Calistoga is a city in Napa County, in California's Wine Country. During the 2010 census, the population was 5,155; the Upper Napa Valley was once the home of a significant population of Indigenous People, called the Wappo during the Spanish colonial era of the late 18th century. With abundant oak trees providing acorns as a food staple and the natural hot springs as a healing ground Calistoga was the site of several villages. Following Mexican Independence, mission properties were secularized and disposed of by the Mexican government with much of the Napa Valley being partitioned into large ranchos in the 1830s and 1840s; the first Anglo settlers began arriving in the 1840s, with several taking up lands in the Calistoga area. Samuel Brannan was the leader of a Mormon settlement expedition on the ship Brooklyn landing in Yerba Buena in 1846, he published the California Star. Following the discovery of gold in Coloma, Brannan pursued many business ventures, which made him California's first millionaire and became a leader in San Francisco's Committee of Vigilance.
Fascinated by Calistoga's natural hot springs, Brannan purchased more than 2,000 acres with the intent to develop a spa reminiscent of Saratoga Springs in New York. "The name of Calistoga was given to the place by Mr. Brannan, it was his boast that he was going to make the place the Saratoga of California, so he spliced the names and called it Cal toga, the middle syllable for euphony. The place had been called Hot Springs by the few Americans, Agua Caliente by the Spaniards and Indians." A writer claimed that Brannan intended to say "I'll make this place the Saratoga of California," but it came out "the Calistoga of Sarifornia". His Hot Springs Resort surrounding Mt Lincoln with the Spa/Hotel located at what is now Indian Springs Resort, opened to California's rich and famous in 1862. In 1868 Brannan's Napa Valley Railroad Company's track was completed to Calistoga; this provided an easier travel option for ferry passengers making the journey from San Francisco. With the addition of railroad service, Calistoga became not only a destination, but the transportation hub for the upper valley and a gateway to Lake and Sonoma Counties.
A 6-meter diorama of this early Calistoga can be seen in the Sharpsteen Museum. Calistoga's economy was based on mining tourism. One of the early visitors was Robert Louis Stevenson, yet to write his great novels, he had just married Fanny Vandegrift in San Francisco in May 1880, the couple honeymooned at the Calistoga Hot Springs Hotel days later. Desiring to stay in the area, they moved from the hotel to an abandoned cabin at the nearby Silverado Mine on Mount Saint Helena. While working on other stories Stevenson kept a journal which became the Silverado Squatters describing many local features and characters. Calistoga made national headlines in 1881 when Anson Tichenor claimed that he had invented a way to extract gold from the waters of the hot springs. Tichenor's invention was soon proved to be a fraud. In 1920, Giuseppe Musante, a soda fountain and candy store owner in Calistoga, was drilling for a cold water well at the Railway Exchange when he tapped into a hot water source. In 1924 he began selling Calistoga Sparkling Mineral Water.
The company became a major player in the bottled water business after Elwood Sprenger bought the small bottling plant in 1970 known today as Calistoga Water Company. Calistoga was named a Distinctive Destination by the National Trust for Historic Preservation in 2001. Scenes from the Disney movie Bedtime Stories starring Adam Sandler were filmed in Calistoga in June 2008.. In 1964 the Hanley wildfire raced down the western slope of Mt St Helena and burned all the way to the outskirts of Santa Rosa. 30 miles to the west. In 2017, the Tubbs Fire, which killed at least 19 people, started off of Highway 128 and Bennett Lane in Calistoga; the fire led to the evacuation of the entire population of Calistoga. The 2017 Tubbs Fire took the same path as the 1964 Hanley Fire According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.6 square miles, 99.30% of it land and 0.70% of it water. According to National Weather Service records, Calistoga has cool, wet winters with temperatures dropping to freezing on an average of 34.1 days.
Summers are very dry, with daytime temperatures reaching 90 °F or higher on an average of 72.8 days, but nights are cool, dropping into the lower fifties. Average January temperatures range from 59.8 °F to 36.8 °F. Average July temperatures range from 92.3 °F to 53.1 °F. The record high temperature of 111 °F occurred on July 23, 2006; the record low temperature of 12 °F was recorded on December 22, 1990. Calistoga has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Average annual rainfall is 37.56 inches with measurable precipitation falling on an average of 63 days each year. The wettest year was 1983 with 75.38 inches and the driest year was 1976 with 12.43 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 32.06 inches in February 1986. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 8.10 inches on February 17, 1986. Snow falls in the nearby mountains during the winter months, but is rare in Calistoga. On January 3, 1974, 3.0 inches of snow fell in the city. The 2010 United States Census reported that Calistoga had a population of 5,155.
