County Durham is a county in North East England. The county town is a cathedral city; the largest settlement is Darlington followed by Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees. It borders Tyne and Wear to the north east, Northumberland to the north, Cumbria to the west and North Yorkshire to the south; the county's historic boundaries stretch between the rivers Tyne and Tees, thus including places such as Gateshead, South Shields and Sunderland. During the Middle Ages, the county was an ecclesiastical centre, due to the presence of St Cuthbert's shrine in Durham Cathedral, the extensive powers granted to the Bishop of Durham as ruler of the County Palatine of Durham; the county has a mixture of mining and heavy railway heritage, with the latter noteworthy in the southeast of the county, in Darlington and Stockton It is an area of regeneration and promoted as a tourist destination. Many counties are named after their principal town, the expected form here would be Durhamshire, but this form has never been in common use.
The ceremonial county is named Durham, but the county has long been known as County Durham and is the only English county name prefixed with "County" in common usage. Its unusual naming is explained to some extent by the relationship with the Bishops of Durham, who for centuries governed Durham as a county palatine, outside the usual structure of county administration in England; the situation regarding the formal name in modern local government is less clear. The structural change legislation which in 2009 created the present unitary council refers to "the county of County Durham" and names the new unitary district "County Durham" too. However, a amendment to that legislation, refers to the "county of Durham" and the amendment allows for the unitary council to name itself "The Durham Council". In the event the council retained the name of Durham County Council. With either option, the name does not include County Durham; the former postal county was named "County Durham" to distinguish it from the post town of Durham.
The ceremonial county of Durham is administered by four unitary authorities. The ceremonial county has no administrative function, but remains the area to which the Lord Lieutenant of Durham and the High Sheriff of Durham are appointed. County Durham: the unitary district was formed on 1 April 2009 replacing the previous two-tier system of a county council providing strategic services and seven district councils providing more local facilities, it has 126 councillors. The seven districts abolished were:Chester-le-Street, including the Lumley and Sacriston areas Derwentside, including Consett and Stanley City of Durham, including Durham city and the surrounding areas Easington, including Seaham and the new town of Peterlee Borough of Sedgefield, including Spennymoor and Newton Aycliffe Teesdale, including Barnard Castle and the villages of Teesdale Wear Valley, including Bishop Auckland, Willington and the villages along Weardale The Borough of Darlington: before 1 April 1997, Darlington was a district in a two-tier arrangement with Durham County Council.
The Borough of Hartlepool: until 1 April 1996 the borough was one of four districts in the short-lived county of Cleveland, abolished. The part of the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees, north of the centre of the River Tees. Stockton was part of Cleveland until that county's abolition in 1996; the remainder of the borough is part of the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. The county is parished. Durham Constabulary operate in the area of the two unitary districts of County Durham and Darlington. Ron Hogg was first elected the Durham Police and Crime Commissioner for the force on 15 November 2012; the other areas in the ceremonial county fall within the police area of the Cleveland Police. Fire service areas follow the same areas as the police with County Durham and Darlington Fire and Rescue Service serving the two unitary districts of County Durham and Darlington and Cleveland Fire Brigade covering the rest. County Durham and Darlington Fire and Rescue Service is under the supervision of a combined fire authority consisting of 25 local councillors: 21 from Durham County Council and 4 from Darlington Borough Council.
The North East Ambulance Service NHS Trust are responsible for providing NHS ambulance services throughout the ceremonial county, plus the boroughs of Middlesbrough and Redcar and Cleveland, which are south of the River Tees and therefore in North Yorkshire, but are part of the North East England region. Air Ambulance services are provided by the Great North Air Ambulance; the charity operates 3 helicopters including one at Durham Tees Valley Airport covering the County Durham area. Teesdale and Weardale Search and Mountain Rescue Team, are based at Sniperly Farm in Durham City and respond to search and rescue incidents in the county. Around AD 547, an Angle named Ida founded the kingdom of Bernicia after spotting the defensive potential of a large rock at Bamburgh, upon which many a fortification was thenceforth built. Ida was able to forge and consolidate the kingdom. In AD 604, Ida's grandson Æthelfrith forcibly merged Bernicia and Deira to create the Kingdom of Northumbria. In time, the realm was expanded through warfare
Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the historical environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, ancient monuments and advising central and local government; the body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983, operated from April 1984 to April 2015 under the name of English Heritage. In 2015, following the changes to English Heritage's structure that moved the protection of the National Heritage Collection into the voluntary sector in the English Heritage Trust, the body that remained was rebranded as Historic England. Historic England has a similar remit to and complements the work of Natural England which aims to protect the natural environment; the body inherited the Historic England Archive from the old English Heritage, projects linked to the archive such as Britain from Above, which saw the archive work with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland to digitise and put online 96,000 of the oldest Aerofilms images.
