Shanklin is a popular seaside resort and civil parish on the Isle of Wight, located on Sandown Bay. Shanklin is the southernmost of three settlements which occupy the bay, is close to Lake and Sandown; the sandy beach, its Old Village and a wooded ravine, Shanklin Chine, are its main attractions. The esplanade along the beach is occupied by hotels and restaurants for the most part, is one of the most tourist-oriented parts of the town; the other is the Old Village, at the top of Shanklin Chine. Together with Lake and Sandown to the north, Shanklin forms a built up area of 21,374 inhabitants; the main shopping centre consists of two roads, Regent Street and High Street, which together comprise the largest retail area in the south of the Isle of Wight. Near Regent Street are the Co-op and Lidl. In Regent Street itself are many local shops, including two arts and crafts shops, several clothing and sports shops, three newsagents and three bakeries; the High Street has some local shops, but is dominated by tourist shops and restaurants.
Shanklin railway station is the terminus of the Island Line from Ryde, opened on 23 August 1864. The railway was extended south to Ventnor in 1866, but this section was closed in 1966; the line from Ryde to Shanklin is now operated by former London Underground tube trains. In October 2004 a direct link was revived in the form of a bus service named the "Rail link"; this was replaced by the Southern Vectis number 3 bus. Bus services to nearby towns and suburbs are run by Southern Vectis on routes 2, 3, 22 and 24, principally from the bus stands at the Co-op supermarket. Destinations served include Newchurch, Ryde, Sandown and Winford. In the summer, an open top bus route called "The Sandown Bay Tour" is run, serving the main tourist areas of Shanklin and running to Sandown. Shanklin has one theatre, Shanklin Theatre, just off the top end of the High Street. In July and August 1819 the poet John Keats lodged at Eglantine Cottage in the resort's High Street, where he completed the first book of Lamia and began a drama, Otho the Great, with his friend Charles Armitage Brown.
In July 1868 the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow stayed at the Crab Inn in Shanklin's Old Village during his last visit to Europe and left a poem about it on a stone by the pub. It is not held to be amongst his best work.. The 1980s indiepop band Trixie's Big Red Motorbike were from Shanklin, recorded some of their records there. Victoria Cross recipient and Deputy Governor of the Isle of Wight, Colonel Henry Gore-Browne retired to Shanklin before his death in 1912. According to Joseph Jacobs's 1890 version of The Three Little Pigs, the version of the story on which all versions are based, the Three Pigs and the Wolf live near Shanklin. Shanklin is on the coast of Sandown Bay, therefore is part of the long beach which spans between Yaverland in the North to Luccombe in the South; the section of beach situated next to Shanklin is split into Small Hope Hope Beach. Above Hope Beach is the esplanade which boasts some traditional seaside attractions including an amusement arcade, a crazy golf course, a children's play area, with slides, ball pools, bouncy castles, swings etc. available to be hired for a child's birthday party.
There are several seafront hotels, a cliff lift from the seafront to the top of the cliff, a putting course, several cafes and restaurants and pubs, a large, clean beach. Shanklin used to have a pier, but this was destroyed in the Great Storm of 1987; the pier had a theatre at which many famous performers appeared, including Paul Robeson, Richard Tauber and Arthur Askey. The Summerland Amusement Arcade on the seafront was a seaplane hangar positioned at Bembridge where it housed Fairey Campania seaplanes of the Nizam of Hyderabad's Squadron. Large areas of the seafront were damaged or destroyed during the Bombing raids of World War II, but were rebuilt after the war, causing the current seafront to be a varied mixture of Victorian, inter-war and post-war architecture. Shanklin Sailing Club is situated at the North end of the Esplanade. Founded in 1931 as'Shanklin Amateur Sailing Club', the club has a fleet of Sprint 15 catamarans and holds races three days a week during the season. Further along the beach is the Fisherman's Cottage pub.
This is at the bottom of Shanklin Chine, from which the town takes its name "Chynklyng Chine" and in the Domesday Book of 1086 Sencliz from "Scen-hlinc". The Chine is open to the public for a small fee and continues up to Rylstone Gardens in the Old Village, it contains a small section of the pipe of the "Operation Pluto" pipeline which ran across the Isle of Wight and out from Shanklin and another branch from Sandown to supply fuel to the D-Day beaches. America Wood is a Site of Special Scientific Interest located between Whiteley Bank, it is owned by the Woodland Trust It takes a bit of stamina and determination to get into America Wood, on the outskirts of Shanklin, since it has little accessible parking. However, the more active Isle of Wight visitor can make use of public footpaths and bridleways that lead into the wood. There is an ‘open’ feel to the site with storm damage during the Great Storm of 1987 and the Burns' Day storm of 1990 felling trees and creating lots of open sections. There is one large glade, recovering from the storms.
