A hardpoint is a location on an airframe designed to carry an external or internal load. This includes a station on the wing or fuselage of a civilian aircraft or military aircraft where external jet engine, countermeasures, gun pods, targeting pods or drop tanks can be mounted. In aeronautics, the term station is used to refer to a point of carriage on the frame of an aircraft. A station is rated to carry a certain amount of payload, it is a design number which has taken the rated g-forces of the frame into account. Therefore, point loads on the structure from externally or internally mounted stores, equipment and payload are the weight of the item and any pylons, mounting brackets, etc. multiplied by the maximum load factor which the aircraft will sustain when these items are carried. In civilian aviation a station is used to carry an external engine or a fuel tank; as engines are a fixed installation, operators refer to them with the designation of the engine. Therefore, the term is being used for load points meant for non-fixed installation.
In the military, a station can be called weapons station. Unlike civilian aircraft, NATO aircraft frame strength is required to remain without detrimental deformations at 115 percent of the limit or specified loads, without structural failure at ultimate loads. Most stations on a military aircraft serve to carry weapons. A minor number of stations can serve to carry external fuel tanks; these stations are called a general aeronautic term referring to usage of fuel like wet thrust. The term wet is carried over to the adapters, such as a pylon. Wing stations require pylons to carry objects. Stations on the fuselage may not require a pylon, such as the fuselage stations on the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, while other aircraft need pylons for certain stations in order to provide clearance for the landing gear retraction sequence or to provide necessary item space. Swing-wing aircraft that mount pylons on the moving portion of the wing must include a mechanism for swiveling the pylon as the wing sweeps fore or aft, in order to keep the pylon and store facing directly forwards at all times.
The F-111's outermost pair of hardpoints do not swivel, can only be used while the wing is extended. This restricts the aircraft to subsonic flight only while these pylons are fitted fitted with fuel tanks during ferry flights; the pylons are automatically jettisoned if the wing sweep moves past 26 degrees, which would mean that the aircraft is accelerating towards transonic speeds. Stations may be numbered for reference or not at all; the numbering is not consistent and may originate from elsewhere like station 559 on the B-52. There is not an order in which numbers are assigned; the order can be for example from left to right or vice versa, or mirrored and from outboard to inboard. The unique centerline station is no exception. A pylon serves to connect the frame of an aircraft to an item or object, being carried; the use of a pylon is necessary to clear the carriage item of control surfaces as well as prevent undesired disturbance of the flow of air toward the wing. Pylons are designed to be aerodynamic to reduce air resistance.
There are many different forms and designs of pylons distinctly termed accordingly like a wedge adaptor or stub wing pylon. Stealth aircraft like the F-22 or F-35 can use jettisonable pylons to retain stealth and reduce drag. While most pylons are part of a modular system, compatible with numerous stores, certain weapons and aircraft can require special pylons or adapters to carry a specific load. For example, in the Vietnam War, the "Wild Weasel" defense suppression version of the F-105 Thunderchief, the F-105G, could carry the usual AGM-45 "Shrike" anti-radiation missile on a standard pylon and launcher, but the newly developed AGM-78 Standard ARM required a specially designed and unique "LAU-78/a" launcher, unique to that missile. NATO suspension equipment and stores are standardized in MIL-STD-8591. A military pylon provides carriage and the ability to jettison external stores – weapons, fuel tanks or other ordnance. Pylons have a modular bay to carry a wider variety of stores; these adaptors can be bomb racks, launchers or other types of support structures each with their own provisions for mounting all other assemblies.
Racks carry and release stores. Racks are either part of, or can be inserted into, the modular bay of a support structure such as a pylon. A rack can mount a store or another piece of suspension equipment, for example, numerous bombs being mounted onto a single pylon, such as was done on F-105 Thunderchief missions over Vietnam, or the large external pylons on the B-52 Stratofortress, which can carry 12 unguided bombs in four triple ejector racks mounted to a single pylon. Alternatively, using the same pylon, but different racks and adapters, 9 air-launched cruise missiles can be carried. Using modular racks and universal adapters makes it much easier to configure the desired load; the store is mounted by locking the store's lugs with L-shaped suspension hooks in the rack. Depending on the mass of the store there can be a single lug or a number of lugs on the store separated by a certain distance; the distances are standardized. For NATO there is the 14-inch suspension for a 30-inch suspension for heavier stores.
