A carboy, demijohn, or jimmyjohn is a rigid container with a typical capacity of 20 to 60 litres. Carboys are primarily used for transporting liquids, often water or chemicals and they are used for in-home fermentation of beverages, often beer or wine. The word carboy is from the Persian qarābah, from Arabic qarrāba, demijohn is an old word that formerly referred to any glass vessel with a large body and small neck, enclosed in wickerwork. The word may derive from the name of a Persian town, according to The Oxford English Dictionary the word comes from the French dame-jeanne, literally Lady Jane, as a popular appellation. This is in accordance with the evidence at present known, since the word occurred initially in France in the 17th century. Carboys come in various volumes ranging from 4 to 25 L, the term carboy itself usually refers to a 19 L carboy, unless otherwise noted. A4.5 L carboy is usually called a jug, a 57 L carboy is usually called a demijohn In Britain, demijohn refers to a 4.5 litre glass brewing vessel.
Containers of this type in the United States have no volume and are called jimmyjohns. In brewing, a carboy or demijohn is a glass or plastic used in fermenting beverages such as wine, cider, perry. Usually it is fitted with a stopper and a fermentation lock to prevent bacteria. During the homebrewing process, a primary carboy is used for fermentation, once primary fermentation is complete, the beer is either transferred to a secondary carboy for conditioning or it can be transferred directly to bottles for conditioning. Polypropylene carboys are used in laboratories to transfer purified water. They are typically filled at the top and have a spigot at the bottom for dispensing and they are used to store large quantities of liquids, such as solvents or deionised water. In these applications, a tap may be included for dispensing, Carboys are used to collect and store waste solvents. Collecting waste solvents in plastic carboys is preferable to reusing glass Winchesters due to the chance of breakage if a solution is placed in an incorrectly labeled carboy.
Fermentation Jerrycan - another large-sized fluid container Big Bottles Big History and Carboys
A saucer is a type of small dishware. The center of the saucer often contains a depression sized to fit a matching cup, this depression is sometimes raised, and antique saucers may omit it altogether. The saucer provides a convenient place for a damp spoon, some animals, including cats, may be fed from bowl-shaped saucers. A set of four is typical for a tea set, saucers have very little direct influence on beverage cooling rate, cups typically have low contact area with the saucer, so the heat transfer rate is low. For hot, water based beverages, cooling rate in a cup is typically dominated by evaporation, placing a saucer on top of a cup prevents such evaporative cooling taking place and is thus an effective way of reducing the cooling rate so that the drink remains warmer for longer. The reduction in heat loss due to evaporation is much greater than the increase in heat loss associated with conduction through the saucer. Coaster, used to protect the surface where the user might place a beverage Demitasse
Winemaking or vinification, is the production of wine, starting with selection of the grapes or other produce and ending with bottling the finished wine. Although most wine is made from grapes, it may be made from fruits or plants. Mead is a wine that is made with honey being the primary ingredient after water, Winemaking can be divided into two general categories, still wine production and sparkling wine production. The science of wine and winemaking is known as oenology, a person who makes wine is traditionally called a winemaker or vintner. After the harvest, the grapes are taken into a winery, at this stage red wine making diverges from white wine making. Red wine is made from the must of red or black grapes and fermentation occurs together with the grape skins, white wine is made by fermenting juice which is made by pressing crushed grapes to extract a juice, the skins are removed and play no further role. Occasionally white wine is made from red grapes, this is done by extracting their juice with minimal contact with the grapes skins.
Rosé wines are made from red grapes where the juice is allowed to stay in contact with the dark skins long enough to pick up a pinkish color or by blending red wine with white wine. White and rosé wines extract little of the contained in the skins. To start primary fermentation yeast may be added to the must for red wine or may occur naturally as ambient yeast on the grapes or in the air, yeast may be added to the juice for white wine. During this fermentation, which takes between one and two weeks, the yeast converts most of the sugars in the grape juice into ethanol. The carbon dioxide is lost to the atmosphere, after the primary fermentation of red grapes the free run wine is pumped off into tanks and the skins are pressed to extract the remaining juice and wine. The press wine is blended with the free run wine at the winemakers discretion, the wine is kept warm and the remaining sugars are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The next process in the making of red wine is malo-lactic conversion and this is a bacterial process which converts crisp, green apple malic acid to soft, creamy lactic acid softening the taste of the wine.
