Bunker Hill, West Virginia
Bunker Hill is an unincorporated community in Berkeley County, West Virginia, USA, located in the lower Shenandoah Valley on Winchester Pike at its junction with County Route 26 south of Martinsburg. It is the site of the confluence of Torytown Run and Mill Creek, a tributary of Opequon Creek which flows into Winchester, Virginia. According to the 2000 census, the Bunker Hill community has a population of 5,319. At Bunker Hill in 1726, Colonel Morgan Morgan founded the first permanent settlement of record in the part of Virginia that became West Virginia during the American Civil War, although that cabin was destroyed in the French and Indian War. Morgan kinfolk rebuilt the cabin before the American Revolutionary War, Tory sympathizers killed Morgan's grandson James Morgan near the cabin on what became known as Torytown Creek about four miles outside the Bunker Hill town center, on Runnymeade Street; that cabin was restored as a Bicentennial project in 1976, using many of its original logs.
Now a furnished museum, it serves as headquarters of the Morgan Cabin Committee. The state of West Virginia erected several monuments to Morgan nearby. Near the town center and a bridge over Mill Creek is Morgan Park, which has a large monument erected to honor the first settler in 1924, as well as two historic markers. Both Morgan and George Washington are remembered at the Morgan Chapel and Graveyard less than 2 miles from the town center, en route to the Morgan cabin. Near the Virginia state line, Payne's Chapel United Methodist Church was founded in 1762, rebuilt in brick and dedicated in 1851, but burned down of unknown causes in 1902, only to be rebuilt and rededicated three years later. Several other historic United Methodist churches still stand along Route 11 beginning with Bunker Hill United Methodist Church in town Inwood and Darkesville United Methodist churches to the west. Another of the three churches in the historic district, Bunker Hill Presbyterian Church, was built in 1854, rebuilt after heavy damage in the Civil War, rededicated in 1879.
The historic Mt. Tabor Baptist Church, founded in the 1780s outside the modern town, transferred from a white congregation to a black congregation, with judicial permission, after the Civil War. Bunker Hill's Mill Creek Historic District includes Morgan Park and structures abutting Mill Creek for about five miles, so includes the town's and Berkeley County's earliest industrial center, three bridges, four mills, several old residences; the Sherrard Mill became a residence in the 1930s, only the millrace remains of the Gray Mill. The Bunker Hill Mill, a gristmill that contains 19th and 20th centuries milling equipment, is the only one still in operating condition; that mill constructed in 1738 was rebuilt in 1890 and is now the only mill in the state featuring dual water wheels. A small Civil War skirmish between the Union Army and the Confederate Army occurred near Bunker Hill on July 17, 1861. Confederate General J. Johnston Pettigrew of North Carolina was mortally wounded during his army's retreat to Virginia a few days after the Battle of Gettysburg while redirecting troops from the flooded crossing at Falling Waters, West Virginia, died at Edgewood Manor in Bunker Hill on July 17, 1863.
Bunker Hill has its own post office. Its location between Martinsburg and Winchester, Virginia along Interstate 81 and U. S. Route 11 led to residential growth continuing into the 21st century. Bunker Hill Elementary School Mill Creek Intermediate School Musselman Middle School
Martinsburg, West Virginia
Martinsburg is a city in and the county seat of Berkeley County, West Virginia, United States, in the tip of the state's Eastern Panhandle region in the lower Shenandoah Valley. Its population was 17,687 in the 2016 census estimate, making it the largest city in the Eastern Panhandle and the ninth-largest municipality in the state. Martinsburg is part of MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Martinsburg was established by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, adopted in December 1778 during the American Revolutionary War. Founder Major General Adam Stephen named the gateway town to the Shenandoah Valley along Tuscarora Creek in honor of Colonel Thomas Bryan Martin, a nephew of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron. Aspen Hall is the oldest house in the city. Part was built in 1745 by Edward Beeson, Sr. Aspen Hall and its wealthy residents had key roles in the agricultural, religious and political history of the region. Significant events related to the French and Indian War. Three original buildings are still standing, including the rare blockhouse of Mendenhall's Fort.
