Wing commander is a senior commissioned rank in the British Royal Air Force and air forces of many countries which have historical British influence, including many Commonwealth countries but not including Canada and South Africa. It is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure, it ranks above squadron leader and below group captain. It has a NATO ranking code of OF-4, is equivalent to commander in the Royal Navy and to lieutenant colonel in the British Army, the Royal Marines, the US Army, Air Force, Marine Corps; the equivalent rank in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force, Women's Royal Air Force, Princess Mary's Royal Air Force Nursing Service was wing officer. The equivalent rank in the Royal Observer Corps was observer commander which had a similar rank insignia. With the Naval Wing of the Royal Flying Corps adopting the name of Royal Naval Air Service on 1 July 1914, the Naval Air Service adopted appointments in addition to the naval ranks.
Pilots wore insignia according to the appointment, not their rank. One of the appointments was wing commander. On 1 April 1918, the newly created British Royal Air Force did not adopt a new rank structure, with personnel continuing their prior services' rank and uniform. There were some changes in ranks but it was inconstant. In 1920, the RAF began using the rank of wing commander. In the early years of the RAF, a wing commander commanded a flying wing a group of three or four aircraft squadrons. In current usage a wing commander is more to command a wing, an administrative sub-division of an RAF station. A flying squadron is commanded by a wing commander but is commanded by a squadron leader for small units. In the Air Training Corps, a wing commander is the officer commanding of a wing; the rank insignia is based on the three gold bands of commanders in the Royal Navy and consists of three narrow light blue bands over wider black bands. This is worn on both the lower sleeves of the tunic or on the shoulder of the flying suit or the casual uniform.
The command pennant is two triangular command pennants used in the RAF. Two thin red lines differentiate this one from the other. During 1941-45 RAF Fighter Command's wing leaders were allowed to use their own initials as aircraft identification letters on their personal aircraft, e.g. Wing Commander Roland Beamont's personal Hawker Tempest, JN751, was coded "R-B", Wing Commander John Robert Baldwin's personal Hawker Typhoon was coded "J-B"; the rank of wing commander is used in a number of the air forces in the Commonwealth, including the Bangladesh Air Force, Ghana Air Force, Nigerian Air Force, Indian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Royal Australian Air Force, Royal New Zealand Air Force, the Sri Lankan Air Force. It is used in the Egyptian Air Force, Hellenic Air Force, Royal Air Force of Oman and the Royal Thai Air Force; the Royal Malaysian Air Force used the rank until it was retitled as that of lieutenant colonel in 1973, with the same rank insignia. The Royal Canadian Air Force used the rank until the unification of the Canadian Forces in 1968, when army-type rank titles were adopted.
A Canadian wing commander became a lieutenant colonel. In official French Canadian usage, a wing commander's rank title was lieutenant-colonel d'aviation; the rank of wing commander continues to be used as a cadet rank at the Royal Military College of Canada. In the 1990s, the Canadian Forces Air Command altered the structure of those bases under its control, redesignating them as wings; the commander of such an establishment was re-designated as the "wing commander". Like the United States Air Force usage, the term "wing commander" is an appointment, not a rank. A wing commander holds the rank of colonel. In the United States Air Force wing commander is a duty title, not a rank; the equivalent USAF rank is lieutenant colonel who has command of a squadron. Because USAF wings are larger formations than RAF wings, the commander of a wing must hold at least the rank of colonel, is a colonel or a brigadier general; the one exception to this is the commander of the 59th Medical Wing, customarily a major general.
The Civil Air Patrol, the volunteer auxiliary of the USAF, follows the USAF rank structure. The CAP divides the nation into 52 wings; each wing is headed by a CAP colonel. Douglas Bader – World War II fighter pilot and double amputee, was the first commander to lead formations of three or more squadrons during the Battle of Britain Roland Beamont – World War II fighter pilot and post-war test pilot Abdel Latif Boghdadi – pilot in the Egyptian Air Force turned politician Pierre Clostermann – World War II fighter pilot and author of The Big Show Linda Corbould – first woman to command a RAAF flying squadron Roald Dahl – World War II fighter pilot, famous novelist, his record of five aerial victories has been confirmed by post-war research and cross-referenced in Axis records. Roly Falk – test pilot on the maiden flight of the Avro Vulcan Brendan "Paddy" Finucane – top ranking RAF World War II ace with 32 kills. A native of Rathmines, Ireland (who emigrated to Britain with his family in 193
Valeria Roffino is an Italian long-distance runner who specializes in the 3000 metres steeplechase, who won three national championships at individual senior level from 1981 to 1985 in two different specialities. She finished eleventh at the 2007 World Youth Championships and at the 2008 World Junior Championships, ninth at the 2015 Summer Universiade, she competed at the 2011 European U23 Championships and the 2014 European Championships without reaching the final. Her personal best time is 9:53.82 minutes, achieved in July 2014 in Rovereto. She became Italian champion in 2014 and 2015, in the 5000 metres in 2017. Italian Athletics Championships 3000 m steeplechase: 2014, 2015 5000 m: 2017 Italian all-time lists - 3000 m steeplechase Valeria Roffino at World Athletics Valeria Roffino at FIDAL