Depending on specific stores from 1000 lb upward
Consolidated PBY Catalina
The Consolidated PBY Catalina known as the Canso in Canadian service, is an American flying boat, an amphibious aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft. It was one of the most used seaplanes of World War II. Catalinas served with every branch of the United States Armed Forces and in the air forces and navies of many other nations. During World War II, PBYs were used in anti-submarine warfare, patrol bombing, convoy escort and rescue missions, cargo transport; the PBY was the most numerous aircraft of its kind, the last military PBYs served until the 1980s. As of 2014, nearly 80 years after its first flight, the aircraft continues to fly as a waterbomber in aerial firefighting operations in some parts of the world; the designation "PBY" was determined in accordance with the U. S. Navy aircraft designation system of 1922. Catalinas built by other manufacturers for the U. S. Navy were designated according to different manufacturer codes, thus Canadian Vickers-built examples were designated PBV, Boeing Canada examples PB2B and Naval Aircraft Factory examples were designated PBN.
In accordance with contemporary British naming practice of naming seaplanes after coastal port towns, Royal Canadian Air Force examples were named Canso, for the town of that name in Nova Scotia. The Royal Air Force used the name Catalina and the U. S. Navy adopted this name in 1942; the United States Army Air Forces and the United States Air Force used the designation OA-10. U. S. Navy Catalinas used in the Pacific against the Japanese for night operations were painted black overall; the PBY was designed to be a patrol bomber, an aircraft with a long operational range intended to locate and attack enemy transport ships at sea in order to disrupt enemy supply lines. With a mind to a potential conflict in the Pacific Ocean, where troops would require resupply over great distances, the U. S. Navy in the 1930s invested millions of dollars in developing long-range flying boats for this purpose. Flying boats had the advantage of not requiring runways, in effect having the entire ocean available. Several different flying boats were adopted by the Navy, but the PBY was the most used and produced.
Although slow and ungainly, Catalinas distinguished themselves in World War II. Allied forces used them in a wide variety of roles for which the aircraft was never intended. PBYs are remembered for their rescue role, in which they saved the lives of thousands of aircrew downed over water. Catalina airmen called their aircraft the "Cat" on combat missions and "Dumbo" in air-sea rescue service; as American dominance in the Pacific Ocean began to face competition from Japan in the 1930s, the U. S. Navy contracted Consolidated and Douglas in October 1933 to build competing prototypes for a patrol flying boat. Naval doctrine of the 1930s and 1940s used flying boats in a wide variety of roles that today are handled by multiple special-purpose aircraft; the U. S. Navy had adopted the Consolidated P2Y and Martin P3M models for this role in 1931, but both aircraft were underpowered and hampered by inadequate range and limited payloads. Consolidated and Douglas both delivered single prototypes of their new designs, the XP3Y-1 and XP3D-1, respectively.
Consolidated's XP3Y-1 was an evolution of the XPY-1 design that had competed unsuccessfully for the P3M contract two years earlier and of the XP2Y design that the Navy had authorized for a limited production run. Although the Douglas aircraft was a good design, the Navy opted for Consolidated's because the projected cost was only $90,000 per aircraft. Consolidated's XP3Y-1 design had a parasol wing with external bracing struts, mounted on a pylon over the fuselage. Wingtip stabilizing floats were retractable in flight to form streamlined wingtips and had been licensed from the Saunders-Roe company; the two-step hull design was similar to that of the P2Y, but the Model 28 had a cantilever cruciform tail unit instead of a strut-braced twin tail. Cleaner aerodynamics gave the Model 28 better performance than earlier designs. Construction is all-metal, stressed-skin, of aluminum sheet, except the ailerons and wing trailing edge, which are fabric covered; the prototype was powered by two 825 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-54 Twin Wasp radial engines mounted on the wing’s leading edges.