The first United States post office in what is now West Virginia was established at Martinsburg in 1792. At that time and the larger territory were still part of Virginia; the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Martinsburg in 1842. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Martinsburg Shops were constructed in 1849 and rebuilt after the American Civil War. According to William Still, "The Father of the Underground Railroad" and its historian, Robert Brown, alias Thomas Jones, escaped from slavery in Martinsburg on Christmas night, 1856, he rode a horse and had it swim across the freezing Potomac River. After riding forty miles, he walked in cold wet clothes to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, he received assistance there from the Underground Railroad and traveled by train to Philadelphia, the office of William Still with the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. Brown's wife and four children had been sold, he had a likeness of his wife, locks of hair from each of them. In 1854, ten-year-old Isabelle Boyd, known as "Belle" and a noted spy for the Confederacy, moved to Martinsburg with her family.
After the Civil War began, Benjamin joined the Second Virginia Infantry, part of the Stonewall Brigade. His wife Mary was thus in charge of the Boyd home when Union forces under General Robert Patterson took Martinsburg; when a group of Patterson's men tried to raise a Union flag over the Boyd home, Mary refused. One of the soldiers, Frederick Martin, threatened Mary, Belle shot him, she was acquitted. She soon became involved in espionage, sending information to Confederate generals Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson and J. E. B. "Jeb" Stuart. She was helped by Eliza Corsey, a Boyd family slave whom Belle had taught to read and write. In 1863, Belle was imprisoned. Boyd's Greek Revival home, which he had built in 1853 and sold in 1855, had numerous owners over the decades. In 1992 it was purchased by the Berkeley County Historical Society; the historical society now operates it as the Berkeley County Museum. It is known as the Belle Boyd House. Most residents of West Virginia were yeomen farmers who supported the Union and, during the Civil War, they voted to separate from Virginia.
The new state was admitted to the Union during the war. The city of Martinsburg was incorporated by an act of the new West Virginia Legislature on March 30, 1868. Martinsburg became a center of its workers; the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 began July 14, 1877 in this city at the B&O shops and spread nationwide. Telephone service was established in Martinsburg in 1883. In 1889, electricity began to be furnished to Martinsburg as part of a franchise granted to the United Edison Manufacturing Company of New York; the Interwoven mills began operations in Martinsburg in 1891. Construction of the "Apollo Civic Theatre" was completed in 1913. Over one thousand men from Berkeley County participated in World War I. Of these, forty-one were killed and twenty-one were wounded in battle. A monument to those who fell in battle was erected in Martinsburg in 1925. During World War II, the Newton D. Baker Hospital in Martinsburg treated thousands of soldiers wounded in the war. In 1946 this military hospital became a part of the Veterans Administration.
The VA Medical Center in Martinsburg still provides care to United States veterans. Due to restructuring beginning in the late 1940s and continuing through the 1970s, many of the mills and factories operating in Martinsburg shut down and went out of business, dealing a major blow to the local economy. Jobs were moved to the Deep South and offshore. Martinsburg is located at 39°27′33″N 77°58′4″W. Martinsburg is 24 miles southeast of Hagerstown, 89 miles west of Baltimore, 92 miles northwest of Washington, D. C. and 138 miles east of Morgantown. U. S. Route 11 runs through the center of town, Interstate 81 passes along the northern side of the town. Martinsburg is 212 miles distant from the state capital of Charleston. However, it is closer to no less than five other state capitals: Harrisburg PA - 80 miles, Annapolis MD - 85 miles, Dover DE - 132 miles, Richmond VA - 135 miles, Trenton NJ - 179 miles. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.67 square miles, of which 6.65 square
Shanghai, West Virginia
Shanghai is an unincorporated community in Berkeley County, West Virginia. The town is nestled in Back Creek Valley between Leading North Mountain. Shanghai lies at the junction of West Virginia Secondary Route 7 and Secondary Route 18; the community was named after the Shanghai Manufacturing Association. The Baldwin-Grantham House in Shanghai is a historic home listed on the National Register of Historic Places
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Tomahawk, West Virginia
Tomahawk is an unincorporated community on Back Creek in Berkeley County, West Virginia. The community is named for a nearby series of springs in the shape of a tomahawk; the community includes the historic Tomahawk Presbyterian Church, established c. 1745, its adjacent community cemetery, which has gravestones dating to the late 18th century. Tomahawk Spring and the Park's Gap Bridge were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994. Brief History of the Tomahawk Presbyterian Church
Berkeley County, West Virginia
Berkeley County is located in the Shenandoah Valley in the Eastern Panhandle region of West Virginia in the United States. The county is part of MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the county population was 104,169, making it the second-most populous of West Virginia's 55 counties, behind Kanawha. The City of Martinsburg is the county seat. Created on May 15, 1772 by an act of House of Burgesses from the northern third of Frederick County when it was part of Virginia, Berkeley County became West Virginia's second oldest county after the Mountain State was admitted to the Union in 1863 during the American Civil War. At the time of the county's formation, Berkeley County comprised areas that now are part of present-day Jefferson and Morgan counties in West Virginia. Most historians believe the county was named for Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, Colonial Governor of Virginia from 1768 to 1770. West Virginia's Blue Book, for example, indicates, he served as a colonel in England's North Gloucestershire militia in 1761, represented that division of the county in parliament until he was made a peer in 1764.
