Bennhausen is a municipality in the Donnersbergkreis district, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Kirchheimbolanden. Bennhausen has an area of 1.49 km². It is situated in the North Palatine Uplands, at the foot of the Donnersberg, which lies about 3 km west of the village; the land to the west and north of the hilly landscape is planted with orchards, the forest reaches the outskirts of the village. The land to the south and east consists of agricultural farmland; the neighboring municipalities are Weitersweiler, Jakobsweiler and Bolanden. Bennhausen was documented in 1252, as Benninhusen. In 1376, the city belonged to the Palatinate. During the Thirty Years' War, Bennhausen was destroyed. In 1706, it was given to the Earls of Nassau-Weilburg. Since 1816, Bennhausen has belonged to the municipality of Dannenfels; the local council in Bennhausen consists of six members, elected in a majority vote, the honorary mayor as chairman. The last local elections took place on June 7, 2009.
The coat of arms is a "red and silver diagonally divided, top right six-spoked silver wheel, bottom left a red deer pierced by a red arrow". It was approved in 1976 by the government of the Neustadt district; the Wheel of Mainz recalls. The doe is the attribute of Saint Giles, one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, to which an earlier chapel was dedicated; as is typical of similar villages, the place was characterized, by agriculture. Today, commuters dominate, in economic terms. Two new settlements were established around 2005, respectively. In the original center, some houses have been renovated by both newcomers. There are former agricultural properties; the former elementary school, operated until 1960, has been renovated and expanded. Bennhausen has a volunteer fire department, including a Youth Fire Brigade. Community patrons organize cultural events and the fairs, which take place on the 3rd weekend of August; the L 397 passes through the village. 3 km southeast, at the Göllheim exit, it connects with the A 63.
In the southwestern direction, Kaiserslautern is 30 km. To the north, Mainz is about 50 km away. In Dreisen, 4 km away from Bennhausen, the railway line has been closed down and operates only on weekends during the summer months, through the Zellertal railway; the nearest regular railway station is in Kirchheimbolanden, with connection to Alzey and Mainz, as well as to Winnweiler, connecting there with Kaiserslautern and Bad Kreuznach. Bennhausen has a population of 156. Reinhold Huy, Vom Hofgut zum Dorf: Bennhausen. Ein Ort schreibt Geschichte, Gemeinde Bennhausen, 2009, ISBN 978-3-926306-60-9. Official webpage. Literature on Bennhausen at the Bibliographie of Rhineland-Palatinate
Falkenstein is a municipality in the Donnersbergkreis district, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The castle was the seat of the Counts of Falkenstein. In 1255, the Counts of Falkenstein inherited territories of extinct Hagen-Munzenberg. In 1418, the line died out, the territory was passed to Lords of Counts of Solms; the Solms portion passed to Isenburg-Budingen by female inheritance. In 1647, there was a siege and storming of the castle by the French. In 1654 Falkensteiners shot the Lorraine commander Weingart; the last Count of Falkenstein, William Wirich, sold 1667, the impoverished county to the Duke of Lorraine. In 1736 the Imperial House of Habsburg possessed the county through the marriage of Francis Stephen of Lorraine with Maria Theresia. In 1816 Falkenstein was transferred along with the rest of Pfalz to Kingdom of Bavaria as a result of decisions taken at the Congress of Vienna agreements
The Donnersberg is the highest peak of the Palatinate region of Germany. The mountain lies between the towns of Rockenhausen and Kirchheimbolanden, in the Donnersbergkreis district, named after the mountain; the highway A63 runs along the southern edge of the Donnersberg. European walking route E8 runs across the mountain; the highest point of the Donnersberg is the rock Königstuhl at 687 metres above sea level. The mountain covers an area of some 2,400 hectares; the Donnersberg was formed by volcanic activity during the Permian, in the transition period between the lower and upper Rotliegend strata. The name Donnersberg is thought to refer to Donar, the Germanic god of thunder, a theory supported by the fact that the Romans dubbed the Donnersberg Mons Jovis after their god of thunder, Jupiter. According to other theories, the name of the mountain was derived from the Celtic dunum or from the name of a Celtic deity, Taranis. During the Celtic La Tène period, around 150 BC, an important settlement was built on the Donnersberg, covering some 240 hectares.
