Death in the Afternoon
Death in the Afternoon is a non-fiction book written by Ernest Hemingway about the ceremony and traditions of Spanish bullfighting, published in 1932. The book provides a look at the history and what Hemingway considers the magnificence of bullfighting, it contains a deeper contemplation on the nature of fear and courage. While a guide book, there are three main sections: Hemingway's work, a glossary of terms. Any discussion concerning bullfighting would be incomplete without some mention of the controversy surrounding it. Toward that end Hemingway commented, "anything capable of arousing passion in its favor will raise as much passion against it." The chances are. Hemingway became a bullfighting aficionado after seeing the Pamplona fiesta in the 1920s, which he wrote about in The Sun Also Rises. In Death in the Afternoon, Hemingway explores the metaphysics of bullfighting—the ritualized religious practice—that he considered analogous to the writer's search for meaning and the essence of life.
In bullfighting, he found the elemental nature of death. Marianne Wiggins has written of Death in the Afternoon: "Read it for the writing, for the way it's told... He'll make you like it... You read enough and long enough, he'll make you love it, he's relentless". In his writings on Spain, Hemingway was influenced by the Spanish master Pío Baroja; when Hemingway won the Nobel Prize, he traveled to see Baroja on his death bed to tell him he thought Baroja deserved the prize more than he. Baroja agreed, something of the usual Hemingway tiff with another writer ensued, despite Hemingway's original good intentions. Death in the Afternoon was published by Scribner's on 23 September 1932 to a first edition print run of 10,000 copies. "Death in the Afternoon – A Literary Cocktail" Retrieved July 4, 2010. Death in the Afternoon at Faded Page Hemingway Archives, John F. Kennedy Library
Green Hills of Africa
Green Hills of Africa is a 1935 work of nonfiction by American writer Ernest Hemingway. Hemingway's second work of nonfiction, Green Hills of Africa is an account of a month on safari he and his wife, Pauline Marie Pfeiffer, took in East Africa during December 1933. Green Hills of Africa is divided into four parts: "Pursuit and Conversation", "Pursuit Remembered", "Pursuit and Failure", "Pursuit as Happiness", each of which plays a different role in the story. Much of the narrative describes Hemingway's adventures hunting in East Africa, interspersed with ruminations about literature and authors; the East African landscape Hemingway describes is in the region of Lake Manyara in Tanzania. The book starts with Part 1, with Hemingway and a European expat in conversation about American writers. Relations between the white hunters and native trackers are described, as well as Hemingway's jealousy of the other hunters. Part 2 presents a flashback of hunting in northern Tanzania with a description of the Rift Valley and descriptions of how to field dress prey.
Hemingway kills a rhino. The literary discussion moves to European writers such as Tolstoy, Flaubert and Dostoevsky. In Part 3 the action returns to the present with Hemingway unlucky in hunting, unable to find a kudu he tracks, he moves to an untouched piece of country with the native trackers. In Part 4 Hemingway and some of his trackers arrive at virgin country. There he kills a kudu bull with huge horns. Back in the camp, he discovers, he complains. On the last day he learns. Green Hills of Africa appeared in serialization in Scribner's Magazine, was published in 1935. An autobiographical account of his 1933 trip to Africa, Hemingway presents the subject of big game hunting in a non-fiction form in Green Hills of Africa; the serialization occurred from May to November 1935. The book was published on 25 October 1935 to a first edition print-run of 10,500 copies. Green Hills of Africa got a cool reception. Writing for The New York Times, critic John Chamberlain claimed: "Green Hills of Africa is not one of the major Hemingway works.
