Windsor (UK Parliament constituency)
Windsor /ˈwɪnzə/ is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2005 by Adam Afriyie of the Conservative Party. The re-created constituency, from 1997, has continued a trend of large Conservative Party majorities. In local elections the major opposition party has been the Liberal Democrats, who have had councillors in the town of Windsor itself. Affluent villages and small towns along the River Thames and around the Great Park have continued to contribute to large Conservative majorities, from Wraysbury to Ascot; the only ward with any substantial Labour support is based in Slough. Containing one of the least social welfare-dependent demographics and among the highest property prices, the seat has the third highest Conservative share of the vote in the country. At the 2010 election, only two areas voted more towards the Conservative Party: Richmond foremost followed by Beaconsfield in Buckinghamshire. Windsor has had parliamentary representation for centuries, first sending a member in 1301, continuously from 1424.
It elected two members of parliament until 1868, when the constituency was reformed and its representation reduced to one MP. In 1974, the constituency was abolished and a similar one and Maidenhead was created. However, in 1997 the constituency was recreated; the early political history of the area was influenced by the monarch and members of his or her family. Windsor Castle has been an important royal residence throughout the history of the constituency; the pre-1832 franchise of the borough was held by inhabitants paying lot. On 2 May 1689 the House of Commons had decided that the electorate should be limited to the members of Windsor Corporation; this was disputed after the next election, in 1690, when the Mayor submitted two returns of different members. The House of Commons reversed the decision of the previous Parliament and confirmed the scot and lot franchise. There were 278 electors in 1712. Namier and Brooke estimated. During part of the 18th century the Duke of Cumberland and the Beauclerk family had political interests in the borough.
King George III became involved in the hotly contested 1780 general election. George encouraged local landowner Peniston Portlock Powney to stand by paying him £2,500 from the King's personal account; the King wished to defeat an incumbent. The monarch went so far as to canvass tradesmen. After this royal interference in the election, Keppel lost by a narrow 16 votes. Namier and Brooke suggest the Windsor electorate had an independent streak and were difficult to manage. In 1832 a new property based franchise replaced the lot qualification. Under the new system, there were 507 registered electors in 1832; the borough representatives before the Reform Act 1832 included soldiers and people connected with the Royal Household, such as Sir Richard Hussey Vivian and Sir Herbert Taylor. The constituency returned politicians prominent in national politics, like the Duke of Wellington's elder brother the Earl of Mornington in the 1780s and 1790s or the future Prime Minister Edward Stanley in the early 1830s).
The Ramsbottom family filled one seat from 1806 until 1845. The borough had been loyal to the King's Pittite/Tory ministers in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, but became more favourable to the Whig interest after John Ramsbottom was elected. By the 1860s the monarch had ceased to interfere in local affairs; the borough fell under the patronage of Colonel R. Richardson-Gardner. Richardson-Gardner was a local landowner, who caused some animosity when following the 1868 general election he evicted tenants who did not support him at the polls; this was the last Parliamentary election. Despite his methods, Richardson-Gardner was elected to Parliament in 1874. Successive Conservative MPs, before the First World War, had considerable influence in the constituency; the county division created in 1918 combined the town of Windsor, with territory to its west and east, in the Wokingham division. The incumbent MP for Wokingham up to 1918, Ernest Gardner, was the first representative of the expanded Windsor constituency.
The Conservative Party retained the seat continuously, until 1974 when a Windsor constituency temporarily disappeared from the House of Commons. The constituency covers the town of Windsor and various portions of the surrounding area, in Berkshire. Before 1868: The parliamentary borough of New Windsor was based upon the easternmost town in Berkshire in South East England, which grew up around Windsor Castle and the narrowly defined electorate could vote for the county representatives; the north boundary of the constituency was on the River Thames, the border between Buckinghamshire which had a seat of the same name and Berkshire the rest of the borough adjoined the Berkshire county constituency. 1868–1918: The boundaries of the parliamentary borough were extended by the Parliamentary Boundaries Act 1868 to include the villages of Clewer and Eton. Between 1885–1918 the seat to the north of the Thames was the Wycombe division of Buckinghamshire and the other neighbouring constituency was the Wokingham division of Berkshire.
