Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are laid in and bound together by mortar. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, building stone such as marble and limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass block, adobe. Masonry is a durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and workmanship, the pattern in which the units are assembled can affect the durability of the overall masonry construction. A person who constructs masonry is called a bricklayer; these are both classified as construction trades. Masonry is used for walls and buildings. Brick and concrete block are the most common types of masonry in use in industrialized nations and may be either weight-bearing or a veneer. Concrete blocks those with hollow cores, offer various possibilities in masonry construction, they provide great compressive strength, are best suited to structures with light transverse loading when the cores remain unfilled. Filling some or all of the cores with concrete or concrete with steel reinforcement offers much greater tensile and lateral strength to structures.
The use of material such as bricks and stones can increase the thermal mass of a building. Masonry can protect the building from fire. Masonry walls are more resistant to projectiles, such as debris from tornadoes. Extreme weather, under certain circumstances, can cause degradation of masonry due to expansion and contractions forces associated with freeze-thaw cycles. Masonry tends to be heavy and must be built upon a strong foundation, such as reinforced concrete, to avoid settling and cracking. Other than concrete, masonry construction does not lend itself well to mechanization, requires more skilled labor than stick-framing. Masonry consists of loose components and has a low tolerance to oscillation as compared to other materials such as reinforced concrete, wood, or metals. Masonry has high compressive strength under vertical loads but has low tensile strength unless reinforced; the tensile strength of masonry walls can be increased by thickening the wall, or by building masonry piers at intervals.
Where practical, steel reinforcements such as windposts can be added. A masonry veneer wall consists of masonry units clay-based bricks, installed on one or both sides of a structurally independent wall constructed of wood or masonry. In this context the brick masonry is decorative, not structural; the brick veneer is connected to the structural wall by brick ties. There is an air gap between the brick veneer and the structural wall; as clay-based brick is not waterproof, the structural wall will have a water-resistant surface and weep holes can be left at the base of the brick veneer to drain moisture that accumulates inside the air gap. Concrete blocks and cultured stones, veneer adobe are sometimes used in a similar veneer fashion. Most insulated buildings that utilize concrete block, adobe, veneers or some combination thereof feature interior insulation in the form of fiberglass batts between wooden wall studs or in the form of rigid insulation boards covered with plaster or drywall. In most climates this insulation is much more effective on the exterior of the wall, allowing the building interior to take advantage of the aforementioned thermal mass of the masonry.
This technique does, require some sort of weather-resistant exterior surface over the insulation and is more expensive. The strength of a masonry wall is not dependent on the bond between the building material and the mortar; the blocks sometimes have grooves or other surface features added to enhance this interlocking, some dry set masonry structures forgo mortar altogether. Solid brickwork is made of two or more wythes of bricks with the units running horizontally bound together with bricks running transverse to the wall; each row of bricks is known as a course. The pattern of headers and stretchers employed gives rise to different'bonds' such as the common bond, the English bond, the Flemish bond. Bonds can differ in insulating ability. Vertically staggered bonds tend to be somewhat stronger and less prone to major cracking than a non-staggered bond; the wide selection of brick styles and types available in industrialized nations allow much variety in the appearance of the final product. In buildings built during the 1950s-1970s, a high degree of uniformity of brick and accuracy in masonry was typical.
In the period since this style was thought to be too sterile, so attempts were made to emulate older, rougher work. Some brick surfaces are made to look rustic by including burnt bricks, which have a darker color or an irregular shape. Others may use antique salvage bricks, or new bricks may be artificially aged by applying various surface treatments, such as tumbling; the attempts at rusticity of the late 20th century have been carried forward by masons specializing in a free, artistic style, where the courses are intentionally not straight, instead weaving to form more organic impressions. A crinkle-crankl
A chain-link fence is a type of woven fence made from galvanized or LLDPE-coated steel wire. The wires run vertically and are bent into a zig-zag pattern so that each "zig" hooks with the wire on one side and each "zag" with the wire on the other; this forms the characteristic diamond pattern seen in this type of fence. In the United Kingdom, the firm of Barnard, Bishop & Barnard was established in Norwich to produce chain-link fencing by machine; the process was developed by Charles Barnard in 1844 based on cloth weaving machines. The Anchor Post Fence Co. established in 1891, bought the rights to the wire-weaving machine and was the first company to manufacture chain-link fencing in the United States. Anchor Fence holds the first United States patent for chain-link; the machine was purchased from a man in 1845 from Belgium who invented the wire bending machine. In the United States, fencing comes in 20 ft and 50 ft rolls, which can be joined by "unscrewing" one of the end wires and "screwing" it back in so that it hooks both pieces.
