U.S. Route 14
U. S. Route 14, an east–west route, is one of the original United States highways of 1926, it has a length of 1,398 miles, but it had a peak length of 1,429 miles. For much of its length, it runs parallel to Interstate 90; as of 2004, the highway's eastern terminus is in Chicago, Illinois. Its western terminus is the east entrance of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, with the western terminus of U. S. Route 16 and the western terminus of the eastern segment of U. S. Route 20. U. S. 14 begins at the east entrance to Yellowstone National Park, along with U. S. 16 and the eastern segment of U. S. 20. It travels through the Shoshone National Forest to Cody, where U. S. 14A splits off to the north. Both routes traverse the dry Bighorn Basin, followed by a steep ascent up the Big Horn Mountains and through the Bighorn National Forest, where they rejoin at Burgess Junction; the highway descends the eastern slope of the Bighorns between Burgess Junction and Dayton. U. S. 14 follows I-90 south from Ranchester to Sheridan.
The highway turns east and south to again join I-90 near Gillette. It splits off for a short time to Carlile rejoins I-90 which it follows to the state line; the South Dakota section of U. S. 14, other than a concurrency with Interstate 90, is defined in the South Dakota Codified Laws. The Laura Ingalls Wilder Historic Highway incorporates U. S. 14 from South Dakota in the west to Rochester, Minnesota, in the east, where the historic roadway continues on U. S. 63. The author moved to De Smet, SD from Walnut Grove, MN via the Chicago and Northwestern, which parallels the highway from the Black Hills to La Crosse, WI. In South Dakota and Minnesota, the road parallels the Rapid City and Eastern Railroad the Dakota and Eastern Railroad. US 14 and US 83 are the only national routes serving Pierre, South Dakota, one of only four state capitals not on the Interstate Highway System. U. S. 14 enters the state from South Dakota west of Lake Benton. It goes east through several small towns such as Balaton, Revere, Lamberton and Sleepy Eye, on a two-lane road until New Ulm, where it is a divided highway.
From New Ulm to Mankato, the highway lies north of the Minnesota River. Shortly before coming to the Mankato/North Mankato area, U. S. 14 becomes a freeway bypass, which becomes an expressway east of Mankato. This section is part of the Laura Ingalls Wilder Historic Highway as it passes through Walnut Grove, it continues east south of Waseca and at Owatonna, it crosses Interstate 35. It heads east towards Rochester, with an expressway segment beginning at Minnesota State Highway 56 and continuing east into Rochester. Once it enters Rochester, it has a concurrency with U. S. Route 52. After the concurrency, it continues through Rochester as a divided highway. After Rochester, the highway parallels Interstate 90 until Winona, where U. S. 14 gets picked up by U. S. Route 61; the two highways run concurrently the rest of the way in Minnesota, cross the Mississippi River at La Crescent over the La Crosse West Channel Bridge. U. S. 14 was extended to a full, limited-access freeway from three miles west of Janesville to Interstate 35 at Owatonna.
Most of the new route is located south of the existing alignment so as to avoid overlapping Interstate 35. The expansion was opened to traffic on August 31, 2012, creating a continuous 4-lane route from North Mankato to Owatonna; the section from Waseca to Janesville has yet to be upgraded to freeway standards. The Minnesota section of U. S. 14 is defined as part of Constitutional Route 7 and Trunk Highways 121 and 122 in the Minnesota Statutes. U. S. 14 enters the state of Wisconsin along with U. S. Route 61 across the Mississippi River into La Crosse. Running through rural southern Wisconsin, the route passes through Madison and the village square of Walworth. U. S. 14 exits into Illinois at Big Foot Prairie. In the state of Illinois, U. S. 14 runs southeast from north of Harvard to Chicago via Woodstock and the northwest suburbs. Southeast of Route 47, U. S. 14 has four lanes. Continuing southeastward from just after the overpass above Route 31, U. S. 14 passes beneath and closely parallels the tracks of the Union Pacific Railroad's Harvard Subdivision.
Through the northwest suburbs of Chicago, this route is referred to as "Northwest Highway" and is a busy thoroughfare. East of Des Plaines, U. S. 14 becomes Dempster Street until its intersection with Waukegan Road. From here, U. S. 14 follows Waukegan Road, Caldwell Avenue, Peterson Avenue, Ridge Avenue to its eastern end, at the corner of Broadway and U. S. 41. At an earlier point, U. S. 14 extended south on Lake Shore Drive onto Michigan Avenue. U. S. 14 was the "Black and Yellow Trail", so named as it connected Minnesota with the Black Hills and Yellowstone National Park. In Chicago's Northwest Suburbs, it is known as Northwest Highway due to its direction as well as it paralleling the old Chicago and North Western railroad It was called the Northwest Highway from Chicago to New Ulm and some street signs in New Ulm and towns in between still show the old designation. From Ucross west to Sheridan, Wyoming, US 14 was designated U. S. Route 116 in 1926. US 116 was extended west to Cody in 1933, absorbing the Deaver-Cody US 420.
The next year, US 116 became an extension of US 14. Part of this extension, including all of US 420, is now US 14A. Wyoming US 16 / US 20 at the East Entrance to Yellowstone National Park, southeast of Pahaska Tepee; the highways travel concurrently to Greybull. US 310 west-northwest of Greybull I‑90 / US 87 northe
Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge
The Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge is a 240,000-acre, 261-mile long National Wildlife Refuge located in and along the Upper Mississippi River. It runs from Wabasha, Minnesota in the north to Illinois in the south. In its northern portion, it is in the Driftless Area, a region of North America that remained free from ice during the last ice age. Certain parcels contained within the refuge were transferred to the Driftless Area National Wildlife Refuge; the refuge is an important element of the Mississippi Flyway. It has many wooded islands and hardwood forests; the wildlife found here include the canvasback duck, tundra swan, white-tailed deer, muskrat. Recreational activities include boating, hunting and swimming. Refuge Headquarters are located in Winona, with district offices located in La Crosse, Prairie du Chien and Thomson, Illinois; the refuge is one of only two. As of 30 September 2007 the area per state was: Wisconsin: 89,637.54 acres, Iowa: 51,147.78 acres, Minnesota: 33,868.64 acres, Illinois: 33,489.57 acres.
The following counties border on or have land within the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge. In each state, the counties are listed from north to south; the lakes and rivers within the refuge area of each county are listed. Wabasha County Cross Lake Half Moon Lake Maloney Lake McCarthy Lake Peterson Lake Robinson Lake Zumbro River Winona County Houston County Blue Lake Hayshore Lake Lawrence Lake Root River Target Lake Buffalo County Trempealeau County La Crosse County Vernon County Crawford County Grant County Allamakee County Clayton County Dubuque County Jackson County Clinton County Scott County Jo Daviess County Carroll County Whiteside County Rock Island County Izaak Walton League List of National Wildlife Refuges Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge Upper Mississippi River Locks and Dams This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge Stewards of the Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish Refuge
Wabasha County, Minnesota
Wabasha County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,676, its county seat is Wabasha. The county was founded in 1849. Wabasha County is included in MN Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 550 square miles, of which 523 square miles is land and 27 square miles is water. Wabasha is one of 17 Minnesota counties with more savanna soils than either prairie soils. U. S. Highway 61 U. S. Highway 63 Minnesota State Highway 42 Minnesota State Highway 60 Minnesota State Highway 74 Minnesota State Highway 247 These lakes are located within the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge Cross Lake Half Moon Lake Maloney Lake McCarthy Lake Peterson Lake Robinson Lake Pepin County, Wisconsin Buffalo County, Wisconsin Winona County Olmsted County Goodhue County As of the 2000 census, there were 21,610 people, 8,277 households, 5,876 families residing in the county; the population density was 41 people per square mile.
