Windows XP and included in Windows versions and Windows Mobile 5.0 and 6.0. Not to be confused with the Dr. Watson debugging tool which left the memory dump on the user's local machine, Windows Error Reporting collects and offers to send post-error debug information using the Internet to the Microsoft or stops responding on a user's desktop. No data is sent without the user's consent; when a dump reaches the Microsoft server, it is analyzed and a solution is sent back to the user when one is available. Solutions are served using Windows Error Reporting Responses. Windows Error Reporting runs as a Windows service and can optionally be disabled. If Windows Error Reporting itself crashes an error report that the original crashed process produced cannot be sent at all. Kinshuman is the original designer of Windows Error Reporting in Vista, the same design and implementation, present in current Windows versions. Microsoft first introduced Windows Error Reporting with Windows XP.
Windows Error Reporting was improved in Windows Vista. Most a new set of public APIs have been created for reporting failures other than application crashes and hangs. Developers can customize the reporting user interface; the new APIs are documented in MSDN. The architecture of Windows Error Reporting has been revamped with a focus on reliability and user experience. WER can now report errors when the process is in a bad state for example if the process has encountered stack exhaustions, PEB/TEB corruptions, heap corruptions, etc. In earlier OSs prior to Windows Vista, the process terminated silently without generating an error report in these conditions. A new Control Panel applet, "Problem Reports and Solutions" was introduced, keeping a record of system and application errors and issues, as well as presenting probable solutions to problems; the Problem Reports and Solutions Control Panel applet was replaced by the Maintenance section of the Windows Action Center on Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2.
A new app, Problem Steps Recorder, is available on all builds of Windows 7 and enables the collection of the actions performed by a user while encountering a crash so that testers and developers can reproduce the situation for analysis and debugging. WER is a distributed system. Client-side software detects an error condition, generates an error report, labels the bucket, reports the error to the WER service; the WER service records the error occurrence and depending on information known about the particular error, might request additional data from the client, or direct the client to a solution. Programmers access the WER service to retrieve data for specific error reports and for statistics-based debugging. Errors collected by WER clients are sent to the WER service; the WER service employs 60 servers connected to a 65TB storage area network that stores the error report database and a 120TB storage area network that stores up to 6 months of raw CAB files. The service is provisioned to receive and process well over 100 million error reports per day, sufficient to survive correlated global events such as Internet worms.
In the Microsoft Windows Error Reporting system, crash reports are organized according to "buckets". Buckets classify issues by: Application Name, Application Version, Application Build Date, Module Name, Module Version, Module Build Date, OS Exception Code/System Error Code, Module Code Offset. Ideally, each bucket contains crash reports. However, there are two forms of weakness in the WER bucketing: weaknesses in the condensing heuristics, which result in mapping reports from a bug into too many buckets. For example, if you compile your application one more time without any changes Module Build Date will changes however and same crash will be placed to another bucket, and weaknesses in the expanding heuristics, which result in mapping more than one bug into the same bucket. For example, if two different bugs crash inside strlen function because they call it with corrupted string there will be only one bucket for both; this occurs because the bucket is generated on the Windows OS client without performing any symbol analysis on the memory dump.
The module, picked by the Windows Error Reporting client is the module at the top of the stack. Investigations of many reports result in a faulting module, different from the original bucket determination. Software & hardware manufacturers may access their error reports using Microsoft's Windows Dev Center Hardware and Desktop Dashboard program. In order to ensure that error reporting data only goes to the engineers responsible for the product, Microsoft requires that interested vendors obtain a VeriSign Class 3 Digital ID or DigiCert certificate. Digital certificates provided by cheaper providers are not accepted. Software and hardware manufacturers can close the loop with their customers by linking error signatures to Windows Error Reporting Responses; this allows distributing solutions as well as collecting extra information from customers and providing them with support links. Microsoft has reported that data collected from Windows Error Reporting has made a huge difference in the way software is developed internally.