The archive holds various nationally important collections and the results of older projects such as the work of the National Buildings Record absorbed by the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the Images of England project which set out to create a accessible online database of the 370,000 listed properties in England at a snapshot in time at the turn of the millennium. Historic England inherits English Heritage's position as the UK government's statutory adviser and a statutory consultee on all aspects of the historic environment and its heritage assets; this includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of England's heritage and publishes the annual Heritage at Risk survey, one of the UK Government's Official statistics, it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations.
Its remit involves: Caring for nationally important archive collections of photographs and other records which document the historic environment of England and date from the eighteenth century onwards. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of historic buildings and landscapes. In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings. Advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of England's listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, World Heritage Sites and protected parks and gardens; this is published as an online resource as'The National Heritage List for England'. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage. Providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources.
In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and the wider sector. Consulting and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e.g. the preparation of Planning Policy statement for the Historic Environment Commissioning and conducting archaeological research, including the publication of'Heritage Counts' and ‘Heritage at Risk’ on behalf of the heritage sector which are the annual research surveys into the state of England's heritage. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings; the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government. It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites in public care; however they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. English Heritage Historic England Archive Cadw Historic Scotland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Manx National Heritage Department for Culture and Sport Conservation in the United Kingdom Heritage at Risk Historic houses in England National Trust Properties in England Heritage Open Days List of Conservation topics List of heritage registers List of museums in England Heritage film Official website The Historic England Archive: Search over 1 million catalogue entries describing photographs and drawings of England's buildings and historic sites, held in the Historic England Archive.
Britain from Above: presents the unique Aerofilms collection of aerial photographs from 1919-1953. Images of England website Heritage Explorer: Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead
The Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead is a metropolitan borough in Tyne and Wear, in North East England. The borough forms the south west part of the county, it is named after its largest town, but spans the towns of Rowlands Gill, Whickham and Ryton. It is bordered by five other local authorities: Newcastle upon Tyne to the north, Northumberland to the west, County Durham to the south, Sunderland to the south east, South Tyneside to the east; the district has some 201,000 inhabitants and is located within the historic county boundaries of County Durham. It is south of the historic county boundary between Northumberland and Durham; the metropolitan borough was formed in 1974 through the merger of the county borough of Gateshead with the urban districts of Felling, Blaydon and part of Chester-le-Street Rural District, with the borough placed in the new metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear. In 1986 Tyne and Wear county council was abolished, with the borough of Gateshead becoming a unitary authority.
There were two civil parishes in Gateshead - Birtley and Lamesley, both from the Chester-le-Street RD. Birtley Town Council and parish were abolished on 1 April 2006. In national government the borough contains two parliamentary constituencies and Blaydon; the Gateshead constituency covers the centre and east of the borough. The MP, elected in 2010, is Ian Mearns; the Blaydon constituency covers the west of Birtley to the south. It is represented by Liz Twist. Jarrow takes in the eastern tip of the borough, including Pelaw, it is represented by Stephen Hepburn. In total there are twenty two electoral wards in the borough, each ward elects three councillors; the twenty two wards are: - Birtley Blaydon Bridges Chopwell and Rowlands Gill Chowdene Crawcrook and Clara Vale Deckham Dunston and Teams Dunston Hill and Whickham East Felling Heworth High Fell Lamesley Leam Lane Estate Lobley Hill and Bensham Low Fell Pelaw and Heworth Ryton and Stella Park Saltwell Wardley and Leam Lane Whickham North Whickham South and Sunniside Windy Nook and Whitehills Winlaton and High SpenGateshead Council is Labour controlled.