Armament comprised up to 2,000 lb of bombs. The XP3Y-1 had its maiden flight on 28 March 1935, after which it was transferred to the U. S. Navy for service trials; the XP3Y-1 was a significant performance improvement over previous patrol flying boats. The Navy requested further development in order to bring the aircraft into the category of patrol bomber, in October 1935, the prototype was returned to Consolidated for further work, including installation of 900 hp R-1830-64 engines. For the redesignated XPBY-1, Consolidated introduced redesigned vertical tail surfaces which resolved a problem with the tail becoming submerged on takeoff, which had made lift-off impossible under some conditions; the XPBY-1 had its maiden flight on 19 May 1936, during which a record non-stop distance flight of 3,443 mi was achieved. The XPBY-1 was delivered to VP-11F in October 1936; the second squadron to be equipped was VP-12, which received the first of its aircraft in early 1937. The second production order was placed on 25 July 1936.
Over the next three years, the design was developed further and successive models introduced. The aircr
A glider or sailplane is a type of glider aircraft used in the leisure activity and sport of gliding. This unpowered aircraft uses occurring currents of rising air in the atmosphere to remain airborne. Gliders are aerodynamically streamlined and are capable of gaining altitude and remaining airborne, maintaining forward motion. Gliders benefit from producing the least drag for any given amount of lift, this is best achieved with long, thin wings, a faired narrow cockpit and a slender fuselage. Aircraft with these features are able to soar - climb efficiently in rising air produced by thermals or hills. In still air, gliders can glide long distances at high speed with a minimum loss of height in between. Gliders have either skids or undercarriage. In contrast hang gliders and paragliders use the pilot's feet for the start of the launch and for the landing; these latter types are described in separate articles, though their differences from gliders are covered below. Gliders are launched by winch or aerotow, though other methods: auto tow and bungee, are used.
Some gliders do not soar and are engineless aircraft towed by another aircraft to a desired destination and cast off for landing. Military gliders are single-use only, are abandoned after landing, having served their purpose. Motor gliders are gliders with engines which can be used for extending a flight and in some cases, for take-off; some high-performance motor gliders may have an engine-driven retractable propeller which can be used to sustain flight. Other motor gliders have enough thrust to launch themselves before the engine is retracted and are known as "self-launching" gliders. Another type is the self-launching "touring motor glider", where the pilot can switch the engine on and off in flight without retracting their propellers. Sir George Cayley's gliders achieved brief wing-borne hops from around 1849. In the 1890s, Otto Lilienthal built gliders using weight shift for control. In the early 1900s, the Wright Brothers built gliders using movable surfaces for control. In 1903, they added an engine.
After World War I gliders were first built for sporting purposes in Germany. Germany's strong links to gliding were to a large degree due to post-WWI regulations forbidding the construction and flight of motorised planes in Germany, so the country's aircraft enthusiasts turned to gliders and were encouraged by the German government at flying sites suited to gliding flight like the Wasserkuppe; the sporting use of gliders evolved in the 1930s and is now their main application. As their performance improved, gliders began to be used for cross-country flying and now fly hundreds or thousands of kilometres in a day if the weather is suitable. Early gliders had the pilot sat on a small seat located just ahead of the wing; these were known as "primary gliders" and they were launched from the tops of hills, though they are capable of short hops across the ground while being towed behind a vehicle. To enable gliders to soar more than primary gliders, the designs minimized drag. Gliders now have smooth, narrow fuselages and long, narrow wings with a high aspect ratio and winglets.
The early gliders were made of wood with metal fastenings and control cables. Fuselages made of fabric-covered steel tube were married to wood and fabric wings for lightness and strength. New materials such as carbon-fiber, fiber glass and Kevlar have since been used with computer-aided design to increase performance; the first glider to use glass-fiber extensively was the Akaflieg Stuttgart FS-24 Phönix which first flew in 1957. This material is still used because of its high strength to weight ratio and its ability to give a smooth exterior finish to reduce drag. Drag has been minimized by more aerodynamic shapes and retractable undercarriages. Flaps are fitted to the trailing edges of the wings on some gliders to minimize the drag from the tailplane at all speeds. With each generation of materials and with the improvements in aerodynamics, the performance of gliders has increased. One measure of performance is the glide ratio. A ratio of 30:1 means that in smooth air a glider can travel forward 30 meters while losing only 1 meter of altitude.