Red wine is transferred to oak barrels to mature for a period of weeks or months. The wine must be settled or clarified and adjustments made prior to bottling, the time from harvest to drinking can vary from a few months for Beaujolais nouveau wines to over twenty years for wine of good structure with high levels of acid, tannin or sugar. However, only about 10% of all red and 5% of white wine will taste better after five years than it will after just one year. Depending on the quality of grape and the wine style
A wine bottle is a bottle, generally made of glass, used for holding wine. Some wines are fermented in the bottle, others are bottled only after fermentation, recently the bottle has become a standard unit of volume to describe sales in the wine industry, measuring 750 millilitres. Wine bottles are produced, however, in a variety of volumes and shapes, wine bottles are traditionally sealed with cork, but screw-top caps are becoming popular, and there are several other methods used to seal a bottle. Many traditional wine bottle sizes are named for Biblical kings and historical figures, the chart below lists the sizes of various wine bottles in multiples relating to a standard bottle of wine, which is 0.75 litres. The wineglassful—an official unit of the system of weights—is much smaller at 2.5 imp fl oz. Most champagne houses are unable to carry out fermentation in bottles larger than a magnum due to the difficulty in riddling large. After the secondary fermentation completes, the champagne must be transferred from the magnums into larger bottles, some believe this re-bottling exposes the champagne to greater oxidation and therefore results in an inferior product compared to champagne which remains in the bottle in which it was fermented.
* For many years, the US standard wine and liquor bottle was the fifth, meaning one-fifth of a US gallon, some beverages came in tenth-gallon, half-gallon and one-gallon sizes. In 1979, the US adopted the system for wine bottles, with the basic bottle becoming 750 ml. Wine producers in Portugal, Spain and Germany follow the tradition of their areas in choosing the shape of bottle most appropriate for their wine. Port and Bordeaux varieties, straight-sided and high-shouldered with a pronounced punt and sherry bottles may have a bulbous neck to collect any residue. Burgundies and Rhône varieties, tall bottles with sloping shoulders and a smaller punt, schlegel variety, predominantly used in German wine growing regions, similar to Burgundy bottles, but more slender and elongated. Rhine and Alsace varieties and tall with little or no punt and other sparkling wines, thick-walled and wide with a pronounced punt and sloping shoulders. German wines from Franconia, the Bocksbeutel bottle, the Chianti and some other Italian wines, the fiasco, a round-bottomed flask encased in a straw basket.
This is more used for everyday table wines, many of the higher-grade Chianti producers have switched to Bordeaux-type bottles. Many North and South American, South African, and Australasian wine producers select the shape with which they wish to associate their wines. For instance, a producer who believes his wine is similar to Burgundy may choose to bottle his wine in Burgundy-style bottles, other producers have chosen idiosyncratic bottle styles for marketing purposes. Pere-Anselme markets its Châteauneuf-du-Pape in bottles that appear half-melted, the Moselland company of Bernkastel-Kues in Germany has a Riesling with a bottle in the shape of a stylized cat
An odor or odour or fragrance is caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds, generally at a very low concentration, that humans or other animals perceive by the sense of olfaction. Odors are commonly called scents, which can refer to both pleasant and unpleasant odors, the terms fragrance and aroma are used primarily by the food and cosmetic industry to describe a pleasant odor, and are sometimes used to refer to perfumes, and to describe floral scent. In contrast, stench and stink are used specifically to describe unpleasant odor, the term smell is used for both pleasant and unpleasant odors. In the United Kingdom, odour refers to scents in general, the sense of smell gives rise to the perception of odors, mediated by the olfactory nerve. The olfactory receptor cells are present in the olfactory epithelium. There are millions of olfactory receptor neurons that act as sensory signaling cells, each neuron has cilia in direct contact with air. The olfactory nerve is considered the smell mediator, the axon connects the brain to the external air, odorous molecules act as a chemical stimulus.