In total there are 54 Labour councillors and 12 Lib Dem councillors. In general, the Whickham area along with Low Fell tend to favour the Liberal Democrats. Pelaw and Dunston Hill are more evenly matched between the two parties, the rest of the borough is dominated by Labour the East. UKIP were able to get 23% of the vote in Winlaton and High Spen in 2016, while the Liberal Party have one of their few strongholds in Birtley, where they once held; the Conservatives get more than 10%, polling best in Bridges and Saltwell wards. Gateshead has hosted two major political conferences; the first of these was Labour's spring conference, ahead of the 2005 general election. The Conservatives held a conference at the Sage Gateshead in March 2008; the Conservatives do not have any councillors in Gateshead and at the time only had one MP in the whole of the north east region. That conference was seen as an attempt to connect to voters in the area. Gateshead has a number of schools across the borough at both secondary level.
Results are well with a number of outstanding schools. Indeed, Gateshead has amongst secondary schools in the country overall. A range of schools are present in Gateshead, including Jewish, Roman Catholic, Church of England and non-religious state schools. There is one independent school in Chase school in Whickham. Further independent schools can be found in Newcastle and Tynedale. Gateshead town itself has a further education college, Gateshead College, a leading Jewish higher education institution. Gateshead has a variety of landscapes and industrial areas include the town itself and Blaydon in the east, with more semi-rural and rural locations in the west including Ryton and Rowlands Gill. Overall though, it is a green area with over half of the borough being green belt or countryside. Most of this is located away from built up Tyneside to the south of the borough into Derwentside/Chester-le-Street and to the west into Tynedale. In total, there are over twenty countryside sites in the borough, from ancient meadows and woodland to local nature reserves.
Notable features of Gateshead's countryside include Ryton Willows, found at Old Ryton Village on the banks of the Tyne at Ryton. Ryton Willows is 43 hectares of locally rare grassland and ponds located near to an affluent village with Georgian and Victorian houses; because of this it is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The Derwent Valley, in the south/south west of the borough, offers panoramic views and pleasant walks, it was in the Derwent Valley, near Rowlands Gill, that the Northern Kites Project re-introduced red kites. This was part of a national project to introduce the birds, that were once so commonplace across the country, back into the wild; this scheme has proven to be a big success, with birds being spotted across the west of the borough, from Crawcrook to Rowlands Gill itself. The borough contains one National Trust site, the expansive Gibside estate near Rowlands Gill, containing a stately home and a chapel, parts of its grounds have been given SSSI status. In the more urban areas of the borough, in Gateshead itself and to the east, efforts have been made to maintain green spaces and wildlife sites.
One such project is Bill Quay Community Farm in east if the borough. Offering a rural experience within an urban setting, it provides an important educational tool for local schools; the 2001 cens
National Heritage List for England
The National Heritage List for England is England’s official list of buildings, monuments and gardens, wrecks and World Heritage Sites. It is maintained by Historic England and brings together these different designations as a single resource though they vary in the type of legal protection afforded to each. Conservation areas do not appear on the NHLE since they are designated by the relevant local planning authority; the passage of the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 established the first part of what the list is today, it established a list of 50 prehistoric monuments which were protected by the state. Further amendments to this act increased the levels of protection and added more monuments to the list; the Town and Country Planning Acts created the first listed buildings and the process for adding properties to it. As of 2018, more than 600,000 properties are listed individually; each year additional properties are added to the National Register as part of the different constituent registers that are part of the list.
The National Heritage List for England was launched in 2011 as the statutory list of all designated historic places including listed buildings and scheduled monuments. The list is managed by Historic England, is available as an on-line database with 400,000 listed buildings, registered parks and battlefields, protected shipwrecks and scheduled monuments. A unique reference number, the NHLE Code, is used to refer to the related database entry, such as 1285296 – this example is for Douglas House. Template:National Heritage List for England — the template used for generating a formatted citation containing the targeted external link. Historic England.org: National Heritage List for England
Shotley Bridge is a village, adjoining the town of Consett in County Durham, England. It is on the A694 road and beside the River Derwent, crossed by the bridge giving the name, it was once the heart of Britain's swordmaking industry. The village is 16 miles southwest of Newcastle upon Tyne. There were several fords over the River Derwent near this place and in medieval times a wooden bridge; the present stone bridge was widened in 1820. The bed of the river itself was the source of stone for millstones, licences for this are recorded at "Shotley Brig" in 1356. A water-powered corn mill was established in the 14th century replaced by a steam-powered one, sold to the Derwent Co-operative Flour Mill Society Ltd in 1872, continued until its closure in 1920. A paper mill was established in 1788 and expanded with mechanization so that in 1894 it had 300 hands and was a major factor in the expansion of the village; however it closed in 1905. A well near the village had unpleasant tasting water rumoured to be effective in curing disease and thus known as the "Hally Well".