1918–1950: The parliamentary borough was abolished by the Representation of the People Act 1918 and replaced by
George V was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. Born during the reign of his grandmother Queen Victoria, George was third in the line of succession behind his father, Prince Albert Edward, his own elder brother, Prince Albert Victor. From 1877 to 1891, George served in the Royal Navy, until the unexpected death of his elder brother in early 1892 put him directly in line for the throne. On the death of his grandmother in 1901, George's father ascended the throne as Edward VII, George was created Prince of Wales, he became king-emperor on his father's death in 1910. George V's reign saw the rise of socialism, fascism, Irish republicanism, the Indian independence movement, all of which radically changed the political landscape; the Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the unelected House of Lords. As a result of the First World War, the empires of his first cousins Nicholas II of Russia and Wilhelm II of Germany fell, while the British Empire expanded to its greatest effective extent.
In 1917, George became the first monarch of the House of Windsor, which he renamed from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha as a result of anti-German public sentiment. In 1924 he appointed the first Labour ministry and in 1931 the Statute of Westminster recognised the dominions of the Empire as separate, independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations, he had smoking-related health problems throughout much of his reign and at his death was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII. George was born on 3 June 1865, in London, he was the second son of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, Alexandra, Princess of Wales. His father was the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, his mother was the eldest daughter of King Christian IX and Queen Louise of Denmark, he was baptised at Windsor Castle on 7 July 1865 by the Archbishop of Charles Longley. As a younger son of the Prince of Wales, there was little expectation, he was third in line after his father and elder brother, Prince Albert Victor.
George was only 17 months younger than Albert Victor, the two princes were educated together. John Neale Dalton was appointed as their tutor in 1871. Neither Albert Victor nor George excelled intellectually; as their father thought that the navy was "the best possible training for any boy", in September 1877, when George was 12 years old, both brothers joined the cadet training ship HMS Britannia at Dartmouth, Devon. For three years from 1879, the royal brothers served on HMS Bacchante, accompanied by Dalton, they toured the colonies of the British Empire in the Caribbean, South Africa and Australia, visited Norfolk, Virginia, as well as South America, the Mediterranean and East Asia. In 1881 on a visit to Japan, George had a local artist tattoo a blue and red dragon on his arm, was received in an audience by the Emperor Meiji. Dalton wrote an account of their journey entitled The Cruise of HMS Bacchante. Between Melbourne and Sydney, Dalton recorded a sighting of the Flying Dutchman, a mythical ghost ship.
When they returned to Britain, Queen Victoria complained that her grandsons could not speak French or German, so they spent six months in Lausanne in an unsuccessful attempt to learn another language. After Lausanne, the brothers were separated, he travelled the world. During his naval career he commanded Torpedo Boat 79 in home waters HMS Thrush on the North America station, before his last active service in command of HMS Melampus in 1891–92. From on, his naval rank was honorary; as a young man destined to serve in the navy, Prince George served for many years under the command of his uncle, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, stationed in Malta. There, he fell in love with his cousin, Princess Marie, his grandmother and uncle all approved the match, but the mothers—the Princess of Wales and the Duchess of Edinburgh—opposed it. The Princess of Wales thought the family was too pro-German, the Duchess of Edinburgh disliked England. Marie's mother was the only daughter of Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
She resented the fact that, as the wife of a younger son of the British sovereign, she had to yield precedence to George's mother, the Princess of Wales, whose father had been a minor German prince before being called unexpectedly to the throne of Denmark. Guided by her mother, Marie refused George, she married Ferdinand, the future King of Romania, in 1893. In November 1891, George's elder brother, Albert Victor, became engaged to his second cousin once removed, Princess Victoria Mary of Teck, known as "May" within the family. May's father, Prince Francis, Duke of Teck, belonged to a morganatic, cadet branch of the house of Württemberg, her mother, Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, was a male-line granddaughter of King George III and a first cousin of Queen Victoria. On 14 January 1892, six weeks after the formal engagement, Albert Victor died of pneumonia, leaving George second in line to the throne, to succeed after his father. George had only just recovered from a serious illness himself, after being confined to bed for six weeks with typhoid fever, the disease, thought to have killed his grandfather Prince Albert.