The population density was 1,972.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Calistoga was 3
North Bay (San Francisco Bay Area)
The North Bay is a subregion of the San Francisco Bay Area, in California, United States. The largest city is Santa Rosa, the fifth-largest city in the Bay Area, it is the location of the Napa and Sonoma wine regions, is the least populous and least urbanized part of the Bay Area. It consists of Marin, Napa and Sonoma counties; the North Bay is connected to San Francisco by the Golden Gate Bridge and to the East Bay by the Richmond–San Rafael Bridge, Carquinez Bridge and the Benicia–Martinez Bridge. Several ferry routes operate between the North Bay and San Francisco, from terminals located in Angel Island, Sausalito and Vallejo; the Sonoma–Marin Area Rail Transit, a fourteen station commuter rail line from Larkspur to Cloverdale, was approved by voters in November, 2008. Passenger service began between the Sonoma County Airport station and San Rafael in August, 2017. A temporary bus links the train to the Ferry at Larkspur while tracks are being laid between San Rafael and the Ferry terminal.
The area is said to have been populated by Pomo Native Americans before European intervention. The Russians first settled the area at Fort Ross as a fur-trading post, but the area was settled by the Spanish-Mexican Alta California; the Bear Flag Revolt took place in the town of Sonoma, the location of the last of the California Missions. General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, the last secretary to the Governor of California before its annexation to the United States, kept his home in Sonoma; the North Bay remained rural well into the 20th Century. The opening of the Golden Gate Bridge in the 1930s transformed Marin County from a dairy farming region into an upscale suburban area; until the 1990s, the region's growth was at a gradual pace, with significant restrictions on development being imposed in Marin and Napa Counties in the 1970s. The largest city in the North Bay is Santa Rosa, with a population of 175,000. Other major cities include: Vallejo 121,000 Fairfield 114,000 Vacaville 98,000 Napa 80,000 Petaluma 60,000 San Rafael 58,000 Novato 56,000 North Coast AVA North Coast San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge
Cloverdale is a city in Sonoma County, United States. The San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad reached Cloverdale in 1872; the Cloverdale Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California is headquartered here. The population was 8,618 at the 2010 census. Cloverdale began as an early stagecoach stop, known as Markleville, on the Rancho Rincon de Musalacon Mexican grant. In 1856, R. B. Markle and W. J. Miller bought 759 acres. In 1859, James Abram Kleiser bought Markle's interest, the town was laid out; the town was incorporated when the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad arrived in 1872. By 1878, the railroad service provided three trains a day between Cloverdale and Ferries of San Francisco Bay. In 1881, Jules Leroux and Armand Dehay established a colony south of Cloverdale named "Icaria Speranza", based on the French Utopian movement, the Icarians; the settlement ended in 1886 and today, there is a marker south of town where the schoolhouse was located. Cloverdale suffered severe economic hardship, losing 500 to 600 manufacturing jobs between 1988 and 1994, with the closing of a fire equipment factory and the shrinking of the logging industry.
In 1993, 300 jobs were eliminated alone. In 1994, Highway 101, which bisected the town, was rerouted around town with a by-pass; some businesses closed, many natives believed the bypass radically changed the town's character. Since the bypass, signs of civic revival have occurred with the development of pedestrian-friendly sidewalks, a performing arts center, a brewpub, a downtown plaza hosting live concerts and a farmer's market. In 1997, Clover Springs, a development with 362 houses, was opened on the south end of town. In 2011, the Sonoma County Agricultural Preservation and Open Space District transferred 250 acres of former ranchland to the City of Cloverdale for use as a park and open space preserve; the Cloverdale Rancheria of Pomo Indians is a landless federally recognized tribe with a membership of 500. In 2008, the Tribe acquired 80 acres at the southern end of town; the Rancheria is a community of Pomo Indians who are indigenous to Sonoma County and speak the Southern Pomo language.
