The user interface, in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur. The goal of this interaction is to allow effective operation and control of the machine from the human end, whilst the machine feeds back information that aids the operators' decision-making process. Examples of this broad concept of user interfaces include the interactive aspects of computer operating systems, hand tools, heavy machinery operator controls, process controls; the design considerations applicable when creating user interfaces are related to or involve such disciplines as ergonomics and psychology. The goal of user interface design is to produce a user interface which makes it easy and enjoyable to operate a machine in the way which produces the desired result; this means that the operator needs to provide minimal input to achieve the desired output, that the machine minimizes undesired outputs to the human. User interfaces are composed of one or more layers including a human-machine interface interfaces machines with physical input hardware such a keyboards, game pads and output hardware such as computer monitors and printers.
A device that implements a HMI is called a human interface device. Other terms for human-machine interfaces are man–machine interface and when the machine in question is a computer human–computer interface. Additional UI layers may interact with one or more human sense, including: tactile UI, visual UI, auditory UI, olfactory UI, equilibrial UI, gustatory UI. Composite user interfaces are UIs that interact with two or more senses; the most common CUI is a graphical user interface, composed of a tactile UI and a visual UI capable of displaying graphics. When sound is added to a GUI it becomes a multimedia user interface. There are three broad categories of CUI: standard and augmented. Standard composite user interfaces use standard human interface devices like keyboards and computer monitors; when the CUI blocks out the real world to create a virtual reality, the CUI is virtual and uses a virtual reality interface. When the CUI does not block out the real world and creates augmented reality, the CUI is augmented and uses an augmented reality interface.
When a UI interacts with all human senses, it is called a qualia interface, named after the theory of qualia. CUI may be classified by how many senses they interact with as either an X-sense virtual reality interface or X-sense augmented reality interface, where X is the number of senses interfaced with. For example, a Smell-O-Vision is a 3-sense Standard CUI with visual display and smells; the user interface or human–machine interface is the part of the machine that handles the human–machine interaction. Membrane switches, rubber keypads and touchscreens are examples of the physical part of the Human Machine Interface which we can see and touch. In complex systems, the human–machine interface is computerized; the term human–computer interface refers to this kind of system. In the context of computing, the term extends as well to the software dedicated to control the physical elements used for human-computer interaction; the engineering of the human–machine interfaces is enhanced by considering ergonomics.
The corresponding disciplines are human factors engineering and usability engineering, part of systems engineering. Tools used for incorporating human factors in the interface design are developed based on knowledge of computer science, such as computer graphics, operating systems, programming languages. Nowadays, we use the expression graphical user interface for human–machine interface on computers, as nearly all of them are now using graphics. There is a difference between a user interface and an operator interface or a human–machine interface; the term "user interface" is used in the context of computer systems and electronic devices Where a network of equipment or computers are interlinked through an MES -or Host to display information. A human-machine interface is local to one machine or piece of equipment, is the interface method between the human and the equipment/machine. An operator interface is the interface method by which multiple equipment that are linked by a host control system is accessed or controlled.
The system may expose several user interfaces to serve different kinds of users. For example, a computerized library database might provide two user interfaces, one for library patrons and the other for library personnel; the user interface of a mechanical system, a vehicle or an industrial installation is sometimes referred to as the human–machine interface. HMI is a modification of the original term MMI. In practice, the abbreviation MMI is still used although some may claim that MMI stands for something different now. Another abbreviation is HCI, but is more used for human–computer interaction. Other terms used are operator interface terminal; however it is abbreviated, the terms refer to the'layer' that separates a human, operating a machine from the machine itself. Without a clean and usable interface, humans would not be able to
A command-line interface or command language interpreter known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface, is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text. A program which handles the interface is called shell; the CLI was the primary means of interaction with most computer systems on computer terminals in the mid-1960s, continued to be used throughout the 1970s and 1980s on OpenVMS, Unix systems and personal computer systems including MS-DOS, CP/M and Apple DOS. The interface is implemented with a command line shell, a program that accepts commands as text input and converts commands into appropriate operating system functions. Today, many end users if use command-line interfaces and instead rely upon graphical user interfaces and menu-driven interactions. However, many software developers, system administrators and advanced users still rely on command-line interfaces to perform tasks more efficiently, configure their machine, or access programs and program features that are not available through a graphical interface.