Mr. Hemingway has so simplified his method that all his characters talk the lingo perfected in The Sun Also Rises, whether these characters are British, Arabian, Ethiopian or Kikuyu." However, two days writing for the same newspaper, critic C. G. Poore hailed The Green Hills of Africa as "the best-written story of big-game hunting anywhere I have read, and more than that. It's a book about people in unacknowledged conflict and about the pleasures of travel and the pleasures of drinking and war and peace and writing." Despite the better review, Hemingway said the book critics "killed" the book. He went into a deep depression, said he was "ready to blow my lousy head off". Within a few months he was ready to blame the corrupting influence of the wealthy women in his life—his wife Pauline and his mistress Jane Mason; the result of his bitterness were two stories about Africa: "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber" and "The Snows of Kilimanjaro", that featured husbands married to domineering women.
The foreword of Green Hills of Africa identifies this as a work of nonfiction that should be compared with similar works of fiction: Unlike many novels, none of the characters or incidents in this book is imaginary. Any one not finding sufficient love interest is at liberty, while reading it, to insert whatever love interest he or she may have at the time; the writer has attempted to write an true book to see whether the shape of a country and the pattern of a month's action can, if presented, compete with a work of the imagination. The book is well known today for a line; this quote is used as evidence that Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is The Great American Novel: The good writers are Henry James, Stephen Crane, Mark Twain. That's not the order. There is no order for good writers.... All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn. If you read it you must stop; that is the real end. The rest is just cheating, but it's the best book. All American writing comes from that.
There was nothing before. There has been nothing as good since. One episode in Green Hills of Africa is Hemingway's conversation with the Austrian Kandisky, whom Hemingway stops to help when Kandisky's truck breaks down. After trading opinions on German writers like Rainer Maria Rilke and Thomas Mann and disagreeing on their views of hunting and the Austrian discuss American literature over dinner, it turns out that one of the few American writers Hemingway approves of is Henry James, whom he mentions twice. Hemingway says: "The good American writers are Henry James, Stephen Crane, Mark Twain” and adds that “Henry James wanted to make money, he never did, of course”. Intermixed with these comments on James and Twain are Hemingway’s views of American writers in general, most of whom, he says, came to a bad end; when Kandisky asks about himself Hemingway tells him, "I am interested in other things. I have a good life but I must write because if I do not write a certain amount I do not enjoy the rest of my life.”
When asked what he wants, Hemingway replies, "To learn as I go along. At the same time I have my life which I enjoy and, a damned good life." Green Hills of Af
"The Revolutionist" is an Ernest Hemingway short story published in his first American volume of stories In Our Time. Written as a vignette for his earlier Paris edition of the collection, titled in our time, he rewrote and expanded the piece for the 1925 American edition published by Boni & Liveright, it is only one of two vignettes rewritten as short stories for the American edition. The story is about a young Hungarian magyar communist revolutionary fleeing the Hungarian White Terror to Italy. There he visits museums, where he sees some Renaissance paintings he likes, while declaring his dislike for the painter Mantegna. "The Revolutionist" has received scant attention from literary critics with only a cursory examination of the art mentioned in the short story. Literary critics have speculated whether Hemingway's intended meaning in his allusion to Mantegna's Dead Christ is meant to highlight the importance of realism as opposed to idealism, or whether it is a reminder of the character's pain and the pain suffered by an entire generation.
In the story a Magyar communist revolutionist travels by train through Italy visiting art galleries. He admires Giotto and Piero della Francesca, but not Mantegna, he buys reproductions of the pieces which he wraps and stows carefully. When he reports to a second character, who acts as the story's narrator, the two take a train to Romagna; the narrator sends the young man on to Milan from where he is to cross to safety across the Alps into Switzerland via Aosta. The narrator provides him with addresses for contacts in Milan and tells him about the Montegnas to be seen there—which the young Communist again explains he dislikes; the story ends with the narrator saying: "The last I heard of him the Swiss had him in a jail near Sion." The piece was written in 1923 or 1924, when Hemingway lived in Paris with his first wife Hadley Richardson. A year earlier all of his manuscripts were lost when Hadley packed them in a suitcase, stolen. Acting on Ezra Pound's advice that he had lost no more than the time it took to write the pieces, Hemingway either recreated them or wrote new vignettes and stories."The Revolutionist" was included as a vignette in the 1924 Paris edition of in our time published by Bill Bird's Three Mountain's Press.