Pomo people are renowned for their basket done by both men and women. Elsie Allen, considered to be one of the best California basketweavers of her generation, was a member of the Rancheria and spent part of her childhood there. According to tribal history, the Pomo people lived peacefully in the area since ancient times; the Rancheria was created by the federal government in 1921, when the tribe became federally recognized, deeded the tribe 27.5 acres on the southern edge of town. In 1958, the Rancheria was terminated, along with 43 other rancherias in California; this process transferred tribal community land to private ownership. In 1979, Tillie Hardwick, a Pomo woman, filed a class action suit on behalf of 16 of the illegally terminated rancherias. In 1983, the Courts reinstated the federal recognition of the illegally terminated tribes, including the Cloverdale Rancheria. In 1994, the Highway 101 bypass cut through the Rancheria land, forcing tribal landowners to sell their property for the freeway.
In 2006, the tribe began efforts to restore their traditional culture. The tribe is interested in opening up a casino. Cloverdale is located in the northern portion of Sonoma County, about 85 miles north of San Francisco; the city has a total area of all of it land. Cloverdale is located in the Wine Country, being part of the Alexander Valley AVA. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Cloverdale has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps. Temperatures in Cloverdale get to over 100 degrees and it is known for having hot dry summers relative to the rest of Sonoma county; the area is prone to drought. The 2010 United States Census reported that Cloverdale had a population of 8,618; the population density was 3,255.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Cloverdale was 6,458 White, 48 African American, 156 Native American, 98 Asian, 7 Pacific Islander, 1,530 from other races, 321 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2,824 persons.
The Census reported that 8,530 people lived in households, 22 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 66 were institutionalized. There were 3,182 households, out of which 1,087 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,769 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 294 had a female householder with no husband present, 159 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 232 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 32 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 747 households were made up of individuals and 373 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68. There were 2,222 families; the population was spread out with 2,054 people under the age of 18, 699 people aged 18 to 24, 2,154 people aged 25 to 44, 2,329 people aged 45 to 64, 1,382 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.1 males. There were 3,427 housing units at an average density of 1,294.4 per square mile, of which 2,102 were owner-occupied, 1,080 were occupied by renters.
The homeowner vacancy rate was 4.1%.
A winery is a building or property that produces wine, or a business involved in the production of wine, such as a wine company. Some wine companies own many wineries. Besides wine making equipment, larger wineries may feature warehouses, bottling lines and large expanses of tanks known as tank farms. Wineries may have existed as long as 8,000 years ago; the earliest known evidence of winemaking at a large scale, if not evidence of actual wineries, has been found in the Middle East. In 2011 a team of archaeologists discovered a 6000 year old wine press in a cave in the Areni region of Armenia, identified the site as a small winery. In the northern Zagros Mountains in Iran, jars over 7000 years old were discovered to contain tartaric acid crystals, providing evidence of winemaking in that region. Archaeological excavations in the southern Georgian region of Kvemo Kartli uncovered evidence of wine-making equipment dating back 8000 years. In 2017 the remnants of an 8000-year-old facility for large-scale production was found 20 miles south of Tbilisi, Georgia.
Wineries employ winemakers to produce various wines from grapes by following the winemaking process. This process involves the fermentation of fruit, as well as blending and aging of the juice; the grapes may be brought in from other locations. Many wineries give tours and have cellar doors or tasting rooms where customers can taste wines before they make a purchase. Winery architecture is varied and rich and it is used by wineries as a way to promote their wines and cellar doors. While some associate wineries with large winemaking regions such as Napa Valley and Sonoma Valley in California, the Barossa Valley in Australia or the legendary wine regions of France and Italy, wineries can be found nearly everywhere; the east coast of the United States has winemaking regions like New York's Finger Lakes region, Aquidneck Island, RI and Long Island, NY and Cape May, NJ. Wineries do not have to be located adjacent to vineyards. In addition, people make wine out of other fruits and plants, so these specialty wineries tend to pop up where the other substances are grown.