Alternatives to the command line include, but are not limited to text user interface menus, keyboard shortcuts, various other desktop metaphors centered on the pointer. Examples of this include the Windows versions 1, 2, 3, 3.1, 3.11, DosShell, Mouse Systems PowerPanel. Programs with command-line interfaces are easier to automate via scripting. Command-line interfaces for software other than operating systems include a number of programming languages such as Tcl/Tk, PHP, others, as well as utilities such as the compression utility WinZip, some FTP and SSH/Telnet clients. Compared with a graphical user interface, a command line requires fewer system resources to implement. Since options to commands are given in a few characters in each command line, an experienced user finds the options easier to access. Automation of repetitive tasks is simplified - most operating systems using a command line interface support some mechanism for storing used sequences in a disk file, for re-use. A command-line history can be kept, allowing repetition of commands.
A command-line system may require paper or online manuals for the user's reference, although a "help" option provides a concise review of the options of a command. The command-line environment may not provide the graphical enhancements such as different fonts or extended edit windows found in a GUI, it may be difficult for a new user to become familiar with all the commands and options available, compared with the drop-down menus of a graphical user interface, without repeated reference to manuals. Operating system command line interfaces are distinct programs supplied with the operating system. A program that implements such a text interface is called a command-line interpreter, command processor or shell. Examples of command-line interpreters include DEC's DIGITAL Command Language in OpenVMS and RSX-11, the various Unix shells, CP/M's CCP, DOS's COMMAND. COM, as well as the OS/2 and the Windows CMD. EXE programs, the latter groups being based on DEC's RSX-11 and RSTS CLIs. Under most operating systems, it is possible to replace the default shell program with alternatives.
Although the term'shell' is used to describe a command-line interpreter speaking a'shell' can be any program that constitutes the user-interface, including graphically oriented ones. For example, the default Windows GUI is a shell program named EXPLORER. EXE, as defined in the SHELL=EXPLORER. EXE line in the WIN. INI configuration file; these programs are shells, but not CLIs. Application programs may have command line interfaces. An application program may support none, any, or all of these three major types of command line interface mechanisms: Parameters: Most operating systems support a means to pass additional information to a program when it is launched; when a program is launched from an OS command line shell, additional text provided along with the program name is passed to the launched program. Interactive command line sessions: After launch, a program may provide an operator with an independent means to enter commands in the form of text. OS inter-process communication: Most operating systems support means of inter-process communication.
Command lines from client processes may be redirected to a CLI program by one of these methods. Some applications support only a CLI, presenting a CLI prompt to the user and acting upon command lines as they are entered. Other programs support both a CLI and a GUI. In some cases, a GUI is a wrapper around a separate CLI executable file. In other cases, a program may provide a CLI as an optional alternative to its GUI. CLIs and GUIs support different functionality. For example, all features of MATLAB, a numerical analysis computer program, are available via the CLI, whereas the MATLAB GUI exposes only a subset of features; the early Sierra games, such as the first three King's Quest games, used commands from an internal command line to move the character around in the graphic window. The command-line interface evolved from a form of dialog once conducted by humans over teleprinter machines, in which human operators remotely exchanged inf
Development of Windows XP
Development of Windows XP started on February 5, 1999 in the form of Windows Neptune. Neptune was going to be the successor of Windows ME, though based on the NT kernel. Microsoft merged the teams working on Neptune with that of Windows Odyssey, Windows 2000's successor, in early 2000; the resulting project, codenamed "Whistler", went on to become Windows XP. Development work on Windows XP was completed in August 2001, the operating system was released on October 25 of that year. In the late 1990s, initial development of what would become Windows XP was focused on two individual products. Based on the NT 5.0 kernel in Windows 2000, Neptune focused on offering a simplified, task-based interface based on a concept known internally as "activity centers" planned to be implemented in Windows 98. A number of activity centers were planned, serving as hubs for email communications, playing music, managing or viewing photos, searching the Internet, viewing used content. A single build of Neptune, 5111, revealed early work on the activity center concept, with an updated user account interface and graphical login screen, common functions being accessible from a customizable "Starting Places" page.