Common heights include 3 ft, 3 ft 6 in, 4 ft, 5 ft, 6 ft, 7 ft, 8 ft, 10 ft, 12 ft, though any height is possible. Common mesh gauges are 9, 11, 11.5. Mesh length can vary based on need, with the standard mesh length being 2". For tennis courts and ball parks, the most popular height is 10 ft, tennis courts use a mesh length of 1.75". The popularity of chain-link fence is from its low cost and that the open weave does not obscure sunlight from either side of the fence. One can make a chain-link fence semi-opaque by inserting slats into the mesh. Allowing ivy to grow and interweave itself is popular; the installation of chain-link fence involves setting posts into the ground and attaching the fence to them. The posts may be steel tubing, timber or concrete and may be driven into the ground or set in concrete. End, corner or gate posts referred to as "terminal posts", must be set in concrete footing or otherwise anchored to prevent leaning under the tension of a stretched fence. Posts set between the terminal posts are called "line posts" and are set at intervals not to exceed 10 feet.
The installer attaches the fence at one end, stretches it, attaches at the other removing the excess by "unscrewing" a wire. The installer ties the fence to the line posts with aluminum wire. In many cases, the installer stretches a bottom tension wire, sometimes referred to as "coil wire", between terminal posts to help minimize the in and out movement that occurs at the bottom of the chain-link mesh between posts. Top horizontal rails are used on most chain-link fences. Bottom rails may be added in lieu of bottom tension wires, for taller fences, 10 feet or more, intermediate horizontal rails are added. Once stretched, a bottom wire should be secured to the line posts and the chain-link mesh "hog ringed" to the tension wire 2' on center. One installs this wire before installing the chain-link mesh; the manufacturing of chain-link fencing is called weaving. A metal wire galvanized to reduce corrosion, is pulled along a rotating long and flat blade, thus creating a somewhat flattened spiral; the spiral continues to rotate past the blade and winds its way through the previous spiral, part of the fence.
When the spiral reaches the far end of the fence, the spiral is cut near the blade. Next, the spiral is pressed flat and the entire fence is moved up, ready for the next cycle; the end of every second spiral overlaps the end of every first spiral. The machine clamps both gives them a few twists; this makes the links permanent. An improved version of the weaving machine winds two wires around the blade at once to create a double helix. One of the spirals is woven through the last spiral, part of the fence; this improvement allows the process to advance twice as fast. Used to notable effect in the Gehry Residence by Frank Gehry In Professional Wrestling, several wrestling match variations require that chain-link fencing surround the ring in an open "cage" style. Most popularly, in the steel cage match variation and the larger, closed cage match type specific to WWE, Hell in a Cell. Backstops used in baseball and softball fields Before the advent of gravel trap in the half of the 1980s, racetracks used chain-link fencing as catch fences to slow out-of-control cars before they hit barriers.