Part of the wall surrounding this settlement has been reconstructed. Archeological excavations are ongoing. In the Middle Ages, five castles surrounded the strategically placed mountain: Tannenfels, Hohenfels and Ruppertsecken. Today, only ruins remain of these five castles. About 900 metres east of the Königstuhl rock, a 27 metres tall tower was constructed in 1864-1865, the Ludwigsturm. After World War II, a radio mast for the largest U. S. radio station in western Europe was placed on the Donnersberg. In the early 1960s, a new communications tower was constructed; the Donnersbergbahn is a railway line. The line ran further, to Marnheim, but on March 20, 1945, the Pfrimm Viaduct, a railway bridge between Kirchheimbolanden and Marnheim, was destroyed by withdrawing German troops, it has not been rebuilt since. Donnersbergverein für Mensch und Natur: Der Donnersberg Dannenfels am Donnersberg: Donnersberg: Geologie
Further Austria, Outer Austria or Anterior Austria was the collective name for the early possessions of the House of Habsburg in the former Swabian stem duchy of south-western Germany, including territories in the Alsace region west of the Rhine and in Vorarlberg. While the territories of Further Austria west of the Rhine and south of Lake Constance were lost to France and the Swiss Confederacy, those in Swabia and Vorarlberg remained under Habsburg control until the Napoleonic Era. Further Austria comprised the Alsatian County of Ferrette in the Sundgau, including the town of Belfort, the adjacent Breisgau region east of the Rhine, including Freiburg im Breisgau after 1368. Ruled from the Habsburg residence in Ensisheim near Mühlhausen were numerous scattered territories stretching from Upper Swabia to the Allgäu region in the east, the largest being the margravate of Burgau between the cities of Augsburg and Ulm. During the Habsburg Monarchy they were humorously called "tail feathers of the Imperial Eagle".
Some estates in Vorarlberg possessed by the Habsburgs were considered part of Further Austria, though they were temporarily directly administered from Tyrol. The original home territories of the Habsburgs, the Aargau with Habsburg Castle and much of the other original possessions south of the High Rhine and Lake Constance were lost in the 14th century to the expanding Swiss Confederacy after the battles of Morgarten and Sempach; these territories were never considered part of Further Austria – except for the Fricktal region around Rheinfelden and Laufenburg, which remained a Habsburg possession until 1797. From 1406 until 1490 Further Austria together with the Habsburg County of Tyrol was included in the definition of "Upper Austria". From 1469 to 1474 Archduke Sigismund gave large parts in pawn to the Burgundian duke Charles the Bold. At the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the Sundgau became part of France. After the Ottoman wars many inhabitants of Further Austria were encouraged to emigrate and settle in the newly acquired Transylvania region, people that were referred as Danube Swabians.
In the 18th century, the Habsburgs acquired a few minor new Swabian territories, such as Tettnang in 1780. In the reorganization of the Holy Roman Empire in the course of the French Revolutionary Wars, much of Further Austria, including the Breisgau, was by the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville granted as compensation to Ercole III d'Este, former duke of Modena and Reggio, who however died two years later, his heir as his son-in-law was Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este, the uncle of Emperor Francis II. After the Austrian defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz and the Peace of Pressburg in 1805, Further Austria was dissolved and the former Habsburg territories were assigned to the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Kingdom of Württemberg and the Kingdom of Bavaria, as rewards for their alliance with Napoleonic France. Minor estates passed to the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Fricktal had become a French protectorate in 1799 and part of the Helvetic Republic in 1802, incorporated into the Swiss canton of Aargau the next year.