Comparing some typical gliders that might be found in the fleet of a gliding club – the Grunau Baby from the 1930s had a glide ratio of just 17:1, the glass-fiber Libelle of the 1960s increased that to 39:1, modern flapped 18 meter gliders such as the ASG29 have a glide ratio of over 50:1. The largest open-class glider, the eta, has a span of 30.9 meters and has a glide ratio over 70:1. Compare this to the Gimli Glider, a Boeing 767 which ran out of fuel mid-flight and was found to have a glide ratio of 12:1, or to the Space Shuttle with a glide ratio of 4.5:1. Due to the critical role that aerodynamic efficiency plays in the performance of a glider, gliders have aerodynamic features found in other aircraft; the wings of a modern racing glider have a specially designed low-drag laminar flow airfoil. After the wings' surfaces have been shaped by a mold to great accuracy, they are highly polished. Vertical winglets at the ends of the wings are computer-designed to decrease drag and improve handling performance.
Special aerodynamic seals are used at the ailerons and elevator to prevent the flow of air through control surface gaps. Turbulator devices in the form of a zig-zag tape or multiple blow holes positioned in a span-wise line along the wing are used to trip laminar flow air into turbulent flow at a desired location on the wing; this flow control prevents the formation of laminar flow bubbles and ensures t
Grumman American AA-1
The Grumman American AA-1 series is a family of light, two-seat aircraft. The family includes the original American Aviation AA-1 Yankee Clipper and AA-1A Trainer, the Grumman American AA-1B Trainer and TR-2, plus the Gulfstream American AA-1C Lynx and T-Cat; the Yankee was designed in 1962 by Jim Bede as the BD-1 and was intended to be sold as a kit-built aircraft. Bede decided to certify the design under the then-new FAR Part 23 rules and offer it as a completed aircraft. No BD-1 kits were sold; the prototype first flew on July 11, 1963 and featured folding wings for trailering and ease of storage. Bede formed a company, Bede Aviation Corporation, based in Cleveland Ohio, to produce the aircraft, but the BD-1 never entered production as a certified aircraft. At that time the FAA was hesitant to certify a light aircraft with folding wings; the certification process was complex and expensive and disagreements arose between Bede and the other shareholders. As a result, Bede was ousted by his business partners and the company renamed American Aviation.
American's engineers reworked the wing to a non-folding design. Other changes included adding extended wing tips to improve rate-of-climb, an anti-servo tab on the elevator along with a centering spring system to increase longitudinal stability and stall strips to improve handling during a stall; the company designated the redesigned aircraft the AA-1 Yankee Clipper. The AA-1 was certified under FAR Part 23 on August 29, 1967 with the first production AA-1 flying on May 30, 1968; the first 1969 models were delivered in the fall of 1968 at a base price of US$6495, notably lower than competitive aircraft cost at that time. American Aviation built 459 examples of the AA-1 Yankee Clipper between 1969 and 1971 at their factory in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1971 American Aviation modified the NACA 64-415 airfoil used on the AA-1's wing, creating the AA-1A Trainer; the recontoured leading edge produced softer stall characteristics and permitted lower approach speeds. While this did tame the AA-1's sharp stall, it reduced the cruise speed compared to the original AA-1 by 10 mph.
First flight was on March 25, 1970 and 470 AA-1As were built in 1971–72. Grumman bought American Aviation in 1971, renaming it Grumman American Aviation and beginning in late 1972 sold the 1973 model year design as the Grumman American AA-1B Trainer for school use; the variant designed for the personal-use market was called the TR-2 and it featured a standard radio and trim package. The AA-1B was produced until 1976. 680 AA-1Bs were produced. All the AA-1s, AA-1As and AA-1Bs were powered by the Lycoming O-235-C2C low-compression engine designed for 80/87 avgas, which produced 108 hp; the Grumman light aircraft line was acquired by Gulfstream Aerospace in 1977 who formed it into their light aircraft division, Gulfstream American, in Savannah, Georgia. That company division completed a major redesign of the AA-1B, resulting in the AA-1C, it was marketed in two versions, differentiated by the avionics fitted and the external trim package. The Lynx was targeted at private owners; these names were chosen to position the aircraft in the Gulfstream American line which, at that time featured the Cheetah and the Cougar.