Of the 18 vignettes contained in the volume, only two were rewritten as short stories for the American edition, published in 1925 by Boni & Liveright. "The Revolutionist" was one. It has autobiographical allusions to Milan. In 1918, at age 19 Hemingway recuperated for six months at a hospital in Milan after suffering a mortar hit on the Italian front. There, Hemingway fell in love with Red Cross nurse Agnes von Kurowsky. Although seven years his senior, Hemingway loved her and the two were to marry on his return to the US at the end of his recuperation. However, after Hemingway went home, he was devastated when Kurowsky broke off the romance in a letter, telling him of her engagement to an Italian officer; the background of "The Revolutionist" is based on the 1919 Hungarian White Terror, caused when Communist iconoclasm resulted in a bloody and violent backlash leading to a period of severe repression, from which the young Magyar revolutionist flees. At over a page long, the piece is variously considered a vignette or a story.
It lacks a plot, does no more than capture a moment of time in the characters' lives. The piece is an early experiment in Hemingway's "theory of omission"—later to be known as the Iceberg Theory—in which nonessential information is left out or hinted at; the story has attracted little attention from literary critics and much of that examines the allusions to Renaissance painters. Early biographers such as Carlos Baker dismissed the piece as a sketch. Hemingway was an art lover, he said that "seeing pictures" was one of five things he cared about, going on to say, "And I could remember all the pictures." Aldous Huxley caused a minor literary dispute when he made derisive remarks about Hemingway's allusion to the "bitter nail holes" of Mantegna's Dead Christ in A Farewell to Arms. Of the six references to Mantegna in the entire Hemingway canon, two occur in "The Revolutionist". Mentioning Mantegna twice in such a short story signals it is an important point; the picture depicts Christ in death as a human figure with a robust physiognomy in the days before resurrection and ascension.
Critic Kenneth Johnston says that for a Renaissance viewer the painting would have a much different effect than for a young man of the lost generation "who would see... an acute reminder that life if painful and painfully short." Hemingway was fascinated by scenes of the crucifixion, according to Johnston, seeing it symbolic of sacrifice, "the ultimate in pain and courage", writing that to Hemingway's young man in "The Revolutionist", "the bitter nail holes of Mantegna's Christ symbolize the painful price of sacrifice". Hemingway scholar Charles Oliver speculates Mantegna's social rise from humble beginnings could be construed as offensive to the young communist's values. Critics suggest the young Magyar's dislike of the artist means he rejects Mantegna's realism while conversely the narrator embraces Mantegna and his realism. Johnston
True at First Light
True at First Light is a book by American novelist Ernest Hemingway about his 1953–54 East African safari with his fourth wife Mary, released posthumously in his centennial year in 1999. The book received negative or lukewarm reviews from the popular press and sparked a literary controversy regarding how, whether, an author's work should be reworked and published after his death. Unlike critics in the popular press, Hemingway scholars consider True at First Light to be complex and a worthy addition to his canon of fiction. In a two-day period in January 1954, Hemingway and Mary were in two plane crashes in the African bush, he was reported dead by the international press, arriving in Entebbe to face questions from reporters. The severity of his injuries was not known until he returned to Europe months later. Hemingway spent much of the next two years in Havana and writing the manuscript of what he called'the Africa book', which remained unfinished at the time of his suicide in July, 1961. In the 1970s, Mary donated it along with his other manuscripts to the John F. Kennedy Library.