After the defeat of Napoleon, there was some discussion at the Congress of Vienna of returning part of all of the Vorlande to Austria, but in the end only Vorarlberg returned to Austrian control, as Foreign Minister Klemens von Metternich did not want to offend the rulers of the South German states and hoped that removing Austria from its advanced position on the Rhine would reduce tensions with France. As of 1790 Further Austria was subdivided into ten districts: Breisgau at Freiburg Offenburg: several localities in the present Ortenaukreis, the Imperial city of Offenburg not included Hohenberg, present Ostalbkreis, former county, at Rottenburg am Neckar Nellenburg, former landgraviate, at Stockach Altdorf, today Weingarten Tettnang, former County of Montfort Günzburg, former Margraviate of Burgau Winnweiler in the Palatinate, former County of Falkenstein the former Imperial city of Konstanz Bregenz, present-day Vorarlberg administrated from Tyrol. Politically, the Further Austrian territories were held by the Habsburg Dukes of Austria from 1278 onwards.
Upon the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, they together with Carinthia, Styria and Tyrol fell to the Leopoldian line: Leopold III, until 1386 William, son, 1386–1406Further divided into Inner Austria proper and Upper Austria, ruled by: Frederick IV, younger brother of William, 1406-1439 Frederick V, nephew of William, ruler of Inner Austria, 1439-1446 Sigismund, son of Frederick IV, 1446–1490In 1490 all Habsburg possessions were re-unified under the rule of Frederick V, Holy Roman Emperor since 1452. Upon the death of Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg in 1564, Further Austria and Tyrol was inherited by his second son: Ferdinand II, 1564–1595 Matthias, 1595–1619, Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, with his younger brother Maximilian III as regent, 1612–1618In 1619 the Habsburg hereditary lands were re-unified under the rule of Emperor Ferdinand II, he gave Further Austria to his younger brother: Leopold V, 1623–1632 Ferdinand Charles, son, 1632–1662 under the tutelage of his mother Claudia de' Medici, 1632–1646 Sigismund Francis, brother 1662-1665In 1665 the Habsburg lands were re-unified under the rule of Emperor Leopold I.
Becker, Irmgard Christa, ed. Vorderösterreich, Nur die Schwanzfeder des Kaiseradlers? Die Habsburger im deutsc
House of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg called the House of Austria, was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740; the house produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Illyria, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they maintained close relations and intermarried; the House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title.
The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, 13th centuries. By 1276, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Duchy of Austria. Rudolph became King of Germany in 1273, the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs and their descendants ruled until 1918. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy and its colonial empire, Bohemia and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty; the House of Habsburg became extinct in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon; the remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, in 1780 with the death of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa of Austria.
It was succeeded by the Vaudémont branch of the House of Lorraine, descendants of Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The new successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, because it was confusingly still referred to as the House of Habsburg, historians use the unofficial appellation of the Habsburg Monarchy for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918; the Lorraine branch continues to exist to this day and its members use the Habsburg name. The Habsburg Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities, its industrial base was thin, its naval resources were so minimal. It typified by Metternich. Along with the Capetian dynasty, it was one of the two most powerful continental European royal families, dominating European politics for nearly five centuries.
Their principal roles were as follows: Holy Roman Emperors, kings of Germany, kings of the Romans) Rulers of Austria Kings of Bohemia Kings of Hungary and Croatia Kings of Spain Kings of Portugal Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria Grand princes of Transylvania Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above. The progenitor of the House of Habsburg may have been Guntram the Rich, a count in the Breisgau who lived in the 10th century, forewith farther back as the early medieval Adalrich, Duke of Alsace, father of the Etichonids from which Habsburg derives, his grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, after which the Habsburgs are named. The origins of the castle's name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg, or from the Middle High German word hab/hap meaning ford, as there is a river with a ford nearby; the first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.
The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 12th and 13th centuries. The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges countship rights in Zürichgau and Thurgau. In the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Swabia, they were able to gain high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they profited from the extinction of other noble families such as the House of Kyburg. By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosg
Hochspeyer station – officially Neuhochspeyer or Neu-Hochspeyer – is the station of the town of Hochspeyer in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Deutsche Bahn classifies it as belonging to category 4 and it has four platform tracks; the station is located in the network of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Neckar and belongs to fare zone 100. Its address is Bahnhofstraße 1, it is located on the Mannheim–Saarbrücken railway, which consists of the Palatine Ludwig Railway. It became a junction station on 29 October 1870, with the opening of the Alsenz Valley Railway to Winnweiler; the importance of this line, fell with the opening of Kaiserslautern–Enkenbach railway a few years later. Since December 2003, it has been a stop for lines S1 and S2 of the Rhine-Neckar S-Bahn; the station is located on the eastern outskirts of Hochspeyer. The Hochspeyerbach and federal highway 48 run north of it and parallel. Bahnhofstraße branches off from the latter and ends a little at the station; the Mannheim–Saarbrücken railway runs through the village in the east-west direction.