In the 2000s, American dirt tracks still used them. London fitted many parks with chain-link fencing during the Second World War after removing the original iron and steel railings as scrap for the war effort. Temporary fencing Chicken wire Iron Wire gauze Chain-link Fence Manufacturers Institute
The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology, of political philosophy, of colloquial use. In sociology and in everyday usage, it is a synonym for "ethnic pluralism", with the two terms used interchangeably, for example, a cultural pluralism in which various ethnic groups collaborate and enter into a dialogue with one another without having to sacrifice their particular identities, it can describe a mixed ethnic community area where multiple cultural traditions exist or a single country within which they do. Groups associated with an aboriginal or autochthonous ethnic group and foreigner ethnic groups are the focus. In reference to sociology, multiculturalism is the end-state of either a natural or artificial process and occurs on either a large national scale or on a smaller scale within a nation's communities. On a smaller scale this can occur artificially when a jurisdiction is established or expanded by amalgamating areas with two or more different cultures.
On a large scale, it can occur as a result of either legal or illegal migration to and from different jurisdictions around the world. Multiculturalism as a political philosophy involves policies which vary widely, it has been described as as a "cultural mosaic" -- in contrast to a melting pot. In the political philosophy of multiculturalism, ideas are focused on the ways in which societies are either believed to or should, respond to cultural and religious differences, it is associated with "identity politics", "the politics of difference", "the politics of recognition". It is a matter of economic interests and political power. In more recent times political multiculturalist ideologies have been expanding in their use to include and define disadvantaged groups such as African Americans, LGBT, with arguments focusing on ethnic and religious minorities, minority nations, indigenous peoples and the disabled, it is within this context in which the term is most understood and the broadness and scope of the definition, as well as its practical use, has been the subject of serious debate.
Most debates over multiculturalism center around whether or not multiculturalism is the appropriate way to deal with diversity and immigrant integration. The arguments regarding the perceived rights to a multicultural education include the proposition that it acts as a way to demand recognition of aspects of a group's culture subordination and its entire experience in contrast to a melting pot or non-multicultural societies; the term multiculturalism is most used in reference to Western nation-states, which had achieved a de facto single national identity during the 18th and/or 19th centuries. Multiculturalism has been official policy in several Western nations since the 1970s, for reasons that varied from country to country, including the fact that many of the great cities of the Western world are made of a mosaic of cultures; the Canadian government has been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration. The Canadian Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism is referred to as the origins of modern political awareness of multiculturalism.
In the Western English-speaking countries, multiculturalism as an official national policy started in Canada in 1971, followed by Australia in 1973 where it is maintained today. It was adopted as official policy by most member-states of the European Union. Right-of-center governments in several European states – notably the Netherlands and Denmark – have reversed the national policy and returned to an official monoculturalism. A similar reversal is the subject of debate in the United Kingdom, among others, due to evidence of incipient segregation and anxieties over "home-grown" terrorism. Several heads-of-state or heads-of-government have expressed doubts about the success of multicultural policies: The United Kingdom's ex-Prime Minister David Cameron, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Australia's ex-prime minister John Howard, Spanish ex-prime minister Jose Maria Aznar and French ex-president Nicolas Sarkozy have voiced concerns about the effectiveness of their multicultural policies for integrating immigrants.
Many nation-states in Africa and the Americas are culturally diverse and are'multicultural' in a descriptive sense. In some, communalism is a major political issue; the policies adopted by these states have parallels with multiculturalist policies in the Western world, but the historical background is different, the goal may be a mono-cultural or mono-ethnic nation-building – for instance in the Malaysian government's attempt to create a'Malaysian race' by 2020. Multiculturalism is seen by its supporters as a fairer system that allows people to express who they are within a society, more tolerant and that adapts better to social issues, they argue that culture is not one definable thing based on one race or religion, but rather the result of multiple factors that change as the world changes. Support for modern multiculturalism stems from the changes in Western societies after World War II, in what Susanne Wessendorf calls the "human rights revolution", in which the horrors of institutionalized racism and ethnic cleansing became impossible to ignore in the wake of the Holocaust.