The woods is situated just west of Ninham. Dunnose is a large cape, situated southwest of the town. An imposing and high ge
Ventnor is a seaside resort and civil parish established in the Victorian era on the south-east coast of the Isle of Wight, eleven miles from Newport. It is situated south of St Boniface Down, built on steep slopes leading down to the sea; the higher part is referred to as Upper Ventnor. Ventnor is sometimes taken to include the nearby and older settlements of St Lawrence and Bonchurch, which are covered by its town council; the population of the parish in 2016 was about 5,800. Ventnor became fashionable as both a health and holiday resort in the late 19th century, described as the'English Mediterranean' and'Mayfair by the Sea'. Medical advances during the early twentieth century reduced its role as a health resort and, like other British seaside resorts, its summer holiday trade suffered the changing nature of travel during the latter part of that century, its sheltered location beneath the hilly chalk downland produces a microclimate with more sunny days and fewer frosts than the rest of the island.
This allows many species of subtropical plant to flourish. Ventnor retains a Victorian character, has an active arts scene, is regaining popularity as a place to visit. While Bonchurch and St Lawrence both have churches dating back to the Norman era, the area in-between that became Ventnor was unremarkable until the 19th century. In Anglo-Saxon times it was known as Holeweia, which by the 12th century had become Holeweye, or hollow way. By 1617 its name appears as Ventnor named after the family name le Vyntener. There are indications of Bronze Age settlement, with burial mounds on the nearby downs, excavations have evidenced small scale settlement in the area during both the Iron Age and the early Roman period; these include middens and palaeoenvironmental deposits at Binnel Bay, Woody Bay, St Catherine's Point and Rocken End. The Isle of Wight was the last part of England to be converted to Christianity, Saint Boniface is believed to have preached locally in the 8th century. During the 13th century, the area was covered by the manors of Holloway and Steephill, both belonging to the Lisle family.
A 1992 archaeological survey found evidence of a medieval settlement at Flowers Brook, referred to in a 1327 subsidy roll as Villata de steple. This area was subsequently incorporated into two farms, with some cottages on the site demolished in 1834. Ventnor watermill, on a site just north of the current cascade, is first mentioned in 1327, was destroyed by fire in 1848, rebuilt by 1853, demolished in 1875. In the early nineteenth century, in addition to the mill, Ventnor consisted of a few fishermen's huts by the cove, a couple of inns, a farm. In 1804, it was described by John Britton as a "hamlet...formed by a range of neat cottages chiefly inhabited by fishermen, open to the sea in front, backed by woods and the high downs". The area was divided between the parishes of Newchurch. In 1820 both of the manors were sold to other building speculators; the spur for expansion was the publication in 1830 of the second edition of physician James Clark's book: The influence of climate on disease. This identified the microclimate of Ventnor and the Undercliff as ideal for people with chest complaints, at a time when consumption was a common cause of death.
Thereafter Ventnor developed rapidly into a town, with numerous hotels and boarding houses targeting sick visitors during the winter, a wider range of shops than would be expected for a town of its size. In 1844 Parliament passed an Act "for better paving, lighting and otherwise improving part of the parish of Newchurch, called Ventnor, for establishing a market therein". However, not everyone was enamoured with the fast-growing town: in 1845, after recounting the positive reviews of others, writer John Gwilliam complained of the "intolerable" summer heat and the chalk dust about the town, concluding that to live there would "be one of the greatest punishments that could be inflicted upon me in the Isle of Wight". In 1853 the first newspaper on the island, the Ventnor Mercury, was launched. In 1869 Dr Arthur Hill Hassall opened the Royal National Hospital for Diseases of the Chest in St Lawrence, many local buildings date from the 1860s, by when the current commercial centre of the town was substantially developed.