For example, a winery in Hawaii produces pineapple wine. A class of winery license known as the farm winery allows farms to sell wines on site. Farm wineries differ from commercial wineries in that the fruit, the source of the wine is produced on the farm, the final product is sold on the farm. States such as New York have given a special permit to open a satellite store in a tourist area. New York's passing of the Farm Winery Act of 1976 set an example for other states to pass similar laws. Farm wineries operate at a smaller scale than commercial wineries. Farm wineries are a form of value added marketing, known as agritourism, for farmers who may otherwise struggle to show a profit. A micro-winery is a small wine producer that does not have its own vineyard, instead sources its grape product from outside suppliers; the concept is similar to a microbrewery, in that small batches of product are made for local consumption. The concept of the micro-winery is not as accepted as that of the microbrewery, however, as the general public has been conditioned to associate a winery as having a vineyard.
A winery uses similar wine-making equipment as a major commercial winery, just on a smaller scale. Glass carboys and sanitary plastic pails are seen in the facilities of a micro-winery; each batch of wine yields 23 Liters. One of the primary differences of a micro-winery as compared to a typical winery is that a micro-winery is able to offer a wider range of wines. New York State provides a specific micro-winery license that requires the microwinery to purchase local ingredients; the urban winery is a recent phenomenon whereby a wine producer chooses to locate their winemaking facility in an urban setting within a city rather than in the traditional rural setting near the vineyards. With advances in technology and transportation, it is not a problem for an urban winery to grow their grapes in a remote location and transport them to the urban facility for crushing and aging. Urban wineries have been opened in cities across the United States including San Francisco. Wilridge Winery was the first urban winery in Seattle.
Wine aficionados traditionally had to travel to remote areas to learn about winemaking firsthand and to taste the offerings of a wine producer in the setting in which they were made. Now, many urban dwellers can hop in their car for a short drive or take public transportation or walk, have an authentic winery experience. Many urban wineries offer productions tours and a traditional tasting room for this purpose and offer retail sales; this allows the consumer to purchase directly from the source ensuring that wines have been stored and not subjected to extreme conditions that can occur in transport which can result in spoiled wines. A few urban wineries are incorporating full-service restaurants or venues for live entertainment. Many offer their customers the ability to make their own wine under the guidance of their winemaking team. Amateur winemakers can choose the grape varieties, select an appellation, make production decisions along the way and participate in the final blending and design their own labels.
This has spawned a new g
Sonoma County wine
Sonoma County wine is wine made in Sonoma County, California, in the United States. County names in the United States automatically qualify as legal appellations of origin for wine produced from grapes grown in that county and do not require registration with the United States Department of the Treasury and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Sonoma County is one of California's largest producers of wine grapes, far outproducing the Napa Valley AVA. Grapes were planted in Sonoma County at Fort Ross as early as 1812. Padre Jose Altimira planted several thousand grape vines at Mission San Francisco Solano in what is now the city of Sonoma, in southern Sonoma County. Cuttings from the Sonoma mission vineyards were carried throughout the northern California area to start new vineyards. By the time of the Bear Flag Revolt in Sonoma and the subsequent annexation of California by the United States in 1854, wine grapes were an established part of agriculture in the region; the vineyards of General Mariano Vallejo, military Governor of Mexican California and based in Sonoma, were producing an annual income of $20,000 at that time.
The grape varietals planted would not be considered premium varietals today. In 1855, a Hungarian named. Upon his arrival, he purchased the Salvador Vallejo vineyard, which he renamed it Buena Vista. Commissioned in 1861 by the California legislature to study viticulture in Europe, he returned with more than 100,000 cuttings of premium grape varietals. Many of the immigrants to the area were Northern Italian or from other wine-growing regions of Europe. After the Civil War and before Prohibition, wineries such as Bundschu, Korbel, Gundlach and Sebastiani were established that still exist. In the 1920s there were 256 wineries in Sonoma County, with more than 22,000 acres in production. During the Prohibition period, commercial winemaking declined. At the repeal of Prohibition in 1933, fewer than 50 wineries in Sonoma County survived; as late as the 1960s, only 12,000 acres were vineyards. But wine consumption in America began to grow, by 1999 Sonoma County had over 49,000 acres of vineyards owned by more than 750 growers and 180 bonded wineries.