The Alsenz Valley Railway branches off to the northeast to Enkenbach as a single track. The station itself is at line-kilometre 54.236. The zero point for the line-kilometre calculation is between Bexbach and Neunkirchen on the former Bavarian–Prussian national border on what is now part of the Homburg–Neunkirchen railway, although different chainages are now used on that line. Although the selected route for the Palatine Ludwig Railway passed through Kaiserslautern and thus through Hochspeyer from early in its planning no station was envisaged for Hochspeyer; the mayor Wilhelm Ritter convinced the Palatine Ludwig Railway Company of its merits, so that a station was developed on the western outskirts. Around 1860, there were initial efforts to build a railway line along the Alsenz; this would have been used in combination with the Palatine Maximilian Railway and the section of the Ludwig Railway directly west of Neustadt as a through route in the north-south direction. The engineers rejected plans for the railway line to run via Otterberg and recommended a route through Enkenbach, which would connect to the Ludwig Railway to the east of Hochspeyer towards Neustadt.
A connecting curve to Hochspeyer was built to the south of Fischbach to allow through train to run to Kaiserslautern. A new Hochspeyer station was built to the east of its built-up area; the Hochspeyer–Winnweiler section was opened on 29 October 1870 and on 16 May of the following year it was extended to Münster am Stein. The station, which had existed since 1848, now operated as a freight depot and was given the new name of Alt-Hochspeyer; the newly created junction station was called Neuhochspeyer or Neu-Hochspeyer by the railway company at different times. However, since this caused confusion, it was permanently changed to Hochspeyer; the connection via Hochspeyer was an indirect route to Kaiserslautern. On its initiative, the Kaiserslautern–Enkenbach railway was built, which meant that Hochspeyer station lost its importance as a junction station. At the beginning of the 20th century, the station came under the management of the Betriebs- und Bauinspektion Kaiserslautern I; the station was the location of a Bahnmeisterei, responsible for the maintenance of the railway along the east-west route as far as Frankenstein and including the Heiligenberg Tunnel and the Franzosenwoog Tunnel.
Its responsibilities extended over the Alsenz Valley Railway to Enkenbach. In 1922, the station was integrated into the newly founded Reichsbahndirektion Ludwigshafen. During the dissolution of the railway division of Ludwigshafen on 1 April 1937, it was transferred to the railway division of Mainz. Within that, it was responsible to the Betriebsamt of Neustadt; as the Mannheim–Saarbrücken railway has always been of great importance for long-distance traffic, it was electrified, starting in 1960. The Saarbrücken–Homburg section could be electrically operated from 8 March 1960; the Homburg–Kaiserslautern section followed on 18 May 1961 and, on 12 March 1964, the entire length of the route, including Hochspeyer station, was electrically operated. The electrification of the remaining section had been delayed because of the numerous tunnels between Kaiserslautern and Neustadt, which had to be enlarged; the Hochspeyerer Bahnmeisterei has been incorporated into that of Kaiserslautern. In the course of the gradual dissolution of the railway division of Mainz from 1 August 1971, its counterpart in Saarbrücken took responsibility for the station.