The manuscript was released to Hemingway's son Patrick in the mid-1990s. Patrick edited the work to half its original length to strengthen the underlying storyline and emphasize the fictional aspects; the result is a blend of fiction. In the book, Hemingway explores conflict within a marriage, the conflict between the European and native cultures in Africa, the fear a writer feels when his work becomes impossible; the book includes descriptions of his earlier friendships with other writers and digressive ruminations on the nature of writing. Hemingway went on safari to Africa in 1933 with his second wife Pauline and always intended to return; that visit inspired Hemingway's "Snows of Kilimanjaro" published in The Green Hills of Africa, well-known parts of the Hemingway canon. Two decades in 1953, having finished writing The Old Man and the Sea, he planned a trip to Africa to visit his son Patrick who lived in Tanganyika; when Look magazine offered to send him to Africa, paying $15,000 for expenses, $10,000 for rights to a 3500 word piece about the trip, Earl Theisen as official photographer to go with him, he accepted.
Hemingway and Mary left Cuba in June, traveling first to Europe to make arrangements and leaving from Venice to Tanganyika a few months later. They arrived in August, Hemingway was thrilled to be deputized as an honorary ranger, writing in a letter, "due to emergency been acting game ranger". Philip Percival, Hemingway's safari guide in 1933, joined the couple for the four-month expedition. After visiting Patrick at his farm, they settled for two months on the north slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. During this period Percival left their camp to return to his farm, leaving Hemingway as game warden with local scouts reporting to him. Hemingway believed a book would come of the experience. On January 21 Hemingway chartered a sightseeing flight of the Congo Basin as a late Christmas present to Mary; that night they camped in the bush waiting for a response to their distress call. The crash site was seen by a passing airliner that reported no survivors, the news of Hemingway's death was telegraphed around the world.
The next day they were found and picked up by a bush pilot, but his de Havilland caught fire during take-off and exploded, which left Hemingway with a concussion, scalp wound, double-vision, intermittent hearing in his left ear, a crushed vertebra, ruptured liver and kidney, burns. The explosion burned their passports, "thirty rolls of exposed film, three pairs of Ernest's bifocals, all of their money, their $15,000 letter of credit." The group traveled to Entebbe by road, where journalists from around the world had gathered to report his death. On January 26 Hemingway briefed and joked with the reporters, spent the next few weeks in Nairobi recuperating and reading his obituaries. During his recuperation Hemingway prepared the piece for Look; the magazine paid him an additional $20,000 for an exclusive about the plane crashes. Biographer Michael Reynolds writes that the piece, "ran for twenty magazine pages spread out over two issues", with the first issue bearing a publication date of 26 January.
In spite of his injuries, Hemingway joined Patrick and his wife on a planned fishing trip in February, but he was irascible and difficult to get along with. When a bushfire broke out, Hemingway fell into the fire while helping extinguish the flames, burning himself on his legs, front torso, left hand and right forearm. Months in Venice, Hemingway was diagnosed with two cracked discs, a kidney and liver rupture, a dislocated shoulder and a broken skull; as soon as Hemingway returned to Finca Vigía in Cuba, he began work on a book about the safari, wanting to write while it was still vivid in his memory. He wrote 10,000 words, despite his pain. In September 1954, Hemingway wrote in a letter, "At present I work at about 1/2 the capacity I should but everything is better all the time." However, three months in late December he wrote in a letter: "This has been sort of a rough year.... We call one should never have it, but I get tired of pain sometimes if, an ignoble feeling."Almost a year in October 1955, he declared: "Am
Princeton University Press
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University. Its mission is to disseminate scholarship within society at large; the press was founded by Whitney Darrow, with the financial support of Charles Scribner, as a printing press to serve the Princeton community in 1905. Its distinctive building was constructed in 1911 on William Street in Princeton, its first book was a new 1912 edition of John Witherspoon's Lectures on Moral Philosophy. Princeton University Press was founded in 1905 by a recent Princeton graduate, Whitney Darrow, with financial support from another Princetonian, Charles Scribner II. Darrow and Scribner purchased the equipment and assumed the operations of two existing local publishers, that of the Princeton Alumni Weekly and the Princeton Press; the new press printed both local newspapers, university documents, The Daily Princetonian, added book publishing to its activities. Beginning as a small, for-profit printer, Princeton University Press was reincorporated as a nonprofit in 1910.