Of the 250 wineries existing in 2007, over half are less than 20 years old. In 2004, growers harvested 165,783 tons of wine grapes worth US$310 million. In 2006 the Sonoma County grape harvest amounted worth $430 million. About 73% of Sonoma County's agricultural production is growing wine grapes—60,302 acres of vineyards, with over 1100 growers; the most common varieties planted are Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot noir, though the area is known for its Merlot and Zinfandel. Sonoma County's large number of American Viticulture Areas reflect the wide variety of climate and soil conditions in the County, the large production in the County, the prominence of Sonoma County in the wine market; the difference in climate and soil, means that cooler climate grapes grow well in certain regions and in others warm climate grapes are more suitable. The large production of the County means; the prominence of the California wine industry and Sonoma County in particular has established worldwide recognition of their wine regions.
At the same time, many consumers have been confused by the many different AVAs within Sonoma County. The growers voted in 2006 to form a Sonoma County Winegrape Commission, representing more than 1,800 growers; the Commission seeks to raise recognition for Sonoma County and encourages all wine from the county to bear the mark "Sonoma County" on it. The following are appellations in Sonoma County: The Alexander Valley AVA is one of the most densely planted of all of Sonoma County's AVAs. Located along the Russian River, the boundary of this appellation extends north of Healdsburg up to Mendocino County north of Cloverdale. Viticulture has existed in the area since the 1850s but the wine industry has only recently experienced success beginning in the 1960s with Simi Winery. Significant purchases of vineyard land by E & J Gallo Winery in 1988 and Kendall-Jackson in 1996 raised the profile of the Alexander Valley; the profile of Alexander Valley wines has centered around the approachability and richness of the wines with Cabernet Sauvignon being noted for characteristic chocolate notes and warm mouthfeel.
After Cabernet, Chardonnay is one of the leading varietal plantings followed by Sauvignon blanc and Zinfandel. The Bennett Valley AVA is one of Sonoma County's newest AVAs and is a principal grape supplier to Kendall-Jackson; the AVA is surrounded to the south and west by the Sonoma Mountains and to the north by the city of Santa Rosa. The region receives a moderating effect on its climate from Pacific Ocean through the cool coastal fogs and breeze that creep into the area from the southwest through Crane Canyon between Sonoma Mountain and Taylor Mountain; the Chalk Hill AVA is a sub-appellation of the Russian River Valley located near the town of Windsor along the foothills at the southern end of Alexander Valley and along the Santa Rosa plain. The name Chalk Hill comes from the unique volcanic soil of chalky white ash which has shown itself to perform well with planting of white wine varietals like Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc; the majority of the region's wineries are located on the western slopes of the Mayacamas Mountains.
The Dry Creek Valley AVA in the Russian River Valley centers around the Dry Creek, a tributary of the Russian River, is 16 miles long and 2 miles wide. The appellation is known for its Sauvignon blanc and Zinfandel production. Dry Creek Valley AVA is home to the majorit
Castello di Amorosa
Castello di Amorosa is a castle and a winery located near Calistoga, California. First opening its doors to the public in April 2007, the castle is the pet project of 4th generation vintner, Dario Sattui, who owns and operates the V. Sattui Winery named after his great-grandfather who established a winery in San Francisco in 1885 after emigrating from Italy to California; the winery sits on property, once part of an estate owned by Edward Turner Bale. The castle interiors, which include 107 rooms on 8 levels above and below ground, cover 121,000 square feet. Key details and building techniques are architecturally faithful to the 12th and 13th century time period. Among many other features it has: a moat; the torture chamber has an authentic 300-year-old iron maiden which Sattui states he bought for $13,000 in Pienza, Italy, a replica rack, prison chambers and other torture devices. The great hall features frescoes painted by two Italian artists who took about a year and a half to complete and showcases a 500-year-old fireplace.