For instance, in 2002, Steve Ballmer noted that error reports enabled the Windows team to fix 29% of all Windows XP errors with Windows XP SP1. Over half of all Microsoft Office
Windows XP editions
Windows XP has been released in several editions since its original release in 2001. Windows XP is available in many languages. In addition, add-ons translating the user interface are available for certain languages; the first two editions released by Microsoft are Windows XP Home Edition, designed for home users, Windows XP Professional, designed for business and power users. Windows XP Professional offers a number of features unavailable in the Home Edition, including: The ability to become part of a Windows Server domain, a group of computers that are remotely managed by one or more central servers. An access control scheme that allows specific permissions on files to be granted to specific users under normal circumstances. However, users can use tools other than Windows Explorer, or restart to Safe Mode to modify access control lists. Remote Desktop server, which allows a PC to be operated by another Windows XP user over a local area network or the Internet. Offline Files and Folders, which allow the PC to automatically store a copy of files from another networked computer and work with them while disconnected from the network.
Encrypting File System, which encrypts files stored on the computer's hard drive so they cannot be read by another user with physical access to the storage medium. Centralized administration features, including Group Policies, Automatic Software Installation and Maintenance, Roaming User Profiles, Remote Installation Services. Internet Information Services, Microsoft's HTTP and FTP Server. Support for two physical central processing units. Windows Management Instrumentation Console: WMIC is a command-line tool designed to ease WMI information retrieval about a system by using simple keywords; the ability to switch hard disk storage type from Basic to Dynamic and vice versa. In March 2004, the European Commission fined Microsoft €497 million and ordered the company to provide a version of Windows without Windows Media Player; the Commission concluded that Microsoft "broke European Union competition law by leveraging its near monopoly in the market for PC operating systems onto the markets for work group server operating systems and for media players".
After unsuccessful appeals in 2004 and 2005, Microsoft reached an agreement with the Commission where it would release a court-compliant version, Windows XP Edition N. This version does not include the company's Windows Media Player but instead encourages users to pick and download their own media player. Microsoft wanted to call this version Reduced Media Edition, but EU regulators objected and suggested the Edition N name, with the N signifying "not with Media Player" for both Home and Professional editions of Windows XP; because it is sold at the same price as the version with Windows Media Player included, Hewlett-Packard and Fujitsu Siemens have chosen not to stock the product. However, Dell did offer the operating system for a short time. Consumer interest has been low, with 1,500 units shipped to OEMs, no reported sales to consumers; the N editions of Windows XP do not include Windows Movie Maker, but Microsoft has made this available as a separate download. In December 2005, the Korean Fair Trade Commission ordered Microsoft to make available editions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 that do not contain Windows Media Player or Windows Messenger.
Like the European Commission decision, this decision was based on the grounds that Microsoft had abused its dominant position in the market to push other products onto consumers. Unlike that decision, Microsoft was forced to withdraw the non-compliant versions of Windows from the South Korean market; the K and KN editions of Windows XP Home Edition and Professional Edition were released in August 2006, are only available in English and Korean. Both editions contain links to third-party instant media player software; this edition of Windows XP Home is intended for sale with certain "low-cost" netbooks and will appear labeled as "Windows XP Home Edition ULCPC". This version comes preinstalled on OEM solutions providing desktops on Blade PC hardware. In addition to a copy of Windows XP Professional, it includes a Remote Desktop License. Windows XP Starter Edition is a lower-cost version of Windows XP available in Thailand, Turkey, India, Russia, Brazil, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Uruguay and Venezuela.
It is similar to Windows XP Home, but is limited to low-end hardware, can only run 3 programs at a time, has some other features either removed or disabled by default. According to a Microsoft press release, Windows XP Starter Edition is "a low-cost introduction to the Microsoft Windows XP operating system designed for first-time desktop PC users in developing countries." The Starter Edition includes some special features for certain markets where consumers may not be computer literate. Not found in the Home Edition, these include localised help features for those who may not speak English, a country-specific computer wallpaper and screensavers, other default settings designed for easier use than typical Windows XP installations; the Malaysian version, for example, contains a desktop background of the Kuala Lumpur skyline. In addition, the Starter Edition has some unique limitations to prevent it from displacing more expensive versions of Windows XP. Only three applications can be run at once on the Starter Edition, each application may open a maxim