It was confirmed that Microsoft were planning a successor to Neptune known as Triton, although it was thought to be a service pack to Neptune. However, the project proved to be too ambitious. Microsoft discussed a plan to delay Neptune in favor of an interim OS known as "Asteroid", which would have been an update to Windows 2000, have a consumer-oriented version. At the WinHEC conference on April 7, 1999, Steve Ballmer announced an updated version of Windows 98 known as Windows Millennium, breaking a promise made by Microsoft CEO Bill Gates in 1998 that Windows 98 would be the final consumer-oriented version of Windows to use the MS-DOS architecture. Concepts introduced by Neptune would influence future Windows products. In January 2000, shortly prior to the official release of Windows 2000, technology writer Paul Thurrott reported that Microsoft had shelved both Neptune and Odyssey in favor of a new product codenamed "Whistler", after Whistler, British Columbia, as many Microsoft employees skied at the Whistler-Blackcomb ski resort.
The goal of Whistler was to unify both the consumer and business-oriented Windows lines under a single, Windows NT platform: Thurrott stated that Neptune had become "a black hole when all the features that were cut from were re-tagged as Neptune features. And since Neptune and Odyssey would be based on the same code-base anyway, it made sense to combine them into a single project". At WinHEC in April 2000, Microsoft announced and presented an early build of Whistler, focusing on a new modularized architecture, built-in CD burning, fast user switching, updated versions of the digital media features introduced by ME. Windows general manager Carl Stork stated that Whistler would be released in both consumer- and business-oriented versions built atop the same architecture, that there were plans to update the Windows interface to make it "warmer and more friendly". In June 2000, Microsoft began the technical beta testing process. Whistler was expected to be made available in "Personal", "Professional", "Server", "Advanced Server", "Datacenter" editions.
At PDC on July 13, 2000, Microsoft announced that Whistler would be released during the second half of 2001, released the first preview build, 2250. The build notably introduced an early version of a new visual styles system along with an interim theme known as "Professional", contained a hidden "Start page", a hidden, early version of a two-column Start menu design; the Professional/Watercolor theme was never meant to be the final theme for Whistler, in fact it has been stated that Microsoft used Watercolor as a decoy, until they were ready to show Luna. Build 2257 featured further refinements to the Watercolor theme, along with the official introduction of the two-column Start menu, the addition of an early version of Windows Firewall. Microsoft released Whistler Beta 1, build 2296, on October 31, 2000. In January 2001, build 2410 introduced Internet Explorer 6.0 and the Microsoft Product Activation system. Bill Gates dedicated a portion of his keynote at Consumer Electronics Show to discuss Whistler, explaining that the OS would bring " dependability of our highest end corporate desktop, total dependability, to the home," and "move it in the direction of making it consumer-oriented.
Making it friendly for the home user to use." Alongside Beta 1, it was announced that Microsoft would prioritize the release of the consumer-oriented versions of Whistler over the server-oriented versions in order to gauge reaction, but that they would be both available during the second half of 2001. Builds 2416 and 2419 added the File and Trans
DOS is a family of disk operating systems, hence the name. DOS consists of MS-DOS and a rebranded version under the name IBM PC DOS, both of which were introduced in 1981. Other compatible systems from other manufacturers include DR-DOS, ROM-DOS, PTS-DOS, FreeDOS. MS-DOS dominated the x86-based IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995. Dozens of other operating systems use the acronym "DOS", including the mainframe DOS/360 from 1966. Others are Apple DOS, Apple ProDOS, Atari DOS, Commodore DOS, TRSDOS, AmigaDOS. Fictional operating systems have used this acronym as well, such as GLaDOS from the video game Portal. IBM PC DOS and its predecessor, 86-DOS, resembled Digital Research's CP/M—the dominant disk operating system for 8-bit Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80 microcomputers—but instead ran on Intel 8086 16-bit processors; when IBM introduced the IBM PC, built with the Intel 8088 microprocessor, they needed an operating system. Seeking an 8088-compatible build of CP/M, IBM approached Microsoft CEO Bill Gates.