The masonry and woodwork was fashioned by hand using old world crafting techniques. Building materials included 8,000 tons of locally quarried stone, in addition to paving stones, terra cotta roofing tiles and some 850,000 bricks imported from Europe. Extending into the hillside adjacent to the castle lies a labyrinth of caves some 900 feet in length. Beneath the castle are a 2-acre barrel cellar and tasting rooms where visitors can sample the wines-all sold only at the Castle. Due to Napa County restrictions, the castle and grounds cannot be rented for weddings or receptions, but are available to rent for corporate gatherings and fund raisers. In May 2012 the county ordered the winery to cease holding a weekly Catholic Mass in the chapel located on the grounds due to lack of use permits
A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients and dishes, associated with a specific culture or geographic region. A cuisine is influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. Religious food laws, such as Hindu and Jewish dietary laws, can exercise a strong influence on cuisine. Regional food preparation traditions and ingredients combine to create dishes unique to a particular region; some factors that have an influence on a region's cuisine include the area's climate, the trade among different countries, religiousness or sumptuary laws and culinary culture exchange. For example, a Tropical diet may be based more on fruits and vegetables, while a polar diet might rely more on meat and fish; the area's climate, in large measure, determines the native foods. In addition, climate influences food preservation. For example, foods preserved for winter consumption by smoking and pickling have remained significant in world cuisines for their altered gustatory properties.
The trade among different countries largely affects a region's cuisine. Dating back to the ancient spice trade, seasonings such as cinnamon, cardamom and turmeric were important items of commerce in the earliest evolution of trade. Cinnamon and cassia found their way to the Middle East at least 4,000 years ago. Certain foods and food preparations are required or proscribed by the religiousness or sumptuary laws, such as Islamic dietary laws and Jewish dietary laws. Culinary culture exchange is an important factor for cuisine in many regions: Japan’s first substantial and direct exposure to the West came with the arrival of European missionaries in the second half of the 16th century. At that time, the combination of Spanish and Portuguese game frying techniques with a Chinese method for cooking vegetables in oil led to the development of tempura, the popular Japanese dish in which seafood and many different types of vegetables are coated with batter and deep fried. Cuisine dates back to the Antiquity.
As food began to require more planning, there was an emergence of meals that situated around culture. Cuisines evolve continually, new cuisines are created by innovation and cultural interaction. One recent example is fusion cuisine, which combines elements of various culinary traditions while not being categorized per any one cuisine style, refers to the innovations in many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the 1970s. Nouvelle cuisine is an approach to cooking and food presentation in French cuisine, popularized in the 1960s by the food critics Henri Gault, who invented the phrase, his colleagues André Gayot and Christian Millau in a new restaurant guide, the Gault-Millau, or Le Nouveau Guide. Molecular cuisine, is a modern style of cooking which takes advantage of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines; the term was coined in 1999 by the French INRA chemist Hervé This because he wanted to distinguish it from the name Molecular cuisine, introduced by him and the late Oxford physicist Nicholas Kurti.
It is named as multi sensory cooking, modernist cuisine, culinary physics, experimental cuisine by some chefs. Besides, international trade brings new foodstuffs including ingredients to existing cuisines and leads to changes; the introduction of hot pepper to China from South America around the end of the 17th century influencing Sichuan cuisine, which combines the original taste with the taste of introduced hot pepper and creates a unique flavor of both spicy and pungent. A global cuisine is a cuisine, practiced around the world, can be categorized according to the common use of major foodstuffs, including grains and cooking fats. Regional cuisines can vary based on availability and usage of specific ingredients, local cooking traditions and practices, as well as overall cultural differences; such factors can be more-or-less uniform across wide swaths of territory, or vary intensely within individual regions. For example, in Central and South America, both fresh and dried, is a staple food, is used in many different ways.
In northern Europe, wheat and fats of animal origin predominate, while in southern Europe olive oil is ubiquitous and rice is more prevalent. In Italy, the cuisine of the north, featuring butter and rice, stands in contrast to that of the south, with its wheat pasta and olive oil. In some parts of China, rice is the staple, while in others this role is filled by noodles and bread. Throughout the Middle East and Mediterranean, common ingredients include lamb, olive oil, lemons and rice; the vegetarianism practiced in much of India has made pulses such as chickpeas and lentils as important as wheat or rice. From India to Indonesia, the extenive use of spices is characteristic. African cuisines use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features a preponderance of milk and whey products. In much of tropical Africa, cow's milk is rare and cannot be produced locally; the continent's diverse demographic makeup is reflected in the many different eating and drinking habits and preparation techniques of its manifold populations.
Asian cuisines are many and varied. Ingredients common to many cultures in the east and Southeast regions of the continent include rice, garlic, sesame seeds, dried onions and tofu. Stir frying, steaming