A prototype ICE 1 train stopped in the station on 20 December 1985. On 28 June 1988 there was a train crash in Heiligenberg Tunnel, as an express train collided with an on-coming freight train; the two locomotives of both trains were demolished and an affected UIC-X wagon was for some time abandoned on a siding in Hochspeyer. A few months the locomotives were dismantled on site. Since 1996 the station has been in the area covered by the Verkehrsverbundes Rhein-Neckar. From 2000 to 2006, it belonged to the Westpfalz-Verkehrsverbund; the platforms were upgraded during the integration of the Mannhei
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Croatia, Transylvania, Milan and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands, Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress, she started her 40-year reign when her father, Emperor Charles VI, died in October 1740. Charles VI paved the way for her accession with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 and spent his entire reign securing it, he neglected the advice of Prince Eugene of Savoy, who averred that a strong military and a rich treasury were more important than mere signatures. He left behind a weakened and impoverished state due to the War of the Polish Succession and the Russo-Turkish War. Moreover, upon his death, Prussia and France all repudiated the sanction they had recognised during his lifetime. Frederick II of Prussia promptly invaded and took the affluent Habsburg province of Silesia in the seven-year conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession.
In defiance of the grave situation, she managed to secure the vital support of the Hungarians for the war effort. Over the course of the war, despite the loss of Silesia and a few minor territories in Italy, Maria Theresa defended her rule over most of the Habsburg empire. Maria Theresa unsuccessfully tried to reconquer Silesia during the Seven Years' War. Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, had eleven daughters, including the Queen of France, the Queen of Naples and Sicily, the Duchess of Parma, five sons, including two Holy Roman Emperors, Joseph II and Leopold II. Of the sixteen children, ten survived to adulthood. Though she was expected to cede power to Francis and Joseph, both of whom were her co-rulers in Austria and Bohemia, Maria Theresa was the absolute sovereign who ruled with the counsel of her advisers. Maria Theresa promulgated institutional and educational reforms, with the assistance of Wenzel Anton of Kaunitz-Rietberg, Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz and Gerard van Swieten.
She promoted commerce and the development of agriculture, reorganised Austria's ramshackle military, all of which strengthened Austria's international standing. However, she despised the Jews and the Protestants, on certain occasions she ordered their expulsion to remote parts of the realm, she advocated for the state church and refused to allow religious pluralism. Her regime was criticized as intolerant by some contemporaries; the second and eldest surviving child of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Archduchess Maria Theresa was born on 13 May 1717 in Vienna, a year after the death of her elder brother, Archduke Leopold, was baptised on that same evening. The dowager empresses, her aunt Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg and grandmother Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, were her godmothers. Most descriptions of her baptism stress that the infant was carried ahead of her cousins, Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia, the daughters of Charles VI's elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, before the eyes of their mother, Wilhelmine Amalia.
It was clear that Maria Theresa would outrank them though their grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, had his sons sign the Mutual Pact of Succession, which gave precedence to the daughters of the elder brother. Her father was the only surviving male member of the House of Habsburg and hoped for a son who would prevent the extinction of his dynasty and succeed him. Thus, the birth of Maria Theresa was the people of Vienna. Maria Theresa replaced Maria Josepha as heir presumptive to the Habsburg realms the moment she was born. Charles sought the other European powers' approval for disinheriting his nieces, they exacted harsh terms: in the Treaty of Vienna, Great Britain demanded that Austria abolish the Ostend Company in return for its recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction. In total, Great Britain, Saxony, United Provinces, Prussia, Denmark, Sardinia and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction. France, Saxony and Prussia reneged. Little more than a year after her birth, Maria Theresa was joined by a sister, Maria Anna, another one, named Maria Amalia, was born in 1724.
The portraits of the imperial family show that Maria Theresa resembled Elisabeth Christine and Maria Anna. The Prussian ambassador noted that she had large blue eyes, fair hair with a slight tinge of red, a wide mouth and a notably strong body. Unlike many other members of the House of Habsburg, neither Maria Theresa's parents nor her grandparents were related to each other. Maria Theresa was a reserved child who enjoyed singing and archery, she was barred from horse riding by her father, but she would learn the basics for the sake of her Hungarian coronation ceremony. The imperial family staged opera productions conducted by Charles VI, in which she relished participating, her education was overseen by Jesuits. Contemporaries thought her Latin to be quite good, but in all else, the Jesuits did not educate her well, her spelling and punctuation were unconventional and she lacked the formal manner and speech which had characterised her Habsburg predecessors. Maria Theresa developed a close relationship with Countess Marie Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard