A level editor is software used to design levels, campaigns, etc. and virtual worlds for a video game. An individual involved with the creation of game levels is mapper. In some cases, the creator of a video game releases an official level editor for the game, but other times the community of fans step in to fill the void; the level editor can be integrated into the game. Other times, the editor is a separate application. One of the first 3D games which became popular due to level editors and fan-made content was Doom; the creation of various third-party editors led to the birth of an online community trading fan-made maps. A level editor is limited to creating levels for only a certain game engine. Developing a level editor takes a lot of time and it is more time and cost efficient to release multiple games using the same engine instead of developing a new engine and level editor for each game. Level editors offer some limited scope of content creation, but in the case of gaming industry solutions the scope is large allowing an entire game to be created without the need for much support from a programming team.
To make larger changes to a game than adding new levels, a software development kit is sometimes needed. In the early years of video-gaming, some games came with a utility called a "construction set"; this was similar in many ways to a level-editor. Some games used them to create extra levels, whereas others used them as a means to create a game rather than be a game in itself. Online creation List of level editors Mod ROM hacking
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
A guitarist is a person who plays the guitar. Guitarists may play a variety of guitar family instruments such as classical guitars, acoustic guitars, electric guitars, bass guitars; some guitarists accompany themselves on the guitar by playing the harmonica. The guitarist may employ any of several methods for sounding the guitar, including finger picking, depending on the type of strings used, including strumming with the fingers, or a guitar pick made of bone, plastic, felt, leather, or paper, melodic flatpicking and finger-picking; the guitarist may employ various methods for selecting notes and chords, including fingering, the barre, and'bottleneck' or steel-guitar slides made of glass or metal. These left- and right-hand techniques may be intermixed in performance. Several magazines and websites have compiled what they intend as lists of the greatest guitarists—for example The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time by Rolling Stone magazine, or 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time by Guitar World magazine.
Rolling Stone In 2003, Rolling Stone magazine published a list called The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time. This list included 100 guitarists whom the magazine editor David Fricke considered the best, with a brief introduction for each of them; the first in this list is the American guitarist Jimi Hendrix introduced by Pete Townshend, guitarist for The Who, who was, in his turn, ranked at #50 in the list. In describing the list to readers, Paul MacInnes from British newspaper The Guardian wrote, "Surprisingly enough for an American magazine, the top 10 is fair jam-packed with Yanks," though he noted three exceptions in the top 10; the online magazine Blogcritics criticized the list for introducing some undeserving guitarists while forgetting some artists the writer considered more worthy, such as Johnny Marr, Al Di Meola, Phil Keaggy or John Petrucci. In 2011, Rolling Stone updated the list, which this time was chosen by a panel of guitarists and other experts with the top 5 consisting of Jimi Hendrix, Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page, Keith Richards and Jeff Beck.
Artists who had not been included in the previous list were added. Rory Gallagher, for example, was ranked in 57th place; the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time is mentioned in many biographies about artists who appear in the list. Guitar World Guitar World, a monthly music magazine devoted to the guitar published their list of 100 greatest guitarists in the book Guitar World Presents the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time from the Pages of Guitar World Magazine. Different from the Rolling Stone list, which listed guitarists in descending order, Guitar World divided guitarists by music genre—such as "Lords of Hard Rock" for hard rock artists or "Jazzmen" for jazz players. Despite the appearance in other magazines like Billboard, this publication by Guitar World was criticized for including no female musicians within its selection. However, Guitar World published a list of "Eight Amazing Female Acoustic Players," including Kaki King, Muriel Anderson and Sharon Isbin. TIME and others Following the death of Les Paul, TIME website presented their list of 10 greatest artists in electric guitar.