Molecules bind to receptor proteins extended from cilia, initiating an electric signal, thus, by using a chemical that binds to copper in the mouse nose, so that copper wasn’t available to the receptors, the authors showed that the mice couldnt detect the thiols. However, these found that MOR244-3 lacks the specific metal ion binding site suggested by Suslick. When the signal reaches a threshold, the fires, sending a signal traveling along the axon to the olfactory bulb. Interpretation of the begins, relating the smell to past experiences. The olfactory bulb acts as a station connecting the nose to the olfactory cortex in the brain. Olfactory information is processed and projected through a pathway to the central nervous system. Odor sensation usually depends on the concentration available to the olfactory receptors, the olfactory system does not interpret a single compound, but instead the whole odorous mix, not necessarily corresponding to concentration or intensity of any single constituent.
The widest range of odors consists of compounds, although some simple compounds not containing carbon, such as hydrogen sulfide. The perception of an effect is a two-step process. First, there is the part, the detection of stimuli by receptors in the nose. The stimuli are processed by the region of the brain which is responsible for olfaction
A diary is a record with discrete entries arranged by date reporting on what has happened over the course of a day or other period. A personal diary may include a persons experiences, and/or thoughts or feelings, someone who keeps a diary is known as a diarist. Diaries undertaken for institutional purposes play a role in aspects of human civilization, including government records, business ledgers. In British English, the word may denote a preprinted journal format, today the term is generally employed for personal diaries, normally intended to remain private or to have a limited circulation amongst friends or relatives. The word journal may be used for diary, but generally a diary has daily entries. Although a diary may provide information for a memoir, autobiography or biography, it is written not with the intention of being published as it stands. In recent years, there is evidence in some diaries that they are written with eventual publication in mind. By extension the term diary is used to mean a printed publication of a written diary, the word diary comes from the Latin diarium.
The word journal comes from the root through Old French jurnal. The earliest use of the word to mean a book in which a record was written was in Ben Jonsons comedy Volpone in 1605. Pillowbooks of Japanese court ladies and Asian travel journals offer some aspects of genre of writing. The scholar Li Ao, for example, kept a diary of his journey through southern China, in the medieval Near East, Arabic diaries were written from before the 10th century. The earliest surviving diary of this era which most resembles the modern diary was that of Ibn Banna in the 11th century and his diary is the earliest known to be arranged in order of date, very much like modern diaries. The precursors of the diary in the modern sense include daily notes of medieval mystics, concerned mostly with inward emotions, one of the early preserved examples is the anonymous Journal dun bourgeois de Paris that covers the years 1405–49, giving subjective commentaries on the current events. Here we find records of even less important everyday occurrences together with reflection, emotional experience.
In 1908 the Smythson company created the first featherweight diary, enabling diaries to be carried about, many diaries of notable figures have been published and form an important element of autobiographical literature. Samuel Pepys is the earliest diarist who is known today, his diaries. Pepys was amongst the first who took the diary beyond mere business transaction notation, the practice of posthumous publication of diaries of literary and other notables began in the 19th century
A decanter is a vessel that is used to hold the decantation of a liquid which may contain sediment. Decanters, which have a shape and design, have been traditionally made from glass or crystal. Their volume is equivalent to one standard bottle of wine. A carafe /kəˈræf/, which is traditionally used for serving alcoholic beverages, is similar in design to a decanter but is not supplied with a stopper. Throughout the history of wine, decanters have played a significant role in the serving of wine, the vessels would be filled with wine from amphoras and brought to the table where they could be more easily handled by a single servant. The Ancient Romans pioneered the use of glass as a material, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, glass production became scarce causing the majority of decanters to be made of bronze, gold, or earthenware. In the 1730s, British glass makers introduced the stopper to limit exposure to air, since then, there has been little change to the basic design of the decanter.
Although conceived for wine, other beverages, such as cognac or single malt Scotch whisky, are often stored and served in stoppered decanters. Certain cognacs and malt whiskies are sold in such as the 50-year-old single malt Dalmore or the Bowmore Distillery 22 Year Old. Liquid from another vessel is poured into the decanter in order to separate a small volume of liquid, containing the sediment, from a volume of clear liquid. In the process, the sediment is left in the vessel. This is analogous to racking, but performed just before serving, decanters have been used for serving wines that are laden with sediments in the original bottle. These sediments could be the result of an old wine or one that was not filtered or clarified during the winemaking process. In most modern winemaking, the need to decant for this purpose has been significantly reduced, another reason for decanting wine is to aerate it, or allow it to breathe. The decanter is meant to mimic the effects of swirling the wine glass to stimulate the processes which trigger the release of more aromatic compounds.