The Bahamas first participated at the Olympic Games in 1952, has sent athletes to compete in every Summer Olympic Games since except when they participated in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics. The nation has never participated in any Winter Olympic Games. Bahamian athletes have won a total of all in athletics and sailing; the National Olympic Committee for The Bahamas is the Bahamas Olympic Committee, was created in 1952. Summer Olympics Bahamas at the Paralympics "Bahamas". International Olympic Committee. "Results and Medalists—Bahamas". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. "Bahamas". Sports-Reference.com
Norris Dewar McWhirter was a British writer, political activist, co-founder of The Freedom Association, a television presenter. He and his twin brother Ross were known internationally for the founding of Guinness World Records which they wrote and annually updated together between 1955 and 1975. After Ross's assassination by the Provisional Irish Republican Army, Norris carried on alone as editor. Norris and Ross were the twin sons of William McWhirter, the editor of the Sunday Pictorial, Margaret Williamson. In 1929, as William was working on the founding of the Northcliffe Newspapers chain of provincial newspapers, the family moved to "Aberfoyle", in Broad Walk, Winchmore Hill. Like their elder brother, Kennedy and Ross were educated at Marlborough College and Trinity College, Oxford. Norris chose to complete his law degree in two years rather than the usual three. Between 1943 and 1946, Norris served as a sub-lieutenant with the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve on escort duty in Atlantic and on board a minesweeper in the Pacific.
McWhirter represented Scotland at running during the 1950s. He and his brother became sports journalists in 1950. In 1951, they published Get to Your Marks and that year they founded an agency to provide facts and figures to Fleet Street, setting out, in Norris McWhirter's words: "to supply facts and figures to newspapers, yearbooks and advertisers". At the same time, he became a founding member of the Association of Field Statisticians. McWhirter came to public attention. On 6 May 1954, he kept the time. After the race, he began his announcement: As a result of Event Four, the one mile, the winner was R. G. Bannister of Exeter and Merton colleges, in a time which, subject to ratification, is a track record, an English native record, a United Kingdom record, a European record, in a time of three minutes... at which the rest of McWhirter's announcement was drowned out in the enthusiastic uproar. One of the athletes covered was runner Christopher Chataway, the employee at Guinness who recommended them to Sir Hugh Beaver.
After an interview in which the Guinness directors enjoyed testing the twins' knowledge of records and unusual facts, the brothers agreed to start work on the book that became The Guinness Book of Records in 1954. In August 1955, the first slim green volume – 198 pages long – was at the bookstalls, in four more months it was Britain's No. 1 nonfiction best-seller. In 1954, the McWhirter brothers sued Daily Mail sports writer J. L. Manning for his critical piece about non-journalist sports writers; the McWhirters were awarded £300 in damages. McWhirter was part of the BBC commentary team for their Olympic Games coverage between 1960 and 1976, he was an active member of the Conservative Party in the early 1960s and fought, unsuccessfully, to recapture Orpington in the 1964 and 1966 UK general elections after its loss to the Liberals in the 1962 by-election. His brother, was a critic of British government policy in Northern Ireland, called for a "tougher" response by the Army against Irish republicans.
Ross was shot dead by the IRA in 1975 at his home in Middlesex after offering a reward for information leading to the apprehension of those carrying out a bombing campaign in London at the time. Following Ross's murder, Norris co-founded the right-wing political organisation the National Association for Freedom in 1975; this organisation initiated legal challenges against the trade union movement in the UK, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and the European Economic Community in Brussels. All of the work it undertakes falls within the following Eight Principles of a Free Society: Individual Freedom, Personal & Family Responsibility, The Rule of Law, Limited Government, Free Market Economy, National Parliamentary Democracy, Strong National Defences and a Free Press and Other Media, it continues its political activities to this day. Norris was a member of the Secretariat of the anti-communist European Freedom Campaign, established in London at an Inaugural Rally at Westminster Central Hall on 10 December 1988.
Both brothers were regulars on the BBC show Record Breakers. They were noted for their photographic memory, enabling them to provide detailed answers to any questions from the audience about entries in the Guinness Book of Records. After Ross's death, Norris continued to appear on the show making him one of the most recognisable people on children's television in the 1970s and 1980s. McWhirter was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1980 New Year Honours. In 1957, McWhirter married Carole Eckert, who died in 1987. In 1990, he married Tessa von Weichardt, née Pocock, he retired from The Guinness Book of Records in 1985, though he continued in an advisory role until 1996. He continued to write, editing a new reference book, Norris McWhirter's Book of Millennium Records, in 1999. In 1985, he launched an unsuccessful defamation case against the Independent Broadcasting Authority for the TV programme Spitting Image, which had inserted a subliminal image of McWhirter's face imposed on the body of a naked woman.