As in Rolling Stone magazine's list, Jimi Hendrix was chosen as the greatest guitarist followed by Slash from Guns'N' Roses, B. B. King, Keith Richards, Jimmy Page, Eric Clapton. Gigwise.com, an online music magazine ranks Jimi Hendrix as the greatest guitarist followed by Jimmy Page, B. B. King, Keith Richards and Kirk Hammett. There are many classical guitarists listed as notable in their respective epochs. In recent decades, the most "notable classical and cross genre" guitarist was Paco de Lucía, one of the first flamenco guitarists to have crossed over into other genres of music such as classical and jazz. Richard Chapman and Eric Clapton, authors of Guitar: Music, Players, describe de Lucía as a "titanic figure in the world of flamenco guitar", Dennis Koster, author of Guitar Atlas, has referred to de Lucía as "one of history's greatest guitarists.". Media related to Guitarists at Wikimedia Commons
Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
MS-DOS is an operating system for x86-based personal computers developed by Microsoft. Collectively, MS-DOS, its rebranding as IBM PC DOS, some operating systems attempting to be compatible with MS-DOS, are sometimes referred to as "DOS". MS-DOS was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s and the early 1990s, when it was superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface, in various generations of the graphical Microsoft Windows operating system. MS-DOS was the result of the language developed in the seventies, used by IBM for its mainframe operating system. Microsoft acquired the rights to meet IBM specifications. IBM re-released it on August 12, 1981 as PC DOS 1.0 for use in their PCs. Although MS-DOS and PC DOS were developed in parallel by Microsoft and IBM, the two products diverged after twelve years, in 1993, with recognizable differences in compatibility and capabilities. During its lifetime, several competing products were released for the x86 platform, MS-DOS went through eight versions, until development ceased in 2000.
MS-DOS was targeted at Intel 8086 processors running on computer hardware using floppy disks to store and access not only the operating system, but application software and user data as well. Progressive version releases delivered support for other mass storage media in greater sizes and formats, along with added feature support for newer processors and evolving computer architectures, it was the key product in Microsoft's growth from a programming language company to a diverse software development firm, providing the company with essential revenue and marketing resources. It was the underlying basic operating system on which early versions of Windows ran as a GUI, it is a flexible operating system, consumes negligible installation space. MS-DOS was a renamed form of 86-DOS – owned by Seattle Computer Products, written by Tim Paterson. Development of 86-DOS took only six weeks, as it was a clone of Digital Research's CP/M, ported to run on 8086 processors and with two notable differences compared to CP/M.
This first version was shipped in August 1980. Microsoft, which needed an operating system for the IBM Personal Computer hired Tim Paterson in May 1981 and bought 86-DOS 1.10 for $75,000 in July of the same year. Microsoft kept the version number, but renamed it MS-DOS, they licensed MS-DOS 1.10/1.14 to IBM, who, in August 1981, offered it as PC DOS 1.0 as one of three operating systems for the IBM 5150, or the IBM PC. Within a year Microsoft licensed MS-DOS to over 70 other companies, it was designed to be an OS. Each computer would have its own distinct hardware and its own version of MS-DOS, similar to the situation that existed for CP/M, with MS-DOS emulating the same solution as CP/M to adapt for different hardware platforms. To this end, MS-DOS was designed with a modular structure with internal device drivers, minimally for primary disk drives and the console, integrated with the kernel and loaded by the boot loader, installable device drivers for other devices loaded and integrated at boot time.
The OEM would use a development kit provided by Microsoft to build a version of MS-DOS with their basic I/O drivers and a standard Microsoft kernel, which they would supply on disk to end users along with the hardware. Thus, there were many different versions of "MS-DOS" for different hardware, there is a major distinction between an IBM-compatible machine and an MS-DOS machine; some machines, like the Tandy 2000, were MS-DOS compatible but not IBM-compatible, so they could run software written for MS-DOS without dependence on the peripheral hardware of the IBM PC architecture. This design would have worked well for compatibility, if application programs had only used MS-DOS services to perform device I/O, indeed the same design philosophy is embodied in Windows NT. However, in MS-DOS's early days, the greater speed attainable by programs through direct control of hardware was of particular importance for games, which pushed the limits of their contemporary hardware. Soon an IBM-compatible architecture became the goal, before long all 8086-family computers emulated IBM's hardware, only a single version of MS-DOS for a fixed hardware platform was needed for the market.