IBM was sent to Digital Research, a meeting was set up. However, the initial negotiations for the use of CP/M broke down. Digital Research founder Gary Kildall refused, IBM withdrew. IBM again approached Bill Gates. Gates in turn approached Seattle Computer Products. There, programmer Tim Paterson had developed a variant of CP/M-80, intended as an internal product for testing SCP's new 16-bit Intel 8086 CPU card for the S-100 bus; the system was named QDOS, before being made commercially available as 86-DOS. Microsoft purchased 86-DOS for $50,000; this became Microsoft Disk Operating System, MS-DOS, introduced in 1981. Within a year Microsoft licensed MS-DOS to over 70 other companies, which supplied the operating system for their own hardware, sometimes under their own names. Microsoft required the use of the MS-DOS name, with the exception of the IBM variant. IBM continued to develop their version, PC DOS, for the IBM PC. Digital Research became aware that an operating system similar to CP/M was being sold by IBM, threatened legal action.
IBM responded by offering an agreement: they would give PC consumers a choice of PC DOS or CP/M-86, Kildall's 8086 version. Side-by-side, CP/M cost $200 more than PC DOS, sales were low. CP/M faded, with MS-DOS and PC DOS becoming the marketed operating system for PCs and PC compatibles. Microsoft sold MS-DOS only to original equipment manufacturers. One major reason for this was. DOS was structured such that there was a separation between the system specific device driver code and the DOS kernel. Microsoft provided an OEM Adaptation Kit which allowed OEMs to customize the device driver code to their particular system. By the early 1990s, most PCs adhered to IBM PC standards so Microsoft began selling MS-DOS in retail with MS-DOS 5.0. In the mid-1980s Microsoft developed a multitasking version of DOS; this version of DOS is referred to as "European MS-DOS 4" because it was developed for ICL and licensed to several European companies. This version of DOS supports preemptive multitasking, shared memory, device helper services and New Executable format executables.
None of these features were used in versions of DOS, but they were used to form the basis of the OS/2 1.0 kernel. This version of DOS is distinct from the released PC DOS 4.0, developed by IBM and based upon DOS 3.3. Digital Research attempted to regain the market lost from CP/M-86 with Concurrent DOS, FlexOS and DOS Plus with Multiuser DOS and DR DOS. Digital Research was bought by Novell, DR DOS became Novell DOS 7. Gordon Letwin wrote in 1995 that "DOS was, when we first wrote it, a one-time throw-away product intended to keep IBM happy so that they'd buy our languages". Microsoft expected; the company planned to over time improve MS-DOS so it would be indistinguishable from single-user Xenix, or XEDOS, which would run on the Motorola 68000, Zilog Z-8000, LSI-11. IBM, did not want to replace DOS. After AT&T began selling Unix, Microsoft and IBM began developing OS/2 as an alternative; the two companies had a series of disagreements over two successor operating systems to DOS, OS/2 and Windows.
They split development of their DOS systems as a result. The last retail version of MS-DOS was MS-DOS 6.22. The last retail version of PC DOS was PC DOS 2000, though IBM did develop PC DOS 7.10 for OEMs and internal use. The FreeDOS project began on 26 June 1994, when Microsoft announced it would no longer sell or support MS-DOS. Jim Hall posted a manifesto proposing the development of an open-source replacement. Within a few weeks, other programmers including Pat Villani and Tim Norman joined the project. A kernel, the COMMAND. COM command line interpreter, core utilities were created by pooling code they had wri
Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, licenses and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, related services, its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers; as of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public offering, subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android; the company produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search, the digital services market, mixed reality, cloud computing and software development. Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, envisioned a "devices and services" strategy; this began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999. In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010. Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he dropped out of school to work at Honeywell; the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's Altair 8800 microcomputer, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration.
Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC. Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO; the original name of "Micro-Soft" was suggested by Allen. In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft". Microsoft moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer.