The nineteenth century saw development aimed at wealthier holidaymakers from Britain and Europe, as British seaside resorts became popular. The first pier from 1860 was washed away. Breakwaters were built in 1863, by the following year, a steamer service to Littlehampton connected with trains to London. In 1866 the Isle of Wight Railway reached Ventnor, in 1870 the iron Royal Victoria Pier was constructed. Subsequent storm damage delayed the full establishment of steamer services until 1888 when they were carrying 10,000 passengers from Bournemouth, Southsea and Shanklin; the railway ran a non-stop train from Ryde to Ventnor, named'The Invalid Express' for the consumptive patients. Ventnor became known as ` Mayfair by the sea' for the number of wealthy Londoners. In 1887, Bartholomew's Gazetteer described Ventnor as "one of the most popular of English health resorts", with the parish
Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel, between 2 and 5 miles off the coast of Hampshire, separated by the Solent; the island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, verdant landscape of fields and chines. The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House at East Cowes, it has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats, the hovercraft, Britain's space rockets. The island hosts annual music festivals including the Isle of Wight Festival, which in 1970 was the largest rock music event held, it has well-conserved wildlife and some of the richest cliffs and quarries for dinosaur fossils in Europe. The isle was earlier a kingdom in its own right. In common with the Crown dependencies The British Crown was represented on the island by the Governor of the Isle of Wight until 1995.
The island has played an important part in the defence of the ports of Southampton and Portsmouth, been near the front-line of conflicts through the ages, including the Spanish Armada and the Battle of Britain. Rural for most of its history, its Victorian fashionability and the growing affordability of holidays led to significant urban development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Part of Hampshire, the island became a separate administrative county in 1890, it continued to share the Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire until 1974, when it was made its own ceremonial county. Apart from a shared police force, there is now no administrative link with Hampshire, although a combined local authority with Portsmouth and Southampton was considered, this is now unlikely to proceed; until 1995 the island had a governor. The quickest public transport link to the mainland is the hovercraft from Ryde to Southsea. During the last Ice Age, sea levels were lower and the Solent was part of a river flowing south east from current day Poole Harbour towards mid-Channel.
As sea levels rose, the river valley became flooded, the chalk ridge line west of the Needles breached to form the island. The Isle of Wight is first mentioned in writing in Geography by Ptolemy. Bronze Age Britain had large reserves of tin in the areas of Cornwall and Devon and tin is necessary to smelt bronze. At that time the sea level was much lower and carts of tin were brought across the Solent at low tide for export on the Ferriby Boats. Anthony Snodgrass suggests that a shortage of tin, as a part of the Bronze Age Collapse and trade disruptions in the Mediterranean around 1300 BC, forced metalworkers to seek an alternative to bronze. During Iron Age Britain, the Late Iron Age, the Isle of Wight would appear to have been occupied by the Celtic tribe, the Durotriges - as attested by finds of their coins, for example, the South Wight Hoard, the Shalfleet Hoard. South eastern Britain experienced significant immigration, reflected in the genetic makeup of the current residents; as the Iron Age began the value of tin dropped and this greatly changed the economy of the Isle of Wight.
Trade however continued. Julius Caesar reported that the Belgae took the Isle of Wight in about 85 BC, recognised the culture of this general region as "Belgic", but made no reference to Vectis; the Roman historian Suetonius mentions. The Romans built no towns on the island, but the remains of at least seven Roman villas have been found, indicating the prosperity of local agriculture. First-century exports were principally hides, hunting dogs, cattle, silver and iron. Ferriby Boats and Blackfriars Ships were important to the local economy. During the Dark Ages the island was settled by Jutes as the pagan kingdom of Wihtwara under King Arwald. In 685 it was invaded by Caedwalla. In 686 Arwald was defeated and the island became the last part of English lands to be converted to Christianity, added to Wessex and becoming part of England under King Alfred the Great, included within the shire of Hampshire, it suffered from Viking raids, was used as a winter base by Viking raiders when they were unable to reach Normandy.
Both Earl Tostig and his brother Harold Godwinson held manors on the island. Starting in AD 449 the 5th and 6th centuries saw groups of Germanic speaking peoples from Northern Europe crossing the English Channel and setting up home. Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum identifies three separate groups of invaders: of these, the Jutes from Denmark settled the Isle of Wight and Kent. From onwards, there are indications that the island had wide trading links, with a port at Bouldnor, evidence of Bronze Age tin trading, finds of Late Iron Age coins; the Norman Conquest of 1066 created the position of Lord of the Isle of Wight. Carisbrooke Priory and the fort of Carisbrooke Castle were founded. Allegiance was sworn to FitzOsbern rather than the king. For nearly 200 years the island
Yarmouth, Isle of Wight
Yarmouth is a town and civil parish in the west of the Isle of Wight, off the south coast of England. The town is named for its location at the mouth of the small Western Yar river; the town grew near the river crossing a ferry, replaced with a road bridge in 1863. Yarmouth has been a settlement for over a thousand years, is one of the earliest on the island; the first account of the settlement is in Ethelred the Unready's record of the Danegeld tax of 991, when it was called Eremue, meaning "muddy estuary". The Normans laid out the streets on a plan which can still be seen today, it grew being given its first charter as a town in 1135. The town became a parliamentary borough in the Middle Ages, the Yarmouth constituency was represented by two members of Parliament until 1832; until the castle was built, raids by the French hurt the town. Legend has it that the church bells were carried off to Boulogne. Yarmouth Castle was built in 1547, is now in the care of English Heritage, it is a gun platform, built by Henry VIII to fortify the Solent and protect against any attempted invasion of England.