There were 9,066 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.97% White, 0.25% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.62% from other races, 0.45% from two or more races. 1.68% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 53.3 % were of 7.3 % Irish and 5.0 % American ancestry. There were 8,277 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.80% were married couples living together, 6.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.00% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.10% under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.00 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,117, the median income for a family was $50,480. Males had a median income of $33,053 versus $24,316 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,664. About 4.10% of families and 6.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.00% of those under age 18 and 9.30% of those age 65 or over. National Register of Historic Places listings in Wabasha County, Minnesota Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge Wabasha Public Library Wabasha-Kellogg Convention and Visitors Bureau Wabasha County government's website Wabasha County Health and Demographic Data
Winona County Courthouse
The Winona County Courthouse is the seat of government for Winona County in Winona, United States. The 1889 Richardsonian Romanesque building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1970 for having local significance in the themes of architecture and politics/government, it was nominated for being an artistic manifestation of Winona's prosperous riverboat and logging era. It was the first courthouse in Minnesota listed on the National Register; the original cost of the courthouse was $125,000. From the 1970s to 2000, nearly $2.5 million was spent restoring and remodeling the building, but on September 3, 2000, the ceiling of a fourth floor courtroom collapsed and broke fire sprinkler pipes, resulting in flooding the building with over 4,500 US gallons of water and causing much other damage. The county offices were relocated to other buildings, the building was again renovated to repair water damage and to bring the building up to current standards. Insurance paid for over half the cost of repairs, the Minnesota Historical Society contributed $50,000 for exterior work.
The renovation returned much of the building to its original appearance, including the old fireplaces. The total cost of interior renovation was $5.6 million, with another $1.5 million spent on external renovation. List of county courthouses in Minnesota National Register of Historic Places listings in Winona County, Minnesota Winona County District Court Media related to Winona County Courthouse at Wikimedia Commons
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Minnesota State Highway 43
Minnesota State Highway 43 is a highway in southeast Minnesota, which runs from its intersection with State Highway 44 in Mabel and continues north to its northern terminus at the Wisconsin state line at Winona, where it becomes Wisconsin Highway 54 upon crossing the Mississippi River. Highway 43 is 45 miles in length. State Highway 43 serves as a north–south route between Mabel and Winona in southeast Minnesota; the route crosses the Root River in Fillmore County. Highway 43 passes through the Richard J. Dorer State Forest; the northern terminus of Highway 43 is at the Mississippi River at Winona, where the route becomes Wisconsin Highway 54 upon crossing the Main Channel and North Channel bridges over the river to Wisconsin. State Highway 43 was authorized in 1920 between Winona; the remainder of the route between Rushford and Mabel was authorized in 1933. Highway 43 was paved from Wilson to Winona by 1929; the only gravel section remaining by 1940 was south of Rushford. The route was paved by 1953.
A major project in the 1980s to rebuild Highway 43 from Interstate 90 to Winona as an expressway ran out of money. Only one carriageway was paved. There is still visible bridges east of the roadway in this section. In response to the I-35W Bridge collapse in Minneapolis on August 1, 2007, all Minnesota bridges were ordered to be inspected. During an inspection, "gusset plate corrosion issues" were discovered in the Main Channel Bridge, which crosses the Mississippi River between Winona, MN and nearby Fountain City, WI; the Main Channel Bridge was closed to traffic on June 3, 2008. MnDOT made a statement this was due to gusset plate corrosion issues similar to those that caused the I-35W Bridge to collapse; the Main Channel Bridge reopened to car traffic on June 14, 2008. Commercial vehicles were still directed to find alternate routes across the river; the bridge was scheduled for replacement in 2017, moved up to 2014
Lake Pepin is a occurring lake on the Mississippi River on the border between the U. S. states of Wisconsin. It is located in a valley carved by the outflow of an enormous glacial lake at the end of the last Ice Age; the lake formed when the Mississippi, a successor to the glacial river, was dammed by a delta from a tributary stream and spread out across the ancient valley. Lake Pepin is now a corridor for water and rail transportation. Known as the birthplace of water skiing, it hosts a variety of recreational activities. Lake Pepin has a surface area of about 40 square miles and an average depth of 21 feet, It is up to 2 miles wide and 22 miles long; the wide area of the lake stretches from Bay City, Wisconsin, in the north, down to Reads Landing, Minnesota in the south. The villages of Pepin, Maiden Rock and Stockholm are on the Wisconsin side, while Frontenac State Park takes up a large part of the Minnesota side; the largest city on the waterfront is Minnesota. The Canadian Pacific Railway now owns the former mainline of the Milwaukee Road on the Minnesota side, the Burlington Northern's former Burlington Route mainline is lakeside on the Wisconsin side.