This version is the version of MS-DOS, discussed here, as the dozens of other OEM versions of "MS-DOS" were only relevant to the systems they were designed for, in any case were similar in function and capability to some standard version for the IBM PC—often the same-numbered version, but not always, since some OEMs used their own proprietary version numbering schemes —with a few notable exceptions. Microsoft omitted multi-user support from MS-DOS because Microsoft's Unix-based operating system, was multi-user; the company planned, over time, to improve MS-DOS so it would be indistinguishable from single-user Xenix, or XEDOS, which would run on the Motorola 68000, Zilog Z8000, the LSI-11. Microsoft advertised MS-DOS and Xenix together, listing the shared features of its "single-user OS" and "the multi-user, multi-tasking, UNIX-derived operating system", promising easy
Gothic metal is a fusion genre combining the heaviness of heavy metal with the dark atmospheres of gothic rock. The music of gothic metal is diverse with bands known to adopt the gothic approach to different styles of heavy metal music; the genre originated during the early 1990s in the United Kingdom as an outgrowth of death-doom, a fusion of death metal and doom metal. Lyrics are dark and introspective with inspiration from gothic fiction as well as personal experiences. Pioneers of gothic metal include Paradise Lost, My Dying Bride and Anathema, all from the north of England. Other pioneers from the first half of the 1990s include Type O Negative from the United States, Tiamat from Sweden, The Gathering from the Netherlands. Norwegian band Theatre of Tragedy developed the "beauty and the beast" aesthetic of combining aggressive male vocals with clean female vocals, a contrast, adopted by groups before them, but not as a regular trademark. During the mid-1990s, Theatres des Vampires, Rotting Christ and Cradle of Filth brought the gothic approach to black metal.
By the end of the decade, a symphonic metal variant of gothic metal had been developed by Tristania and Within Temptation. Nightwish integrated elements of gothic metal into their well-known mix of symphonic metal and power metal. In the 21st century, gothic metal has moved towards the mainstream in Europe in Finland where groups such as Entwine, HIM, Lullacry and Poisonblack have released hit singles or chart-topping albums. In the US, only a few bands such as Type O Negative, HIM, Lacuna Coil and Cradle of Filth have found some degree of commercial success; the term gothic entered heavy metal music with the release of Paradise Lost's Gothic album in 1991. Since fans have been at odds with one another as to "which bands are, or most are not, authentically Goth"; some musicians have disputed the gothic label associated with their bands, including Rozz Williams of Christian Death and Andrew Eldritch of The Sisters of Mercy. In the gothic metal subgenre, members from such groups as After Forever, HIM and Nightwish have downplayed or dismissed the gothic label from their music.
The music of gothic metal is characterised by its dark atmospheres. The adjective "dark" is used to describe gothic music in general while other terms that are less used include deep, romantic and intense. Gothic metal has sometimes been viewed as "a combination of the darkness and melancholy of goth rock with heavy metal". Allmusic defines the genre as a fusion of "the bleak, icy atmospherics of goth rock with the loud guitars and aggression of heavy metal" and further notes that "true goth metal is always directly influenced by goth rock — ethereal synths and spooky textures are just as important as guitar riffs, if not more so". Gothic metal is a varied genre with bands pursuing many different directions, from "slow and crushing variations" to "orchestral and bombastic"; the doom metal background of early pioneers like Anathema, Paradise Lost and My Dying Bride has been taken up by groups like Artrosis, Ava Inferi and Draconian. The black metal approach of Cradle of Filth, Theatres des Vampires and early Moonspell can be found in such subsequent bands as Graveworm and Samsas Traum while the symphonic metal approach of Tristania and Within Temptation can be found in other groups like Epica and After Forever.
Other variations include the symphonic black metal of Trail of Tears, the folk metal of Midnattsol, the industrial metal of Deathstars and Neon Synthesis, the alternative metal of Katatonia and Lacuna Coil, the doom metal of Type O Negative, the nu metal of Coal Chamber, the metalcore of Motionless in White. There is a diverse range of vocal styles in gothic metal. Male singers in the genre range from the guttural growls and black metal shrieks of Dani Filth and Morten Veland to the clean baritone vocals of Østen Bergøy and the bass range of Peter Steele. For the female singers, the different vocal styles includes the screams and growls of Cadaveria, the "poppy" vocals of Tanja Lainio from Lullacry and the operatic soprano style of Vibeke Stene from Tristania. There are more female singers in gothic metal than there are in any other heavy metal subgenre, but female vocals are neither necessary nor synonymous with the genre. Liv Kristine of Theatre of Tragedy and Leaves' Eyes notes that the gothic tag is misinterpreted and points out that "not every band with female vocals is a gothic band".
The genre is known to attract more female fans relative to other subgenres of heavy metal music. The lyrics of gothic metal are known to be melodramatic, romantic, dark or sometimes gloomy. For the three English bands that helped to pioneer the genre, their gloomy lyrics reflect their background in doom metal while their darker or melodramatic lyrics draw influence from gothic rock; the music of My Dying Bride has been noted as "dripping with treachery and pain" from a "lyrical fascination with deceit and transgressions of every variety". Lyrics that focus on suicide and the meaninglessness of life can be found in Anathema while Paradise Lost too has "never lost their depressive edge". Gothic fiction, a literary genre that blends horror and romance, has been a source of inspiration for the lyrics of many gothic metal bands like Cadaveria, Cradle of Filth, Theatres des Vampires and Xandria. Critic Eduardo Rivadavia of Allmusic identifies drama and mournful beauty as requisite elements of the genre.