For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, though IBM rebranded it to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft became the leading PC operating systems vendor; the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease. Allen claimed that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough. After leaving Microsoft, Allen lost billions of dollars on ill-conceived or mistimed technology investments.
He invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate. Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in
Kubernetes is an open-source container orchestration system for automating application deployment and management. It was designed by Google, is now maintained by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation, it aims to provide a "platform for automating deployment and operations of application containers across clusters of hosts". It works with a range including Docker. Many cloud services offer a Kubernetes-based platform or infrastructure as a service on which Kubernetes can be deployed as a platform-providing service. Many vendors provide their own branded Kubernetes distributions. Kubernetes was founded by Joe Beda, Brendan Burns and Craig McLuckie, who were joined by other Google engineers including Brian Grant and Tim Hockin, was first announced by Google in mid-2014, its development and design are influenced by Google's Borg system, many of the top contributors to the project worked on Borg. The original codename for Kubernetes within Google was Project Seven of Nine, a reference to a Star Trek character, a "friendlier" Borg.
The seven spokes on the wheel of the Kubernetes logo are a reference to that codename. The original Borg project was written in C++, but the rewritten Kubernetes system is implemented in Go. Kubernetes v1.0 was released on July 21, 2015. Along with the Kubernetes v1.0 release, Google partnered with the Linux Foundation to form the Cloud Native Computing Foundation and offered Kubernetes as a seed technology. On March 6, 2018, Kubernetes Project reached ninth place in commits at GitHub, second place in authors and issues to the Linux kernel. Kubernetes defines a set of building blocks, which collectively provide mechanisms that deploy and scale applications based on CPU, memory or custom metrics. Kubernetes is loosely extensible to meet different workloads; this extensibility is provided in large part by the Kubernetes API, used by internal components as well as extensions and containers that run on Kubernetes.. The platform exerts its control over compute and storage resources by defining resources as Objects, which can be managed as such.
The key objects are: The basic scheduling unit in Kubernetes is a pod. It adds a higher level of abstraction by grouping containerized components. A pod consists of one or more containers that are guaranteed to be co-located on the host machine and can share resources; each pod in Kubernetes is assigned a unique Pod IP address within the cluster, which allows applications to use ports without the risk of conflict. Within the pod, all containers can reference each other on localhost, but a container within one pod has no way of directly addressing another container within another pod. An application developer should never use the Pod IP Address though, to reference / invoke a capability in another pod, as Pod IP addresses are ephemeral - the specific pod that they are referencing may be assigned to another Pod IP address on restart. Instead, they should use a reference to a Service, which holds a reference to the target pod at the specific Pod IP Address. A pod can define a volume, such as a local disk directory or a network disk, expose it to the containers in the pod.
Pods can be managed manually through the Kubernetes API, or their management can be delegated to a controller. Such volumes are the basis for the Kubernetes features of ConfigMaps and Secrets. A Kubernetes service is a set of pods that work together, such as one tier of a multi-tier application; the set of pods that constitute a service are defined by a label selector. Kubernetes provides two modes of service discovery, using environmental variables or using Kubernetes DNS. Service discovery assigns a stable IP address and DNS name to the service, load balances traffic in a round-robin manner to network connections of that IP address among the pods matching the selector. By default a service is exposed inside a cluster, but a service can be exposed outside a cluster. Filesystems in the Kubernetes container provide ephemeral storage, by default; this means that a restart of the container will wipe out any data on such containers, therefore, this form of storage is quite limiting in anything but trivial applications.