The AA-1C received a new larger horizontal tail and other significant improvements, including a 115 hp Lycoming O-235-L2C high-compression engine designed for 100LL fuel, which brought the cruise speed back up to that of the original 108 hp Yankee. 211 AA-1Cs were produced in 1977 and 1978. The last AA-1C was produced by Gulfstream American in 1978. Overall, 1820 AA-1 family aircraft were built between 1969 and 1978. Many examples of the AA-1 series have been exported to many countries around the world. Pilots in Europe to acquire the type include those resident in Belgium, Finland, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Others went to Australia, Dominican Republic, New Zealand and South Africa; the type certificate for the AA-1 family of aircraft are held by True Flight Holdings LLC who bought the assets of Tiger Aircraft on August 2, 2007. All models of the AA-1 accommodate two people in side-by-side seating under a sliding canopy and are noted for their exceptionally light handling; the Yankee and its four-seater siblings, the AA-5 series, feature a unique bonded aluminum honeycomb fuselage and bonded wings that eliminate the need for rivets without sacrificing strength.
The wide-track main landing gear struts are laminated fiberglass for shock absorption, marketed as the "Face Saver" design by American Aviation. The Yankee was designed to minimize the number of airframe parts used, with the aim of simplifying production and saving money; as a result of this philosophy many parts were interchangeable. Due to the use of a non-tapered tubular spar, which doubled as the fuel tank, the lack of wing washout, the wings could be exchanged left and right; the fin and horizontal stabilizers were interchangeable, as were the elevators. The ailerons and flaps were the same part. While it did succeed in making production easier, this design philosophy produced many aerodynamic compromises in the design. For instance, because the flaps were the same part as the ailerons they were too small to be effective as flaps; the lack of wing washout, necessitated by the wing interchangeability requirement, meant that stall strips had to be installed to produce acceptable stall characteristics for certification.
Over time this philosophy of compromising the aerodynamics in favour of a minimized parts count was abandoned. For example, the redesign of the AA-1B into the AA-1C by Gulfstream involved wider-span elevators and horizontal stabilizers that produced better longitudinal stability, but were no lon
A navigation light known as a running or position light, is a source of illumination on a vessel, aircraft or spacecraft. Navigation lights give information on a craft's position and status, their placement is mandated by civil authorities. Navigation lights are not intended to provide illumination for the craft making the passage, only for other craft to be aware of it. In 1838 the United States passed an act requiring steamboats running between sunset and sunrise to carry one or more signal lights. In 1848 the United Kingdom passed regulations that required steam vessels to display red and green sidelights as well as a white masthead light. In 1849 the U. S. Congress extended the light requirements to sailing vessels. In 1889 the United States convened the first International Maritime Conference to consider regulations for preventing collisions; the resulting Washington Conference Rules were adopted by the U. S in 1890 and became effective internationally in 1897. Within these rules was the requirement for steamships to carry a second mast head light.
The international 1948 Safety of Life at Sea Conference recommended a mandatory second masthead light for power driven vessels over 150 feet in length and a fixed sternlight for all vessels. The regulations have changed little since then; the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea established in 1972 stipulates the requirements for the navigation lights required on a vessel. To avoid collisions, vessels mount navigation lights that permit other vessels to determine the type and relative angle of a vessel, thus decide if there is a danger of collision. In general sailing vessels are required to carry a green light that shines from dead ahead to 2 points abaft the beam on the starboard side, a red light from dead ahead to two points abaft the beam on the port side and a white light that shines from astern to two points abaft the beam on both sides. Power driven vessels, in addition to these lights, must carry either one or two white masthead lights that shine from ahead to two points abaft the beam on both sides.