For many years Yarmouth was the seat of the Governor of the Island. It has a quaint Town Hall, rebuilt in 1763. In St. James's Church there is a monument to the 17th century admiral Sir Robert Holmes, at Yarmouth, he obtained it in a raid on a French ship, when he seized an unfinished statue of Louis XIV of France and forced the sculptor to finish it with his own head rather than the king's. In 1784 most of Yarmouth's ancient charters were lost: A ship's captain, drunk after a court dinner, stole what he thought was a case of wine, as he returned to his ship; when he discovered it was a case of books, he threw it overboard. Yarmouth Pier was opened in 1876, it received Grade 2 listed status in 1975. 685 ft long, it's now 609 ft but is still the longest timber pier in England open to the public, a docking point for the MV Balmoral and PS Waverley. Several Sites of Special Scientific Interest lie close to Yarmouth, including Yar Estuary SSSI & Bouldnor And Hamstead Cliffs SSSI; as a port and market town Yarmouth has had local commercial significance.
It still has some boat yards and chandlery, although small it still supports a number of shops, hotels and restaurants, supported by passing trade from the ferry terminal and visiting boat owners. The Wightlink car ferry sails from Yarmouth to Lymington in Hampshire. Southern Vectis operate bus services from Yarmouth bus station, a small building near the ferry terminal, the main route being route 7 serving Totland, Alum Bay, Freshwater and Shalfleet as well as Yarmouth. To reach Yarmouth, route 7 uses Pixley Hill, which has caused some controversy amongst local residents who do not believe the road is large enough for buses; the controversy was started by former route 11 being extended to serve Yarmouth and using the lane in September 2008. In the spring and summer, Southern Vectis operate an open top bus called "The Needles Tour" that runs through Freshwater Bay to Alum Bay and onto the Needles Battery down a bus and pedestrian-only road along the cliff edge. For the more athletic, Yarmouth is on the Isle of Wight Coastal Path.
The parish was once served with services to Newport. Passenger services ended in 1953, the track has long since been removed. In August 2014 the converted and expanded railway station opened as a restaurant. Yarmouth is one of the smallest towns in the United Kingdom; the 2011 census reported the parish of Yarmouth having 865 usual residents. In 2001 the population was just 791. Yarmouth hosted the popular biannual Old Gaffers festival which included several days of entertainment and shows, but in September 2018 it was announced that the event would no longer be held. Yarmouth marina is the landing point for the Royal Navy's Solent Amphibious Challenge, held in June each year.. Official website of Yarmouth Harbour Commissioners Yarmouth Town Council
Wootton Creek is a tidal estuary that flows into the Solent on the north coast of the Isle of Wight. The estuary has been known in the past as "Fishbourne Creek", "Wootton River" and "Wootton Haven". At the mouth of the estuary is the Wightlink car ferry terminal for connections to Portsmouth. On the west bank of the creek is the village of Wootton, whilst on the east bank is the village of Fishbourne; the estuary is bridged by the main Ryde to Newport road. The estuary is not navigable south of the bridge, tide controls means that water is retained south of the bridge most of the time, in the old mill pond. To the south of the bridge, on the east side of the mill pond, is a Forestry Commission woodland called "Firestone Copse", about 30 acres in size. Since 1993 Wootton Creek and the adjacent Ryde Sands have been designated as SSSIs due to their wide range of intertidal sand flats. "Natural England citation sheet". Information on estuaries from the Isle of Wight Council View Nautical Charts of Wootton Creek and Approaches
River Caul Bourne
The Caul Bourne is a stream on the Isle of Wight, England. The stream is 3 miles long from source to the start of the Newtown River Estuary just below Shalfleet, its source is in an ornamental lake, near Winkle Street in Calbourne, from which it runs to the north through Newbridge and Shalfleet. It is joined by several tributaries before flowing into the Solent via Newtown estuary, a Site of Special Scientific Interest; the river was subject to flooding in December 1993 when a longer than normal period of precipitation led to four houses in Shalfleet suffering £36,000 of damage between them
Cowes is an English seaport town and civil parish on the Isle of Wight. Cowes is located on the west bank of the estuary of the River Medina, facing the smaller town of East Cowes on the east bank; the two towns are linked by a chain ferry. The population was 9,663 in the 2001 census; the population at the 2011 census was 10,405. Charles Godfrey Leland's 19th century verses describe the towns poetically as "The two great Cowes that in loud thunder roar/This on the eastern, that the western shore". Cowes has been seen as a home for international yacht racing since the founding of the Royal Yacht Squadron in 1815, it gives its name to the world's oldest regular regatta, Cowes Week, which occurs annually in the first week of August. Powerboat races are held. Much of the town's architecture is still influenced by the style of ornate building that Prince Albert popularised; the name Westcowe was attested in 1413 as the name of one of two sandbanks, on each side of the River Medina estuary, so-called after a supposed likeness to cows.