Music of Los Angeles
As well as being one of the most important cities in the world in the film industry, Los Angeles, California, is one of the most important places in the world for the recorded music industry. Many landmarks in Los Angeles - such as Capitol Records, which resembles a stack of albums - are representative of this. A&M Records long occupied a studio off Sunset Boulevard built by Charlie Chaplin; the Warner Bros. built a major recording business in addition to their film business. During the 1930s and 1940s Los Angeles had a vibrant African-American musical community when it was small: a numund Central Avenue, the community produced a number of great talents, including Charles Mingus, Buddy Collette, Gerald Wilson, but in the 1950s it disappeared. In the 1950s Ritchie Valens was a rock and roll pioneer and a forefather of the Chicano rock movement, Valens' recording career lasted eight months, as it abruptly ended when he died in a plane crash. In the 1960s the Sunset Strip became a breeding ground for bands like The Byrds, Buffalo Springfield, Spirit and The Doors.
The Beach Boys were founded in nearby Hawthorne. In the 1970s, bands such as Toto were some of the most'heard' bands on radio. There was a sizable punk rock movement in the 1970s which spawned the hardcore punk movement featuring bands like X, Black Flag and Wasted Youth. Los Angeles' original late 1970s punk scene received less press attention than their counterparts in New York or London, but it included cult bands the Screamers, the Germs, the Weirdos, the Dils, the Bags, 45 Grave, Nervous Gender, X. There was an East LA music scene that spawned bands like Los Lobos, The Plugz, Los Illegals among many others. In the 1980s, the Paisley Underground movement was native to Los Angeles in rock music. In rap music, the seminal career of N. W. A. would lead the development of G-Funk out of the combination of P-Funk and gangsta rap. Much internationally acclaimed hard rock has come out of Los Angeles since the 1980s, including hard rockers Van Halen from nearby Pasadena. In the early'90s, many of the biggest alternative rock / alternative metal bands such as Tool, Jane's Addiction, Rage Against the Machine and Red Hot Chili Peppers hailed from the Los Angeles area.
In the mid-1990s, Los Angeles' contribution to rock music continued with acclaimed artists such as Elliott Smith, Beck and Sublime of Long Beach. At the end of the 1990s, the nu metal band Linkin Park was formed in Agoura, was named after Lincoln Park in Santa Monica, near their recording studio. In addition, the gangsta rap and G-funk of the solo careers of Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, Ice Cube, Tupac Shakur and Snoop Dogg, among related acts, flourished in this decade and reestablished Los Angeles as a center of African-American musical development and G-funk as one of hip-hop's major living styles. In the late 1990s, indie rock artists such as Eels rose to fame. In the new millennium, the city retains its importance as a center of live rock music, of the music industry. After 2000, LA based noise rock acts like Liars, Health and No Age became famous worldwide touring bands; the Game became one of the most prominent voices in modern hip-hop, rising to prominence internationally in part due to a feud with New York's famous rapper 50 Cent.
The L. A. indie scene rides the wave through neighborhoods like Hollywood, Los Feliz and Echo Park, which have given rise to such bands as Weaving the Fate, Moving Units, Rilo Kiley, Autolux, Scarling. Giant Drag, Best Coast, Local Natives; the venue The Smell became a prominent spot after 2000 where many new avant garde indie rock acts like Abe Vigoda, Ancestors, BARR, Foot Village, Carla Bozulich, Captain Ahab, David Scott Stone, Laco$te, Lavender Diamond, The Mae Shi, Mika Miko, Nite Jewel, Mellowdrone, No Age, Silver Daggers and Upsilon Acrux started their careers. The rap-rock group Hollywood Undead represents one of the most prominent acts of the so-called budding scene music subgenre developing in Los Angeles out of the emo subculture; the rave scene and electronic music have become popular in Los Angeles in the late 2000s and 2010s. House music and drum and bass, which have all developed strong scenes in Los Angeles; the Electric Daisy Carnival festival, an electronic dance music festival and had an attendance of over 185,000 people over a two-day weekend.