If two masthead lights are carried the aft one must be higher than the forward one. Hovercraft at all times and some boats operating in crowded areas may carry a yellow flashing beacon for added visibility during day or night. In addition to red and green running lights, a combination of red and green Mast Lights placed on a mast higher than all the running lights, viewable from all directions, may be used to indicate the type of craft or the service it is performing. See "Quick Guide" in external links. Ships at anchor display two white anchor lights that can be seen from all directions. If two lights are shown the forward light is higher than the aft one. Boats classed as "small" are not compelled to carry navigation lights and may make use of a handheld torch. Aircraft external lights are any light fitted to the exterior of an aircraft, they are used to increase visibility to others, to signal actions such as entering an active runway or starting up an engine. Incandescent bulbs have been used to provide light, however Light-emitting diodes have been used.
Aircraft navigation lights are placed in a way similar to that of marine vessels, with a red navigation light located on the left wingtip leading edge and a green light on the right wingtip leading edge. A white navigation light is as far aft as possible on each wing tip. High-intensity strobe lights are located on the aircraft to aid in collision avoidance. Anti-collision lights are flashing lights on the top and bottom of the fuselage and tail tip, their purpose is to alert others when something is happening that ground crew and other aircraft need to be aware of, such as running engines or entering active runways. In civil aviation, pilots must keep navigation lights on from sunset to sunrise. High-intensity white strobe lights are part of the anti-collision light system, as well as the red rotating beacon. All aircraft built after 11 March 1996 must have an anti-collision light system turned on for all flight activities in poor visibility; the anti-collision system is recommended in good visibility, where only strobes and beacon are required.
For example, just before pushback, the pilot must keep the beacon lights on to notify ground crews that the engines are about to start. These beacon lights stay on for the duration of the flight. While taxiing, the taxi lights are on; when coming onto the runway, the taxi lights go off and the landing lights and strobes go on. When passing 10,000 feet, the landing lights are no longer required, the pilot can elect to turn them off; the same cycle in reverse order applies. Landing lights are bright white and downward facing lights on the front of an aircraft, their purpose is to allow the pilot to see the landing area, to allow ground crew to see the approaching aircraft. Civilian commercial airliners have other non-navigational lights; these include logo lights. These lights are optional to turn on, though most pilots switch them on at night to increase visibility from other aircraft. Modern airliners have a wing light; these are positioned on the outer side just in front of the engine cowlings on the fuselage.
These are not required to be on, but in some cases pilots turn these lights on for engine checks and while passengers board the aircraft for better visibility of the ground near the aircraft. In 2011, ORBITEC developed th
Landing lights are lights, mounted on aircraft, that illuminate the terrain and runway ahead during takeoff and landing. All modern aircraft are equipped with landing lights if approved for nighttime operations. Landing lights are of high intensity, because of the considerable distance that may separate an aircraft from terrain or obstacles; the landing lights of large aircraft can be seen by other aircraft over 100 miles away. Key considerations of landing light design include intensity, reliability and power consumption. Ideal landing lights are intense, require little electrical power, are lightweight, have long and predictable service lives. Past and present technologies include ordinary incandescent lamps, halogen lamps, various forms of arc lamps and discharge lamps, LED lamps. Landing lights are only useful as visibility aids to the pilots when the aircraft is low and close to terrain, as during take-off and landing. Landing lights are extinguished in cruise flight if atmospheric conditions are to make the lights reflect or glare back into the eyes of the pilots.
However, the brightness of landing lights makes them useful for increasing the visibility of an aircraft to other pilots, so pilots are encouraged to keep their landing lights on while below certain altitudes or in crowded airspace. Some aircraft have lights that— when not needed to directly illuminate the ground—can operate in a flashing mode to enhance visibility to other aircraft. One convention is for commercial aircraft to turn on their landing lights when changing flight levels. Landing lights are sometimes used in emergencies to communicate with ground personnel or other aircraft if other means of communication are not available. Additionally, landing lights have at times been installed as a vehicle high beam in the hot rod scene, although this is not legal. In many jurisdictions, landing light fixtures and the lamps they use must be certified for use in a given aircraft by a government authority; the use of the landing light may be required or forbidden by local regulations, depending on a variety of factors such as the local time, weather, or flight operations.