In 1828 a local entrepreneur John Richardson used this as the basis for a Spa which enjoyed considerable success with the well-to-do, becoming less fashionable as industry grew in nearby towns, but being remade as a playground for workers. It was during the Victorian era that much of the town's architecture was constructed, including some grand residences and many listed buildings, so that by 1898 it had much of its present form, and a population of over 1000. This saw the advent of Shotley Bridge railway station and a gasworks which closed in the 1960s, electric lighting having replaced gas lamps from 1950; the closure of the steelworks at Consett in 1980 caused an economic decline, but the village has since become more popular. In the 17th century a group of swordmakers from Solingen in Germany settled in Shotley Bridge, in order to escape religious persecution. Shotley Bridge was chosen because of the quality of the ironstone in the area and the softness of the River Derwent, plus its fast flow.
The Oley family were the makers of the highest quality swords, rivalling those of Toledo and Damascus steel, being in great demand during the Napoleonic Wars and thus becoming wealthy. Their steel production was one of the earliest factories for the manufacture of steel, the Oley family were involved in the formation of the Consett Iron Company. New weapons and industrialization reduced demand for swords so they diversified into cutlery, but could not compete with Sheffield, the sword works closed in 1840; however some moved to Birmingham and their business became part of Wilkinson Sword. Evidence of this industry includes grooves in the stones of the river, the fine house inscribed "Cutlers Hall, 1767, William Oley" and the name of the public house "The Crown and Crossed Swords". Before the last remaining cottages occupied by the swordmakers were torn down, there was an inscription over the door of the Oley house on Wood Street reading "Das Herren segen machet reich ohn alle Sorg wenn Du zugleich in deinem Stand treu und fleissig bist und tuest alle vas die befolen ist".
This means "The blessing of the Lord makes rich without care, so long as you are industrious in your vocation and do what is ordered you". The first mention of a chapel at Shotley is in 1165; this is the site of the Anglican parish church, St Andrew's, high on a hill above the town. It is an eighteenth-century Grade II listed building rebuilt in 1892 because of subsidence due to coal workings below; the current parish church is that of St John at Snod's Edge Grade II listed, dating from 1837 when it was founded as a chapel outpost of St Andrew's. There is a Roman Catholic Church, Our Lady of the Rosary, an Anglican Church, St Cuthbert's, designed by John Dobson, in the Benfieldside area south-east of the main town; the Methodist Church was built in 1894, closed in 2014. This originated in the construction of Whinney House in 1913 for the care of people with mental problems, being known as "Shotley Bridge Mental Defectives Colony" from 1927 to 1940, when it was converted to an Emergency Hospital to cope with the Second World War providing plastic surgery, becoming a general hospital in 1948.
Although it was once one of the largest of the Northern Region services have been transferred elsewhere, most of the buildings demolished for housing and the current hospital is a much smaller group of modern buildings operating as a community hospital. In the Victorian boom time, the village was referred to as a town, which such enthusiasm that a Town Hall was built in 1860, it is one of several buildings from this period in Neogothic style. Another is Shotley Hall by Edward Robson. There are other grand houses from this period which are some of the many listed buildings in the area. While the Wesleyan Chapel was demolished, its Sunday School is now the Village Hall; the clergyman's house is now known as The Manse. The 1876 Temperance Hall is now the Assembly Rooms; the Crown and Crossed Swords hotel includes what was once The Commercial. Professional footballer Ben Clark was born in Shotley Bridge. England Test cricketer Paul Collingwood played for Shotley Bridge Cricket Club in his youth; the Italian poet and writer Avro Manhattan spent his final years in Shotley Bridge, his wife's home town, is buried there.
England Rugby Union international Mathew Tait was born in Shotley Bridge. Shotley Bridge Heritage Group. Shotley Bridge History. Co Durham: Shotley Bridge Village Community Trust