Since 1911, the press has been headquartered in a purpose-built gothic-style building designed by Ernest Flagg. The design of press’s building, named the Scribner Building in 1965, was inspired by the Plantin-Moretus Museum, a printing museum in Antwerp, Belgium. Princeton University Press established a European office, in Woodstock, north of Oxford, in 1999, opened an additional office, in Beijing, in early 2017. Six books from Princeton University Press have won Pulitzer Prizes: Russia Leaves the War by George F. Kennan Banks and Politics in America from the Revolution to the Civil War by Bray Hammond Between War and Peace by Herbert Feis Washington: Village and Capital by Constance McLaughlin Green The Greenback Era by Irwin Unger Machiavelli in Hell by Sebastian de Grazia Books from Princeton University Press have been awarded the Bancroft Prize, the Nautilus Book Award, the National Book Award. Multi-volume historical documents projects undertaken by the Press include: The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein The Writings of Henry D. Thoreau The Papers of Woodrow Wilson The Papers of Thomas Jefferson Kierkegaard's WritingsThe Papers of Woodrow Wilson has been called "one of the great editorial achievements in all history."
Princeton University Press's Bollingen Series had its beginnings in the Bollingen Foundation, a 1943 project of Paul Mellon's Old Dominion Foundation. From 1945, the foundation had independent status and providing fellowships and grants in several areas of study, including archaeology and psychology; the Bollingen Series was given to the university in 1969. Annals of Mathematics Studies Princeton Series in Astrophysics Princeton Series in Complexity Princeton Series in Evolutionary Biology Princeton Series in International Economics Princeton Modern Greek Studies The Whites of Their Eyes: The Tea Party's Revolution and the Battle over American History, by Jill Lepore The Meaning of Relativity by Albert Einstein Atomic Energy for Military Purposes by Henry DeWolf Smyth How to Solve It by George Polya The Open Society and Its Enemies by Karl Popper The Hero With a Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell The Wilhelm/Baynes translation of the I Ching, Bollingen Series XIX. First copyright 1950, 27th printing 1997.
Anatomy of Criticism by Northrop Frye Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature by Richard Rorty QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter by Richard Feynman The Great Contraction 1929–1933 by Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz with a new Introduction by Peter L. Bernstein Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle by Stephen Biddle Banks, Eric. "Book of Lists: Princeton University Press at 100". Artforum International. Staff of Princeton University Press. A Century in Books: Princeton University Press, 1905–2005. ISBN 9780691122922. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Official website Princeton University Press: Albert Einstein Web Page Princeton University Press: Bollingen Series Princeton University Press: Annals of Mathematics Studies Princeton University Press Centenary Princeton University Press: New in Print
Charles Scribner's Sons
Charles Scribner's Sons, or Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in New York City, known for publishing American authors including Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Kurt Vonnegut, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Stephen King, Robert A. Heinlein, Thomas Wolfe, George Santayana, John Clellon Holmes, Don DeLillo, Edith Wharton; the firm published Scribner's Magazine for many years. More several Scribner titles and authors have garnered Pulitzer Prizes, National Book Awards and other merits. In 1978 the company became The Scribner Book Companies. In turn it merged into Macmillan in 1984. Simon & Schuster bought Macmillan in 1994. By this point only the trade book and reference book operations still bore the original family name; the former imprint, now "Scribner," was retained by Simon & Schuster, while the reference division has been owned by Gale since 1999. As of 2012, Scribner is a division of Simon & Schuster under the title Scribner Publishing Group which includes the Touchstone Books imprint.