A Kubernetes Volume provides persistent storage. This storage can be used as shared disk space for containers within the pod. Volumes are mounted at specific mount points within the container, which are defined by the pod configuration, cannot mount onto other volumes or link to other volumes; the same volume can be mounted at different points in the filesystem tree by different containers. Kubernetes provides a partitioning of the resources it manages into non-overlapping sets called namespaces, they are intended for use in environments with many users spread across multiple teams, or projects, or separating environments like development and production. Kubernetes provides some mechanisms that allow one to select, or manipulate its objects. Kubernetes enables clients to attach key-value pairs called "labels" to any API object in the system, such
Windows XP editions
Windows XP has been released in several editions since its original release in 2001. Windows XP is available in many languages. In addition, add-ons translating the user interface are available for certain languages; the first two editions released by Microsoft are Windows XP Home Edition, designed for home users, Windows XP Professional, designed for business and power users. Windows XP Professional offers a number of features unavailable in the Home Edition, including: The ability to become part of a Windows Server domain, a group of computers that are remotely managed by one or more central servers. An access control scheme that allows specific permissions on files to be granted to specific users under normal circumstances. However, users can use tools other than Windows Explorer, or restart to Safe Mode to modify access control lists. Remote Desktop server, which allows a PC to be operated by another Windows XP user over a local area network or the Internet. Offline Files and Folders, which allow the PC to automatically store a copy of files from another networked computer and work with them while disconnected from the network.
Encrypting File System, which encrypts files stored on the computer's hard drive so they cannot be read by another user with physical access to the storage medium. Centralized administration features, including Group Policies, Automatic Software Installation and Maintenance, Roaming User Profiles, Remote Installation Services. Internet Information Services, Microsoft's HTTP and FTP Server. Support for two physical central processing units. Windows Management Instrumentation Console: WMIC is a command-line tool designed to ease WMI information retrieval about a system by using simple keywords; the ability to switch hard disk storage type from Basic to Dynamic and vice versa. In March 2004, the European Commission fined Microsoft €497 million and ordered the company to provide a version of Windows without Windows Media Player; the Commission concluded that Microsoft "broke European Union competition law by leveraging its near monopoly in the market for PC operating systems onto the markets for work group server operating systems and for media players".
After unsuccessful appeals in 2004 and 2005, Microsoft reached an agreement with the Commission where it would release a court-compliant version, Windows XP Edition N. This version does not include the company's Windows Media Player but instead encourages users to pick and download their own media player. Microsoft wanted to call this version Reduced Media Edition, but EU regulators objected and suggested the Edition N name, with the N signifying "not with Media Player" for both Home and Professional editions of Windows XP; because it is sold at the same price as the version with Windows Media Player included, Hewlett-Packard and Fujitsu Siemens have chosen not to stock the product. However, Dell did offer the operating system for a short time. Consumer interest has been low, with 1,500 units shipped to OEMs, no reported sales to consumers; the N editions of Windows XP do not include Windows Movie Maker, but Microsoft has made this available as a separate download. In December 2005, the Korean Fair Trade Commission ordered Microsoft to make available editions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 that do not contain Windows Media Player or Windows Messenger.
Like the European Commission decision, this decision was based on the grounds that Microsoft had abused its dominant position in the market to push other products onto consumers. Unlike that decision, Microsoft was forced to withdraw the non-compliant versions of Windows from the South Korean market; the K and KN editions of Windows XP Home Edition and Professional Edition were released in August 2006, are only available in English and Korean. Both editions contain links to third-party instant media player software; this edition of Windows XP Home is intended for sale with certain "low-cost" netbooks and will appear labeled as "Windows XP Home Edition ULCPC". This version comes preinstalled on OEM solutions providing desktops on Blade PC hardware. In addition to a copy of Windows XP Professional, it includes a Remote Desktop License. Windows XP Starter Edition is a lower-cost version of Windows XP available in Thailand, Turkey, India, Russia, Brazil, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Uruguay and Venezuela.
It is similar to Windows XP Home, but is limited to low-end hardware, can only run 3 programs at a time, has some other features either removed or disabled by default. According to a Microsoft press release, Windows XP Starter Edition is "a low-cost introduction to the Microsoft Windows XP operating system designed for first-time desktop PC users in developing countries." The Starter Edition includes some special features for certain markets where consumers may not be computer literate. Not found in the Home Edition, these include localised help features for those who may not speak English, a country-specific computer wallpaper and screensavers, other default settings designed for easier use than typical Windows XP installations; the Malaysian version, for example, contains a desktop background of the Kuala Lumpur skyline. In addition, the Starter Edition has some unique limitations to prevent it from displacing more expensive versions of Windows XP. Only three applications can be run at once on the Starter Edition, each application may open a maxim