For My Dying Bride, the subjects of "death and misery and lost love and romance" have been approached from different angles. The common gothi
Shooter games are a subgenre of action video game, which test the player's speed and reaction time. It includes many subgenres that have the commonality of focusing on the actions of the avatar using some sort of weapons; this weapon is a gun or some other long-range weapon. A common resource found in many shooter games is ammunition. Most the purpose of a shooter game is to shoot opponents and proceed through missions without the player character being killed or dying. A shooting game is a genre of video game where the player has limited spatial control of his or her character, the focus is entirely on the defeat of the character's enemies using weaponry. Shoot'em ups are a specific subgenre of shooters wherein the player may move up and down and left and right around the screen firing straight forward. Shoot'em ups share common gameplay, but are categorized by viewpoint; this includes fixed shooters such as Space Invaders and Galaxian. This genre includes "run and gun" games which emphasize greater maneuvering or jumping, such as Thexder and Metal Slug.
Shooting gallery games include light gun games, although many can be played using a regular joypad and an on-screen cursor to signify where the bullets are being aimed. When these debuted, they were played from a first-person perspective, with enemy fire that occurred anywhere on the screen damaging or killing the player; as they evolved away from the use of light guns, the player came to be represented by an on-screen avatar someone on the bottom of the screen, who could move and avoid enemy attacks while returning fire. These sorts of shooters always utilize horizontal scrolling to the right to indicate level progression, with enemies appearing in waves from predestined locations in the background or from the sides. One of the earliest examples is the 1985 arcade game Shootout produced by Data East. A specific subgenre of this type of game is the Cabal shooter, named for the game Cabal, in which the player controls an on-screen avatar that can run and jump around the screen in addition to being able to aim their gun.
Other games in this subgenre include Blood Bros. Dynamite Duke, NAM-1975, Wild Guns, Sin and Punishment; as light gun games became more prevalent and started to make use of 3D backgrounds, such as the Time Crisis or House of the Dead series, these sorts of games fell out of popular production, but many like Blood Bros. still have their fanbase today. Other notable games of this category include Laser Invasion. Light gun shooters are shooting gallery games that use a pointing device for computers and a control device for arcade and video games; the first light guns appeared following the development of light-sensing vacuum tubes. It was not long before the technology began appearing in arcade shooting games, beginning with the Seeburg Ray-O-Lite in 1936; these early light gun games used small targets onto. If the beam struck the target, a "hit" was scored. Modern screen-based light guns work on the opposite principle—the sensor is built into the gun itself, the on-screen target emit light rather than the gun.
The first light gun of this type was used on the MIT Whirlwind computer, which used a similar light pen. Like rail shooters, movement is limited in light-gun games. Notable games of this category include the 1974 and 1984 versions of Wild Gunman, Duck Hunt for the NES, the Virtua Cop series, Time Crisis series, House of the Dead series, Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles & Darkside Chronicles. First-person shooters are characterized by an on-screen view that simulates the in-game character's point of view. While many rail shooters and light-gun shooters use a first-person perspective, they are not included in this category. Notable examples of the genre include Doom, Half-Life, Counter-Strike, GoldenEye 007, Medal of Honor, Call of Duty, TimeSplitters, Team Fortress 2 and Halo. Third-person shooters are characterized by a third-person camera view that displays the player character in his/her surroundings. Notable examples of the genre include the Tomb Raider series, Syphon Filter, Max Payne, SOCOM, Star Wars: Battlefront, Resident Evil 4, Gears of War, Splatoon.
Third person shooter mechanics are incorporated into open-world adventure and sandbox games, including the Elder Scrolls series and the Grand Theft Auto franchise. Hero shooters are a variation of multiplayer first- or third-person arena-based shooters, where players, split among two or more teams, select from pre-designed "hero" characters that each possess unique attributes, skills and other activated abilities. Hero shooters encourage teamwork between players on a team, guiding players to select effective combinations of hero characters and coordinate the use of hero abilities during a match; such games are inspired by multiplayer online battle arena games. A popular hero shooter is Team