The president of Scribner as of 2017 is Susan Moldow, the current publisher is Nan Graham. The firm was founded in 1846 by Charles Scribner I and Isaac D. Baker as "Baker & Scribner." After Baker's death, Scribner bought the remainder of the company and renamed it the "Charles Scribner Company." In 1865, the company made its first venture into magazine publishing with Hours at Home. In 1870, the Scribners organized a new firm and Company, to publish a magazine entitled Scribner’s Monthly. After the death of Charles Scribner I in 1871, his son John Blair Scribner took over as president of the company, his other sons Charles Scribner II and Arthur Hawley Scribner would join the firm, in 1875 and 1884. They each served as presidents; when the other partners in the venture sold their stake to the family, the company was renamed Charles Scribner's Sons. The company launched St. Nicholas Magazine in 1873 with Mary Mapes Dodge as editor and Frank R. Stockton as assistant editor; when the Scribner family sold the magazine company to outside investors in 1881, Scribner’s Monthly was renamed the Century Magazine.
The Scribners brothers were enjoined from publishing any magazine for a period of five years. In 1886, at the expiration of this term, they launched Scribner's Magazine; the firm's headquarters were in the Scribner Building, built in 1893, on lower Fifth Avenue at 21st Street, in the Charles Scribner's Sons Building, on Fifth Avenue in midtown. Both buildings were designed by Ernest Flagg in a Beaux Arts style; the children's book division was established in 1934 under the leadership of Alice Dalgliesh. It published works by distinguished authors and illustrators including N. C. Wyeth, Robert A. Heinlein, Marcia Brown, Will James, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Leo Politi; as of 2011 the publisher is owned by the CBS Corporation. Simon & Schuster reorganized their adult imprints into four divisions in 2012. Scribner became the Scribner Publishing Group and would expand to include Touchstone Books, part of Free Press; the other divisions are Atria Publishing Group, Simon & Schuster Publishing Group, the Gallery Publishing Group.
The new Scribner division would be led by Susan Moldow as president. Charles Scribner I, 1846 to 1871 John Blair Scribner, 1871 to 1879 Charles Scribner II, 1879 to 1930 Arthur Hawley Scribner, circa 1900 Charles Scribner III, 1932 to 1952 Charles Scribner IV, 1952 to 1984 Edith Wharton Henry James Ernest Hemingway Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings Ring Lardner Thomas Wolfe Reinhold Niebuhr F. Scott Fitzgerald Thomas Wolfe Ernest Hemingway Ring Lardner Erskine Caldwell S. S. Van Dine James Jones Simon & Schuster has published thousands of books from thousands of authors; this list represents some of the more notable authors from Scribner since becoming part of Simon & Schuster. For a more extensive list see List of Schuster authors. Annie Proulx Andrew Solomon Anthony Doerr Don DeLillo Frank McCourt Stephen King Jeanette Walls Baker & Scribner, until the death of Baker in 1850 Charles Scribner Company Charles Scribner's Sons Scribner The Scribner Bookstores are now owned by Barnes & Noble. Charles Scribner I List of Simon & Schuster Authors Scribner's Monthly Scribner's Magazine Simon & Schuster Scribner Building Roger Burlingame, Of Making Many Books: A Hundred Years of Reading and Publishing, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1946.
The House of Scribner "Scribner Magazine online". 1889-1939. Retrieved 2012-04-24. Charles Scribner's Sons at Thomson Gale Archives of Charles Scribner’s Sons at the Princeton University Library, Manuscript Division Charles Scribner's Sons Art Reference Department records at the Smithsonian Archives of American Art Charles Scribner's Sons: An Illustrated Chronology Princeton Library
Across the River and into the Trees
Across the River and Into the Trees is a novel by American writer Ernest Hemingway, published by Charles Scribner's Sons in 1950, after first being serialized in Cosmopolitan magazine earlier that year. The title derives from the last words of U. S. Civil War Confederate General Thomas J. Jackson: “Let us cross over the river and rest under the shade of the trees.”Hemingway's novel opens with Colonel Richard Cantwell, 50 and with a heart problem, duck hunting in Trieste, Italy. It presents his life in a lengthy flashback, with Cantwell thinking about a young Venetian woman and his experiences during World War I. During a trip to Italy not long before writing the novel, Hemingway had met young Adriana Ivancich, with whom he became infatuated, he used her as the model for the female character in the novel; the novel's central theme is death, more how death is faced. One biographer and critic sees a parallel between Hemingway's Across the River and Into the Trees and Thomas Mann's Death in Venice.