Making it the largest dance music festival in North America and one of the largest in the world. Other festivals such as Together As One, Monster Massive and Hard Fest have had attendances of 50,000+ to 125,000+, Which undoubtedly makes Los Angeles the rave capital of North America. Los Angeles party crews garnered cult followings in the city's expanding nightlife culture. Event organizers Brownies & Lemonade, Space Yacht, Ham On Everything continue to host curated event series that showcase lesser-known electronic music artists; the event series vary drastically in both venue type. Past events have been held at Union Nightclub, The Roxy Theatre, the El Rey Theatre along with a variety of warehouse and gallery locations. Brownies and Lemonade helped foster the growth of artists Ryan Hemsworth, Jai Wolf, Louis the Child, Sam Gellaitry, Prince Fox, others by providing a platform for lesser known electro
Neal P. McDonough is an American actor and voice actor, known for his portrayal of Lieutenant Lynn "Buck" Compton in the HBO miniseries Band of Brothers, Deputy District Attorney David McNorris on Boomtown, Sean Cahill on Suits, Robert Quarles on Justified, William Parker in Mob City, Dave Williams on ABC's Desperate Housewives, he appeared in films such as Star Trek: First Contact, Minority Report, Walking Tall, The Guardian, Flags of Our Fathers, Red 2, The Marine 3: Homefront, The Hitcher, Paul Blart: Mall Cop 2, Proud Mary, as Dum Dum Dugan in various Marvel Cinematic Universe films and TV series. He appeared as Damien Darhk on Arrow, in Legends of Tomorrow, as well as voicing a variety of comic superheroes and villains in a number of animated films and video games. McDonough was born in Dorchester, the son of Catherine and Frank McDonough, motel owners who emigrated from Ireland, with his mother coming from County Tipperary and his father from County Galway. McDonough grew up in Barnstable and was raised Roman Catholic.
His childhood nickname was "Headster", which McDonough says originated in his brothers' teasing him about the size of his head. He graduated from Barnstable High School, attended Syracuse University, where he was initiated and became a member of the Sigma Chi Fraternity and graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in 1988, he had obtained several college scholarships to play baseball, but he decided to go to Syracuse as he thought it had the best theater department. In 1991, McDonough won the Best Actor Dramalogue for "Away Alone". McDonough has made many television and film appearances since including Band of Brothers, Star Trek: First Contact, Minority Report and The Hitcher. McDonough played Dave Williams on the fifth season of Desperate Housewives, he starred in the lead role on 2004 medical drama Medical Investigation for its one full season. McDonough was set to star in the ABC dramedy Scoundrels, but was fired for refusing to act in sex scenes, citing his family and Catholic faith as basis for his decision.
McDonough portrays Jesus in "The Truth & Life Dramatized Audio New Testament Bible," a 22-hour, celebrity-voiced dramatized audio New Testament which uses the Catholic edition of the revised standard version of the Bible. In 2011, McDonough appeared as Marvel comic book character Dum Dum Dugan in Captain America: The First Avenger. McDonough voiced the character in the 2011 movie tie-in video game, Captain America: Super Soldier, he reprised his role three times since then: in Agent Carter. H. I. E. L. D.. In 2012, McDonough had a recurring role in the third season of FX's Justified as Robert Quarles, a sadistic carpetbagging mobster from Detroit, he was cast as Police Chief Parker in Frank Darabont's TNT pilot Mob City. During the 2014 Winter Olympics opening ceremony on NBC, McDonough was featured in a high-profile and aired Poolside commercial for the Cadillac ELR hybrid electric car. In 2015, McDonough was cast as DC Comics villain Damien Darhk on the fourth season of Arrow. McDonough is a devout Catholic.
In 2003 McDonough married Ruvé Robertson, a South African model whom McDonough met in the United Kingdom while filming Band of Brothers. The couple have five children, Morgan "Little Buck" Patrick, Catherine Maggie, London Jane, Clover Elizabeth, James Hamilton, he has stated that he refuses to do sex or kissing scenes because of his faith and respect for his wife. He claimed that he was fired from the TV series Scoundrels for his refusal in doing sex scenes. Neal McDonough on IMDb Neal McDonough at the TCM Movie Database Neal McDonough at AllMovie
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820