In the United States, for example, landing lights are not required or used for many types of aircraft, but their use is encouraged, both for take-off and landing and during any operations below 10,000 ft or within ten nautical miles of an airport. According to CFR 14 and FAR Part 91.205, a landing light is required for all aircraft used in commercial operations at night. Aircraft warning lights Aviation navigation lights Federal Aviation Administration, Aeronautical Information Manual, FAA, March 2007 Federal Aviation Administration, Airplane Flying Handbook, FAA, 2004 Federal Aviation Administration, Air Traffic Control, February 16, FAA, 2006 Federal Aviation Administration, Instrument Procedures Handbook, FAA, 2004 Federal Aviation Administration, Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA, 2003 Murphy, Kevin D. and Bell, Leisha, "Airspace for Everyone," Safety Advisor, Regulations 1, AOPA Air Safety Association, September 2005 Jim Clark. "Headlights Part 3: Choosing and Mounting Them".
The Liebherr Group is a large equipment manufacturer based in Switzerland with its main production facilities and origins in Germany. It consists of over 130 companies organized into eleven Divisions: Earthmoving, Mobile cranes, Tower cranes, Concrete technology, Maritime cranes and transportation systems, Machine tools and automation systems, Domestic appliances, Components, it has a worldwide workforce of over 42,000, with 9 billion euros in revenue for 2017. By 2007, it was the world's largest crane company. Established in 1949 by Hans Liebherr in Kirchdorf an der Iller, Baden-Württemberg, the business is still owned by the Liebherr family. Isolde and Willi Liebherr are the chief executive and chairman of the Bulle, Switzerland-based Liebherr-International AG, several other family members are involved in corporate management. In 2005, Forbes magazine listed them as billionaires. In 1974, the Franklin Institute awarded Hans Liebherr the Frank P. Brown Medal. Starting by building affordable tower cranes, Liebherr expanded into making aircraft parts – it is a significant supplier to European Airbus airplane manufacturer – and commercial chiller displays and freezers, as well as domestic refrigerators.
The group produces some of the world's biggest mining and digging machinery, including loaders and extreme-size dump trucks. The T 282 B is the world's 2nd biggest truck; the group's nine-axle mobile crane, the LTM 11200-9.1 – with a 100 metres telescopic boom – in 2007 received the heavy-lifting industry's Development of the Year award for being the world's most powerful example of such a machine. Over the years, the family business has grown into a group of varied companies and has locations in many countries, including Germany, Britain, Ireland and the United States. Since 1958, its Irish factory in Killarney, Co. Kerry has built container cranes. In Australia, the group in 2013 commenced an AU$65 million expansion of their local headquarters in Adelaide; the development includes adding a new three-storey office, warehouse, component plant, distribution centre to the Para Hills facility. In the U. S. the group in 2012 started spending US$45.4 million on a three-year renovation and expansion of its Newport News, Virginia factory and warehouse.
The company sought to increase its production there beyond 100 mining trucks a year. On 19 February 2013, representatives from the Commonwealth of Virginia and the cities of Newport News and Hampton announced that they would make grants and incentives available for transport improvement and property investment. In addition, the Liebherr Group owns six hotels in Ireland and Germany. In April 2014, Liebherr announced they would invest 160 million euros at its production site in Bulle, Switzerland; the line of products manufactured by the company includes: Earth moving equipment Mining equipment Cranes: mobile, tower, mobile construction Deep foundation machines Concrete handling equipment Material handling equipment Port equipment Machine tools Automation systems Domestic refrigerators and freezers Aircraft equipment Hotels Mechanical, hydraulic and electronic components and subcomponentsLiebherr has the world's most powerful and tallest crawler crane in LR 13000. It has a maximum pulley height of 248 metres.
This is achieved with the attachment of an additional 126-metre-long lattice jib to the 248-metre main boom. The height of the crawler chassis is an additional 2 m, which gives the lattice structure a total height of 248 m; the maximum hoisting height is 245 m and the total ballast used is 1,900 tonnes, including 1,500 tonnes of derrick ballast. Liebherr AerospaceLiebherr 2010 World Team Table Tennis Championships Construction Crane List of companies of Switzerland List of largest manufacturing companies by revenue Official website Liebherr Machinery database at portvision.eu Liebherr family behind bid for Southampton FC Obituary of Markus Liebherr, The Daily Telegraph, 18 August 2010. Craneception: Watch a Crane Lifting a Crane Lifting a Crane Lifting a Crane