In addition it is thought to benefit the wine by smoothing some of the aspects of the wine. In addition it has reported that the process of decanting over a period of a few hours does not have the effect of softening tannins. A decanter can be used to present wine anonymously
A digital camera or digicam is a camera that produces digital images that can be stored in a computer, displayed on a screen and printed. Most cameras sold today are digital, and digital cameras are incorporated into many devices ranging from PDAs, Digital and movie cameras share an optical system, typically using a lens with a variable diaphragm to focus light onto an image pickup device. The diaphragm and shutter admit the correct amount of light to the imager, just as with film, unlike film cameras, digital cameras can display images on a screen immediately after being recorded, and store and delete images from memory. Many digital cameras can record moving videos with sound, some digital cameras can crop and stitch pictures and perform other elementary image editing. The history of the camera began with Eugene F. Lally of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. His 1961 idea was to take pictures of the planets and stars while travelling through space to give information about the astronauts position, unfortunately, as with Texas Instruments employee Willis Adcocks filmless camera in 1972, the technology had yet to catch up with the concept.
Steven Sasson as an engineer at Eastman Kodak invented and built the first electronic camera using a charge-coupled device image sensor in 1975, earlier ones used a camera tube, ones digitized the signal. Early uses were military and scientific, followed by medical. In the mid to late 1990s digital cameras became common among consumers, by the mid-2000s digital cameras had largely replaced film cameras, and higher-end cell phones had an integrated digital camera. By the beginning of the 2010s, almost all smartphones had a digital camera. The two major types of image sensor are CCD and CMOS. A CCD sensor has one amplifier for all the pixels, while each pixel in a CMOS active-pixel sensor has its own amplifier, compared to CCDs, CMOS sensors use less power. Cameras with a small sensor use a back-side-illuminated CMOS sensor, overall final image quality is more dependent on the image processing capability of the camera, than on sensor type. The resolution of a camera is often limited by the image sensor that turns light into that discrete signals.
The brighter the image at a point on the sensor. Depending on the structure of the sensor, a color filter array may be used. The number of pixels in the sensor determines the cameras pixel count, in a typical sensor, the pixel count is the product of the number of rows and the number of columns. For example, a 1,000 by 1,000 pixel sensor would have 1,000,000 pixels, final quality of an image depends on all optical transformations in the chain of producing the image
A sommelier, or wine steward, is a trained and knowledgeable wine professional, normally working in fine restaurants, who specializes in all aspects of wine service as well as wine and food pairing. The role in fine dining today is more specialized and informed than that of a wine waiter. It is opined by Sommeliers Australia that the role is strategically on a par with that of the chef de cuisine, a sommelier may be responsible for the development of wine lists, and books and for the delivery of wine service and training for the other restaurant staff. Working along with the team, they pair and suggest wines that will best complement each particular food menu item. This entails the need for a knowledge of how food and wine, spirits. A professional sommelier works on the floor of the restaurant and is in contact with restaurant patrons. The sommelier has a responsibility to work within the taste preference, the modern word is French, deriving from Middle French where it referred to a court official charged with transportation of supplies.
This use of the dates to a period when pack animals would be used to transport supplies. The Middle French probably finds its origin in Old Provençal where a saumalier was a pack animal driver, sauma referred to a pack animal or the load of a pack animal. In Late Latin, sagma referred to a packsaddle, one can become a sommelier only through experience in the restaurant or wine industry as a qualification, though many choose to become certified or educated by one of the many certifying bodies. In France, the Union des Sommeliers was founded in 1907 to ensure protection for its members. The approach and role of the association developed throughout the years as it lost its autonomy by merging with the Mutualité Hôtelière in 1959, ten years later, sommeliers regained their independence as the Association des Sommeliers de Paris was founded in 1969. In Italy, the Italian Sommelier Association, AIS, being founded on July 7,1965, is one of the oldest sommelier associations of the world and it is officially recognised and legally acknowledged by the Italian government.