Having incurred heavy gambling debts, he solicited a government appointment and in July 1768, was made governor of Virginia. In 1769, he reluctantly dissolved the House of Burgesses after it adopted resolutions opposing parliament's replacement of requisitions with parliamentary taxes as a means of generating revenue and a requirement the colonists send accused criminals to England for trial. Despite his differences with the House of Burgesses, Berkeley was well respected by the colonists after he sent Parliament letters encouraging it to repeal the taxes; when Parliament refused to rescind them, Governor Berkeley requested to be recalled. In appreciation of his efforts, the colonists erected a monument to his memory which stands in Williamsburg, two counties were named in his honor: Berkeley in present-day West Virginia and Botetourt in Virginia. Other historians claim Berkeley County may have been named in honor of Sir William Berkeley, born near London, graduated from Oxford University in 1629 and was appointed Governor of Virginia in 1642.
He served as Governor until 1652 and was reappointed Governor in 1660. Berkeley presided over the colony during Bacon’s Rebellion of 1676, was called back to England the following year. According to missionary reports, several thousand Hurons occupied present-day West Virginia, including the Eastern Panhandle region, during the late 16th and early 17th centuries. During the 17th century, the Iroquois Confederacy drove the Hurons from the state; the Iroquois Confederacy was headquartered in New York and was not interested in occupying present-day West Virginia. Instead, they used it as a hunting ground during the summer months. During the early 18th century, West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle region was inhabited by the Tuscarora, they migrated northward into New York and, in 1712, became the sixth nation to be formally admitted into the Iroquois Confederacy. The Eastern Panhandle region was used as a hunting ground by several other Indian tribes, including the Shawnee who resided near present-day Winchester and Moorefield, West Virginia until 1754 when they migrated into Ohio.
The Mingo, who resided in the Tygart Valley and along the Ohio River in present-day West Virginia's Northern Panhandle region, the Delaware, who lived in present-day eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware, but had several autonomous settlements as far south as present-day Braxton County used the area as a hunting ground. Following the French and Indian War, the Mingo retreated to their homes along the banks of the Ohio River and were seen in the Eastern Panhandle region. Although the French and Indian War was over, many Indians continued to view the British as a threat to their sovereignty and continued to fight them. In the summer of 1763, Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, led raids on key British forts in the Great Lakes region. Shawnee chief Keigh-tugh-qua known as Cornstalk, led similar attacks on western Virginia settlements, starting with attacks in present-day Greenbrier County and extending northward to Berkeley Springs, into the northern Shenandoah Valley. By the end of July, Indians had destroyed or captured all British forts west of the Alleghenies except Fort Detroit, Fort Pitt, Fort Niagara.
The uprisings were ended on August 6, 1763 when British forces, under the command of Colonel Henry Bouquet, defeated Delaware and Shawnee forces at Bushy Run in western Pennsylvania. During the American Revolutionary War, the Mingo and Shawnee, headquartered at Chillicothe, allied themselves with the British. In 1777, a party of 350 Wyandots and Mingos, armed by the British, attacked Fort Henry, near present-day Wheeling. Nearly half of the soldiers manning the fort were killed in the three-day assault; the Indians left the area celebrating their victory. For the remainder of the war, smaller raiding parties of Mingo and other Indian tribes terrorized settlers throughout northern and eastern West Virginia; as a result, European settlement throughout present-day West Virginia, including the Eastern Panhandle, came to a virtual standstill until the war's conclusion. Following the war, the Mingo and Shawnee, once again allied with the losing side, returned to their homes; as the number of settlers in present-day West Virginia began to grow, both the Mingo and Shawnee moved further inland, leaving their traditional hunting ground to the white settlers.
In 1670, John Lederer, a German physician and explorer employed by S