McWhirter died from a heart attack at his home in Kington Langley, Wiltshire, on 19 April 2004, aged 78. His memorial service – attended by, among others, Baroness Thatcher, John Gouriet, Jeremy Beadle, Christopher Gill, Jeffrey Archer, Gregory Lauder-Frost and Sir Roger Bannister – was held in St Martin-in-the-Fields, Trafalgar Square, London, on
The Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators is a nonprofit, 5013 organization that acts as a network for the exchange of knowledge between writers, editors, agents, educators and others involved with literature for young people. The SCBWI has more than 22,000 members worldwide, in over 80 regional chapters, making it the largest children's writing organization in the world; the mission of the Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators is to promote the appreciation of children's books around the world by fostering a vibrant community of individuals who bring books for young readers to the public, including writers, editors, agents, educators, bloggers and others. SCBWI provides education and support for these individuals through their awards, grants and events, they strive to increase the quality and quantity of children's books in the marketplace, act as a consolidated voice for professional writers and illustrators worldwide. In 1971, the organization was founded as the Society of Children's Book Writers by a group of Los Angeles-based writers, including the group's President Stephen Mooser and Executive Director Lin Oliver.
Authors Judy Blume and Jane Yolen continue to be involved today. In October 1973, details were announced for the Golden Kite Award, the only children's literary award judged by a jury of peers. Today, the awards are given annually to recognize excellence in children's literature in four categories: Fiction, Picture Book Text, Picture Book Illustration. In March 1978, SCBWI announced it would offer work-in-progress grants in memory of illustrator and board member Don Freeman. Today, nearly $25,000 in Work-in-Progress grants are given annually to SCBWI members. In 1991, illustrator and board member Tomie dePaola lobbied to include illustrators in organization, and the name was changed to the current: Society of Children's Book Illustrators. In 1993, Sue Alexander opened the first office in California. In 1996, SCBWI launched its first website with the help of Bruce Balan. In 1999, in Paris, France, SCBWI held its first conference outside the United States. In 1999, in New York City, SCBWI added an annual Winter International Conference.
In 2010, SCBWI established the Crystal Kite Member's Choice Awards to recognize great children's literature in 15 regional divisions around the world. The Bulletin: The SCBWI Bulletin is a bi-monthly publication containing information about the field of children's literature. Features include marketing reports; the Book: SCBWI publishes The Book, which provides information and references to both published and unpublished writers and illustrators. Publications include specific information on publishers, markets, educational programs, critique groups, editorial services; the Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators presents several awards and grants to its members each year including: Amber Brown Grant: Named in honor of the late author and SCBWI supporter, Paula Danzinger, the Amber Brown Grants are given to underserved schools with the desire and commitment to enrich their curriculum with a visit from an author or illustrator. SCBWI provides an all-expense-paid, full-day visit by a well-respected children's author or illustrator.
The chosen school receives a $250 stipend to assist in creating the event and $250 worth of books by the visiting author. One or two schools are chosen each year. Book Launch Award: The SCBWI Book Launch Award provides two annual awards of $2000 each for an author or illustrator to use for marketing a book scheduled for release during the next calendar year; the money can be used for any kind of promotional purpose that will increase sales and visibility of the book, such as launch events, speaking engagements, book tours, curriculum materials, book trailers, website development, or community events. Crystal Kite Member Choice Awards: Recognize great books from the 70 SCBWI regions around the world. Along with the SCBWI Golden Kite Awards, the Crystal Kite Awards are chosen by other children's book writers and illustrators, making them the only peer-given awards in publishing for young readers; each member of SCBWI is allowed to vote for their favorite book from a nominated author in their region, published in the previous calendar year.
Golden Kite Award: Given annually to recognize excellence in children's literature in four categories: Fiction, Picture Book Text, Picture Book Illustration. Winning authors and illustrators receive an expenses-paid trip to Los Angeles to attend the award ceremony at the Golden Kite Luncheon at SCBWI's Summer Conference in August and a lifetime membership in SCBWI. A commemorative poster with the winners will be created and distributed to, among others, various schools and publishers. Magazine Merit Award: The SCBWI Magazine Merit Awards are presented annually for original magazine work for young people; each year, the SCBWI presents four plaques, one in each category of fiction, nonfiction and poetry, each year to honor members' outstanding original magazine work published during that year. The works chosen are those that exhibit excellence in writing and illustration, genuinely appeal to the interests and concerns of young people. Honor Certificates in each category are awarded. Member of the Year: Goes to a member.
Portfolio Award: An award for best portfolio on display in the Juried Art Portfolio Display at the
The Newton House Museum known as the Matthew Rainey House, is a historic house museum at 510 North Jackson Street in El Dorado, Arkansas. The house was built sometime between 1843 and 1853 by Matthew Rainey, El Dorado's first settler, is the oldest building in the city, it is rooms on either side. It stands at the edge of a 4-acre parcel, having been moved from its center in 1910; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974, included in the Murphy-Hill Historic District in 2007. It is now owned by the South Arkansas Historical Foundation. National Register of Historic Places listings in Union County, Arkansas Newton House Museum website