Queen Victoria still regarded Princess May as a suitable match for her grandson, George and May grew close during their shared perio
Harmans Water is a suburb of Bracknell, in the English county of Berkshire part of the parish of Winkfield. It takes its name from Harman's Water Lake, long gone. Building of the estate began around 1960 and was the fourth and last estate to be built as part of the original plan for the new town; the estate lies 1 mile south-east of the town centre, to the east of the A322 road and south of the A329 road. It is in Harmans Water ward, which following boundary changes now includes parts of Bullbrook, Martins Heron and The Parks. Facilities include a shopping centre, a library, several public houses and Harmans Water Primary School. St. Pauls Church has shared Church of England and United Reformed Church services and is situated adjacent to the shopping centre. There are a few office buildings in Broad Lane but otherwise the estate is residential; the Parks is a recent development and is on the site of the former RAF Staff College which closed in 1997. The first phase of the development, of 220 homes was developed by English Partnerships and completed in 2008.
As of 2016 development continues with a further 530 homes and is due to be completed in 2017. Ramslade House, the former headquarters building of the RAF staff college, was planned to become a community centre but was demolished in 2016 to make way for a development of 12 townhouses being built by Taylor Wimpey
Winkfield is a village and civil parish in the Bracknell Forest unitary authority of Berkshire, England. According to the 2011 census, the parish had a population of 14,998; the parish includes the hamlets of Winkfield, Maidens Green, Winkfield Row, Winkfield Street, Chavey Down, Woodside and Swinley, part of the village of North Ascot and the Bracknell suburbs of Forest Park, Martins Heron and The Warren. The parish used to be larger – additionally covering what is now Bullbrook, Crown Wood and Harmans Water – and is said to have been one of the largest in England. There is evidence of human occupation in Winkfield in prehistoric times. From the Late Iron Age, this evidence becomes more substantial, although there is as yet no hard evidence of settlement until the early Medieval era. Winkfield was recorded in the Domesday book as Wenesfelle and was recorded to have 20 households and 20 ploughlands, suggesting the area was a rich agricultural settlement. William the Conqueror, in establishing his home at Windsor Castle incorporated Winkfield into Windsor Great Forest, where it would remain until the 20th Century.
At the west end of the village stands the Church of England church of St Mary's. The principal lodge at Winkfield was Foliejon Park. There is some evidence that a great tower once stood in the grounds which would have been visible for many miles around Winkfield. Between March 1942 and the end of World War II in June 1945 Foliejon Park was the residence of Haakon VII of Norway and his son, Crown Prince Olav. A 15th-century former inn, the Prince of Wales on Winkfield Street, is now a private residence. Winkfield's New Lodge was the home of HRH Princess Sophia of Gloucester, a niece of King George III. In the early 1960s, the United Kingdom aided a Canadian satellite mission Alouette 1 by providing the use of a ground station at Winkfield. Part of Winkfield was incorporated into Bracknell New Town when it was decided to expand the town to fit a population of 60,000. Today the Bracknell neighbourhoods of Martins Heron, The Warren and Forest Park still exist in Winkfield Parish. In 1991, Winkfield became one of the seven districts of the Bracknell Forest Council unitary authority.
Winkfield has a King George's Field in memorial to King George V. Winkfield Row has a co-educational independent preparatory school called Lambrook, for both day and boarding pupils. Media related to Winkfield at Wikimedia Commons
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Alouette 1 is a deactivated Canadian satellite that studied the ionosphere. Launched in 1962, it was Canada's first satellite, the first satellite constructed by a country other than the Soviet Union or the United States. Canada was the fourth country to operate a satellite, as the British Ariel 1, constructed in the United States by NASA, preceded Alouette 1 by five months; the name "Alouette" came from the French for "skylark" and the French-Canadian folk song of the same name. A key device on Alouette were the radio antennas consisting of thin strips of beryllium copper bent into a slight U-shape and rolled up into small disks in a fashion similar to a measuring tape; when triggered, the rotation of the satellite created enough centrifugal force to pull the disk away from the spacecraft body, the shaping of the metal caused it to unwind into a long spiral. The result was a stiff circular cross-section antenna known as a "stem", for "storable tubular extendible member". Alouette 1 was part of a joint U.