The novel is built upon successive layers of symbolism, as in his other writing, Hemingway employs here his distinctive, spare style, where the substance lies below the surface of the plot. Hemingway described Across the River and into the Trees and one reader's reaction to it, using'Indian talk': "Book too much for him. Book start slow increase in pace till it becomes impossible to stand. I bring emotion up to where you can’t stand it we level off, so we won’t have to provide oxygen tents for the readers. Book is like engine. We have to slack her off gradually."Written in Italy and France in the late 1940s, it was the first of his novels to receive negative press and reviews. It was nonetheless a bestseller in America, spending 7 weeks at the top of the New York Times bestseller's list in 1950, was, in fact, Hemingway's only novel to top the list. Since its initial unenthusiastic critical reception, more recent critics and scholars see it as an important addition to the Hemingway canon. Across the River and Into the Trees begins in the first chapter with the frame story of 50-year-old Colonel Cantwell's duck hunting trip to Trieste set in the time-present.
Cantwell, dying of heart disease, spends a Sunday afternoon in a duck blind in Trieste. In the second chapter, Hemingway takes Cantwell back in time by means of a stream of consciousness interior monologue, that presents an extended flashback which continues for 38 chapters. In the final six chapters, Cantwell is again presented in the frame story set in the time-present. In the flashback he had thought of his recent weekend in Venice with 18-year-old Renata, moving backward in time to ruminate about his experiences during the war; the novel ends with Cantwell suffering a fatal series of heart attacks. Ernest Hemingway first met A. E. Hotchner, who became a close friend, in 1948 when Hotchner released from the Air Force, had taken a job with Cosmopolitan Magazine as a "commissioned agent." Hemingway's name was on the list of authors Hotchner was to contact, so he went to Cuba, asked for a meeting, for a short article. Hemingway did not write an article, but he did submit his next novel Across the River and into the Trees to Hotchner, which Cosmopolitan serialized in five installments.
The protagonist is considered to have been based loosely on a friend of Hemingway, Charles T. Lanham, with components of the character being autobiographically based on the author himself. Hemingway worked on the book from 1949 to 1950 in four different places: he started writing during the winter of 1949 in Italy at Cortina D'Ampezzo. In the fall of 1948 he visited Fossalta where in 1918 he had been wounded. A month while duck hunting with an Italian aristocrat he met 18-year-old Adriana Ivancich, he and his wife Mary went to Cortina to ski: she broke her ankle and, Hemingway began the draft of the book. Hemingway himself became ill with an eye infection and was hospitalized. In the spring he went to Venice. In May he returned to Cuba and carried out a protracted correspondence with her while working on the manuscript. In the autumn he had returned to Europe and he finished the draft at the Ritz in Paris. Once done, he and Mary went again to Cortina to ski: for the second time she broke her ankle and he contracted an eye infection.
By February the first serialization was published in Cosmopolitan. The Hemingways returned to Paris in March and home to Cuba where the final proofs were read before the September publication. Cosmopolitan Magazine serialized Across the River and Into the Trees from February to June 1950. Adriana Ivancich designed the dust jacket of the first edition, although her original artwork was redrawn by the Scribner's promotions department; the novel was published by Scribner's on 7 September 1950 with a first edition print run of 75,000, after a publicity campaign that hailed the novel as Hemingway's first book since the publication of his 1940 Spanish Civil War novel For Whom the Bell Tolls. Hemingway started as a journalist and writer of short stories, Baker suggests that he thus learned how to "get the most from the least, how to prune language, how to multiply intensities, how to tell nothing but the truth in a way that allowed for telling more than the truth"; the style is known as the Iceberg Theory because in Hemingway's writing the hard facts float above water.
The concept of the iceberg theory is sometimes referred to as