Both were former racetracks for the premier passenger trains of their owners, the CP rails still carry Amtrak's Empire Builder between Chicago and the Pacific Northwest. Lakeside highways are U. S. Route 61 on the Minnesota side, across the lake Wisconsin State Highway 35 is just inland from the railroad. Both are parts of the Great River Road. Maiden Rock, on Lake Pepin, is one site said to be the locale where a Dakota woman named Winona leapt to her death. Lake Pepin occupies a valley carved by the waters of Glacial River Warren, which drained Lake Agassiz in a catastrophic flood at the end of the last Ice Age, to a lesser extent from Lake Duluth, a smaller glacial lake which drained through the present valley of the St. Croix River; when the continental glacier's meltwaters found other outlets to the sea, River Warren was succeeded by the more modest Upper Mississippi, which drains a much smaller basin, the St. Croix spillway became the present river. Over a long period of time, the deep valley was filled with sediments, forming a broad floodplain.
In this plain Lake Pepin formed behind a delta comprising sediments deposited into the ancient lake bed by the Chippewa River near the present community of Wabasha at the southern end of the lake. The lake backed up behind this sediment dam as far north as the location of Saint Paul. In the 10,000 years since the lake's creation, ongoing sedimentation into Lake Pepin has caused its upper end to migrate downstream some 80km to its present location east of Red Wing, Minnesota; the process of sedimentation continues at an accelerated rate. Pepin's natural flora are threatened by these increased rates of sedimentation, leading the Lake Pepin Legacy Alliance to call the phenomenon a "wet desert." Some theorize the lake is filling in at a rate of ten times greater than pre-colonization, due to increased run-off from farms along the Minnesota River. Other research maintains sediment accumulation is from a more diverse and complicated series of processes, including natural bank sloughing of large amounts of soil from steep river banks, a result of the geography of the area and physical properties of the soil, man-made restriction of river flooding, access to flood plains and wetlands, forced straightening an deepening of river channels.
Research suggests these processes are being heightened due to increasing precipitation due to climate change. The lake was first named in a map of New France made by Guillaume Delisle at the request of Louis XIV of France in 1703; the lake was named for Jean Pepin who settled on its shores in the late 1600s after exploring the Great Lakes from Boucherville. Nicolas Perrot erected the first of a number of fur trade posts, Fort Saint Antoine, in 1686. In 1727 René Boucher de La Perrière and Michel Guignas built Fort Beauharnois on the lake. In 1730 it had to be rebuilt on higher ground. Boucher was the military leader and Father Guignas was a missionary to the Sioux. In the nineteenth century the lake was used to transport freshly-cut trees for the lumber industry. Cut logs were floated across the lake, from the 1840s with the assistance of steamboats to counter adverse winds and the sluggish currents in the lake. Large rafts were assembled at Reads Landing at the southern end, towed downstream to mills at Winona and St. Louis.
In 1890 it was the site of one of the worst maritime disasters on the Mississippi, known as the Sea Wing disaster when the Sea Wing ferry capsized in a bad storm, killing 98 people. In 1922, Lake City native Ralph Samuelson invented the sport of water skiing on the lake, Lake City is known as "the birthplace of waterskiing." The city celebrates. Lake Pepin is the lake that Laura and her family visit in the "Going to Town" chapter of Little House in the Big Woods, the first book in Laura Ingalls Wilder's Little House series. Laura's family and their covered wagon cross the frozen Lake Pepin in the chapter "Going West", the first chapter of the second book, Little House on the Prairie. Ojakangas, Richard W.. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0953-5. Waters, Thomas F.. The Streams and Rivers of Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0821-0