Italian Sommelier Association is part and founding member of the Worldwide Sommelier Association and it is actually the largest sommelier association ever featuring over 33,000 members only in Italy, featuring either high curriculum level and high quality service standards. A Professional Sommelier qualification and diploma is issued by AIS after candidates career assessment for those sommeliers actually working in a food and beverage establishment. The Wine & Spirit Education Trust, often referred to as WSET, is a British organisation which arranges courses and exams in the field of wine and spirits. It was founded in 1969, is headquartered in London and is regarded as one of the worlds leading providers of wine education. Although WSET does not market itself as a certification and education body
Storage of wine
Storage of wine is an important consideration for wine that is being kept for long-term aging. While most wine is consumed within 24 hours of purchase, fine wines are often set aside for long-term storage, Wine is one of the few commodities that can improve with age, but it can rapidly deteriorate if kept in inadequate conditions. The three factors that have the most direct impact on a wines condition are light, historically, the storage of wine was handled by wine merchants. Since the mid-20th century, consumers have been increasingly storing their own wine in home-based wine cellars, the three factors that have the most pronounced effect on wine in storage are light and temperature. Strong, direct sunlight or incandescent light can adversely react with compounds in wine. Delicate, light-bodied white wines run the greatest risk from light exposure, wines packaged in clear, light green and blue colored bottles are the most vulnerable to light, and may need extra precautions for storage. For example, the Champagne house of Louis Roederer uses cellophane wrap to protect its premium cuvee Cristal from light, in the cellar, wines are stored in corrugated boxes or wooden crates to protect the wines from direct light.
Some degree of humidity is required in order to keep wines with cork enclosures from drying out, even when wine bottles are stored on their sides, one side of the cork is still exposed to air. Should the cork begin to dry out, it can allow oxygen to enter the bottle, filling the ullage space, excessive humidity can pose the risk of damaging wine labels, which may hinder identification or hurt potential resale value. Wine experts such as Jancis Robinson note that 75% humidity is often cited as ideal, some wine experts debate the importance of humidity for proper wine storage. However, Alexis Lichine contends that low humidity can still be detrimental to premium wine quality due to the risk of the drying out. As a way of maintaining optimal humidity, Lichine recommends spreading half an inch of gravel on the floor of a wine cellar, Wine is very susceptible to changes in temperature, with temperature control being an important consideration in wine storage. If the wine is exposed to too high a temperature for long periods of time, it may be spoiled or become cooked, dramatic temperature swings can cause adverse chemical reactions in the wine that may lead to a variety of wine faults.
In general, a wine has a potential to develop complexity. The lower the temperature, the more slowly a wine develops, on average, the rate of chemical reactions in wine doubles with each 18 °F increase in temperature. Wine expert Karen MacNeil recommends keeping wine intended for aging in an area with a constant temperature around 55 °F. Wine can be stored at temperatures as high as 69 °F without long-term negative effect, professor Cornelius Ough of the University of California, Davis believes that wine can be exposed to temperatures as high as 120 °F for a few hours and not be damaged. It is not normally possible to freeze wine in the bottle as there is insufficient room for it to expand as it freezes, in a particular study, vibrations of different frequencies have been shown to have their own distinct effect on the chemistry of the wine
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical and decorative usage in, for example, window panes and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of glass are silicate glasses based on the chemical compound silica, the primary constituent of sand. The term glass, in usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material. Many applications of silicate glasses derive from their optical transparency, giving rise to their use as window panes. Glass can be coloured by adding metallic salts, and can be painted and printed with vitreous enamels and these qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows. Although brittle, silicate glass is extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures, because glass can be formed or moulded into any shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels, vases, bottles and drinking glasses.
In its most solid forms it has used for paperweights, marbles. Some objects historically were so commonly made of glass that they are simply called by the name of the material, such as drinking glasses. Porcelains and many polymer thermoplastics familiar from everyday use are glasses and these sorts of glasses can be made of quite different kinds of materials than silica, metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses are a lighter alternative than traditional glass, silica is a common fundamental constituent of glass. In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, fused quartz is a glass made from chemically-pure SiO2. It has excellent resistance to shock, being able to survive immersion in water while red hot. However, its high melting-temperature and viscosity make it difficult to work with, other substances are added to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate, which lowers the transition temperature.
The soda makes the glass water-soluble, which is undesirable, so lime, some magnesium oxide. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass, soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass. Most common glass contains other ingredients to change its properties, lead glass or flint glass is more brilliant because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion. Adding barium increases the refractive index, iron can be incorporated into glass to absorb infrared energy, for example in heat absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UV wavelengths