The name was subsequently transferred to fortifications built during the reign of Henry VIII on the east and west banks of the river to dispel a French invasion, referred to as cowforts or cowes. They subsequently gave their names to the towns of Cowes and East Cowes, replacing the earlier name of Shamblord; the town's name has been subject to dispute in the past, sometimes being called Cowes, West Cowes. For example, a milestone from the 17th century exists, calling the town Cowes, but up until the late 19th Century the Urban District Council bore the name West Cowes. In 1895 West Cowes Urban District Council applied for permission to change the name of the town to Cowes and this was granted on 21 August 1895. Whilst the name Cowes has become well established on infrastructure related to the town, the name West Cowes remained on Admiralty charts, used by sailors, until 2015, when it was corrected following a letter from a Cowes resident. Red Funnel, the Southampton-based ferry company that provides routes from Southampton to both Cowes and East Cowes, has continued to use the name West Cowes for the town in information and publicity and as the name for the town's terminal.
In earlier centuries the two settlements were much smaller and known as East and West Shamblord or Shamelhorde, the East being the more significant settlement. The Isle of Wight was a target of attempted French invasions, there were notable incursions. Henrician Castles were built in both settlements in the sixteenth century; the west fort in Cowes still survives to this day, albeit without the original Tudor towers, as Cowes Castle. The fort built in East Cowes is believed to have been similar but was abandoned c. 1546 and since destroyed. The seaport at Cowes, Isle of Wight was the first stop on English soil before crossing the Atlantic Ocean with many ships loaded with Germans and Swiss passengers leaving from Rotterdam going to the New World destination of the port City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; these Germans and Swiss passengers where going to become British subjects in Colonial America, the English Captain's made a written record of the stop in Cowes, England. It is believed that the building of an 80-ton, 60-man vessel called Rat o' Wight on the banks of the river Medina in 1589 for the use of Queen Elizabeth I sowed the seed for Cowes to grow into a world-renowned centre of boat-building.
However, seafaring for recreation and sport remained the exception rather than the rule until much later. It was not until the reign of keen sailor George IV that the stage was set for the heyday of Cowes as'The Yachting Capital of the World.' In 1826 the Royal Yacht Squadron organised a three-day regatta for the first time and the next year the king signified his approval of the event by presenting a cup to mark the occasion. This became known as Cowes Regatta and it soon grew into a four-day event that always ended with a fireworks display; the opium clippers Nina and Wild Dayrell were built in Cowes. In Cowes the 18th-century house of Westbourne was home to a collector of customs whose son, born there in 1795, lived to become Dr Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby School. Northwood House was the home of the Ward family, it was donated under trust to the town in the grounds becoming Northwood Park. William George Ward was a close friend of the poet Tennyson and in whose memory the poet wrote six lines.
Cowes and East Cowes became a single urban district in 1933. During an air raid of World War II on 4/5 May 1942, the local defences had been fortuitously augmented by the Polish destroyer Błyskawica, which put up such a determined defence that, in 2002, the crew's courage was honoured by a local commemoration lasting several days to mark the 60th anniversary of the event. In 2004 an area of Cowes was named Francki Place in honour of the ship's commander; the Friends of the ORP Błyskawica Society is active in Cowes. There is a Błyskawica Memorial. Industry in both Cowes and East Cowes has always centred on the building and design of marine craft and materials associated with boat-making, including the early flying boats, sail-making, it is the place. Major present-day employers include BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies, which occupies the site of the old Somerton Aerodrome at Newport Road, Cowes; the population of the town increases during Cowes Week, the busiest time of the year for local businesses.
The town was reported to be doing well despite the economic downturn. Cowes has a Non-League football club Cowes Sports F. C. wh