S.-Canadian scientific program. Its purpose was to investigate the properties of the top of the ionosphere, the dependence of those properties on geographical location and time of day. Alouette 1 was advanced for its time, NASA doubted whether the available technology would be sufficient. NASA was eager to collaborate with international partners. NASA was convinced to participate by the prospect of obtaining data on the ionosphere, Canada had the additional objective of developing its own space research programme; the United Kingdom aided the mission by providing support at two ground stations, in Singapore and at Winkfield. Alouette 1 was launched by NASA from the Pacific Missile Range at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, USA at 06:05 UTC on September 29, 1962, into orbit around Earth, it was placed into an circular orbit with an altitude of 987 kilometres to 1,022 kilometres with an inclination of 80.5°. The launch made Canada the third nation, after the USSR and the United States, to design and construct its own satellite.
Alouette was used to study the ionosphere, using over 700 different radio frequencies to investigate its properties from above. The satellite was spin-stabilised, rotating 1.4 times per minute. After about 500 days, the rotation had slowed to about 0.6 rpm and the spin-stabilisation failed at this point. It was possible to determine the satellite's orientation only by readings from a magnetometer and from temperature sensors on the upper and lower heat shields; the orientation determinations obtained. It is that gravitational gradients had caused the longest antenna to point towards the Earth. Alouette's mission lasted for 10 years before the satellite was deliberately switched off on 30 September 1972; the satellite remains in orbit. Two satellites were built for redundancy in case of a malfunction, it took 3 1⁄2 years after Alouette's proposal to have it built. The satellites S27-2, S27-3, S27-4 were assembled by Defence Research Telecommunications Establishment Electronics Lab in Ottawa; the mechanical frame and the deployable STEM antennas were made by the Special Products division of de Havilland Canada in Downsview, Ontario, in a building which many years housed the Canadian Air and Space Museum.
The batteries used for Alouette were developed by the Defence Chemical and Radiation Laboratory, another branch of DRB, were responsible for the long lifetime of the satellite. The "Storable Tubular Extendable Member" antennas used were the first of DHC's STEM antennas used in space, at launch were the longest; when completed Alouette was launched from a Thor-Agena-B two-stage rocket. Alouette 1's backup was launched as Alouette 2 in 1965 to "replace" the older Alouette 1. Alouette 1 carried four scientific experiments: Sweep-Frequency Sounder; this experiment measured the electron density distribution in the ionosphere by measuring the time delay between the emission and return of radio pulses. The sounder was able to emit pulses with frequencies between 1 and 12 megahertz, with a power of 100 W. Energetic particle detectors. An arrangement of Geiger scintillators for detecting energetic particles. VLF Receiver. An experiment for measuring both artificial and natural VLF signals, it was sensitive to frequencies between 10,000 Hz.
Cosmic Radio Noise. Two long radio antennas for detecting radio noise from the Galaxy; the satellite did not have a tape recorder to store data. It was only possible to obtain data. After Alouette 1 was launched, the upper stage of the rocket used to launch the satellite became a derelict object that would continue to orbit Earth for many years; as of October 2018, the upper stage remains in orbit. The satellite itself became a derelict, remaining in Earth orbit as of October 2018; the Alouette 1 was named an IEEE Milestone in 1993. It is featured on the Amory Adventure Award. Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes Prince Albert Radar Laboratory 1962-049A known as 1962-Beta-Alpha-1 entry at NSSDC CSA Alouette Site Canada's Digital Collections government website - About Alouette CBC Digital Archives - Launching the Digital Age: Canadian Satellites Article on satellite development based on interviews with original research engineers
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate