Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
Flagstaff is a city in and the county seat of Coconino County in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States. In 2015, the city's estimated population was 70,320. Flagstaff's combined metropolitan area has an estimated population of 139,097; the city is named after a ponderosa pine flagpole made by a scouting party from Boston to celebrate the United States Centennial on July 4, 1876. Flagstaff lies near the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau, along the western side of the largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest in the continental United States. Flagstaff is next to Mount Elden, just south of the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona. Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet, is about 10 miles north of Flagstaff in Kachina Peaks Wilderness. Flagstaff's early economy was based on the lumber and ranching industries. Today, the city remains an important distribution hub for companies such as Nestlé Purina PetCare, is home to Lowell Observatory, The U.
S. Naval Observatory, the United States Geological Survey Flagstaff Station, Northern Arizona University. Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to Grand Canyon National Park, Oak Creek Canyon, the Arizona Snowbowl, Meteor Crater, historic Route 66; the city is a growing center for medical and biotechnology manufacturing, home to corporations such as SenesTech and W. L. Gore and Associates. There are several legends about the origin of the city's name. Surveyors and investors had traveled through the area in the mid- to late-19th century, the act of stripping a pine tree to fly an American flag has been attributed to several individuals over a twenty-year span, it is said that, because of the flag, raised, the area surrounding it became known as Flagstaff. The first permanent settlement was in 1876, when Thomas F. McMillan built a cabin at the base of Mars Hill on the west side of town. During the 1880s, Flagstaff began to grow, opening its first post office and attracting the railroad industry.
The early economy was based on timber and cattle. The Arizona Lumber and Timber Company was prominent. By 1886, Flagstaff was the largest city on the railroad line between Albuquerque and the west coast of the United States. A circa 1900 diary entry by journalist Sharlot Hall described the houses in the city as a "third rate mining camp", with unkempt air and high prices of available goods. In 1894, Massachusetts astronomer Percival Lowell hired A. E. Douglass to scout an ideal site for a new observatory. Douglass, impressed by Flagstaff's elevation, named it as an ideal location for the now famous Lowell Observatory, saying: "other things being equal, the higher we can get the better". Two years the specially designed 24-inch Clark telescope that Lowell had ordered was installed. In 1930, Pluto was discovered using one of the observatory's telescopes. In 1955 the U. S. Naval Observatory joined the growing astronomical presence, established the United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, where Pluto's satellite, was discovered in 1978.
During the Apollo program in the 1960s, the Clark Telescope was used to map the moon for the lunar expeditions, enabling the mission planners to choose a safe landing site for the lunar modules. In homage to the city's importance in the field of astronomy, asteroid 2118 Flagstaff is named for the city, 6582 Flagsymphony for the Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra; the Northern Arizona Normal School was established in 1899, renamed Northern Arizona University in 1966. Flagstaff's cultural history received a significant boost on April 11, 1899, when the Flagstaff Symphony made its concert debut at Babbitt's Opera House; the orchestra continues today as the Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra, with its primary venue at the Ardrey Auditorium on the campus of Northern Arizona University. The city grew primarily due to its location along the east–west transcontinental railroad line in the United States. In the 1880s, the railroads purchased land in the west from the federal government, sold to individuals to help finance the railroad projects.
By the 1890s, Flagstaff found itself along one of the busiest railroad corridors in the U. S. with 80–100 trains travelling through the city every day, destined for Chicago, Los Angeles, elsewhere. Route 66 ran through Flagstaff. Flagstaff was incorporated as a city in 1928, in 1929, the city's first motel, the Motel Du Beau, was built at the intersection of Beaver Street and Phoenix Avenue; the Daily Sun described the motel as "a hotel with garages for the better class of motorists." The units rented for $2.60 to $5.00 each, with baths, double beds and furniture. Flagstaff went on to become a popular tourist stop along Route 66 due to its proximity to the Grand Canyon. Flagstaff prospered through the 1960s. During the 1970s and 1980s, many businesses started to move from the city center, the downtown area entered an economic and social decline. Sears and J. C. Penney left the downtown area in 1979 to open up as anchor stores in the new Flagstaff Mall, joined in 1986 by Dillard's. By 1987, the Babbitt Brothers Trading Company, a retail fixture in Flagstaff since 1891, closed its doors at Aspen Avenue and San Francisco Street.
The Railroad Addition Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. In 1987, the city drafted a new master plan known as the Growth Management Guide 2000, which would transform downtown Flagstaff from a shopping and trade center into a regional center for finance, office use, government; the city built a new city hall and the Coconino County Admin
Tonalea is a census-designated place in Coconino County, United States. The population was 549 at the 2010 census. Tonalea is located at 36°19′4″N 110°58′13″W, along U. S. Route 160. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 9.7 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 562 people, 123 households, 104 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 58.2 people per square mile. There were 135 housing units at an average density of 14.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 99.11% Native American, 0.71% White, 0.18% from other races. 0.89% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 123 households out of which 55.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.7% were married couples living together, 23.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.4% were non-families. 14.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.57 and the average family size was 5.13.
In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 48.9% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 13.0% from 45 to 64, 3.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 19 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $32,059, the median income for a family was $32,206. Males had a median income of $36,333 versus $15,750 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $8,171. About 10.8% of families and 13.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.9% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over
Sedona is a city that straddles the county line between Coconino and Yavapai counties in the northern Verde Valley region of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 10,031. Sedona's main attraction is its array of red sandstone formations; the formations appear to glow in brilliant orange and red when illuminated by the rising or setting sun. The red rocks form a popular backdrop for many activities, ranging from spiritual pursuits to the hundreds of hiking and mountain biking trails. Sedona was named after Sedona Arabella Miller Schnebly, the wife of Theodore Carlton Schnebly, the city's first postmaster, celebrated for her hospitality and industriousness, her mother, Amanda Miller, claimed to have made the name up because "it sounded pretty". The first documented human presence in the Sedona area dates to between 11,500 and 9000 B. C, it was not until 1995 that a Clovis projectile point discovered in Honanki revealed the presence of the Paleo-Indians, who were big game hunters.
Around 9000 B. C. the pre-historic Archaic people appeared in the Verde Valley. These were hunter-gatherers and their presence in the area was longer than in other areas of the Southwest, most because of the ecological diversity and large amount of resources, they left by 300 A. D. There is an assortment of rock art left by the Archaic people in places near Sedona such as Palatki and Honanki. Around 650 A. D. the Sinagua people entered the Verde Valley. Their culture is known for its art such as pottery and their masonry, they left rock art and cliff dwellings such as Montezuma Castle, Honanki and Tuzigoot in the period of their presence. The Sinagua abandoned the Verde Valley about 1400 A. D. Researchers believe the Sinagua and other clans moved to the Hopi mesas in Arizona and the Zuni and other pueblos in New Mexico; the Yavapai came from the west when the Sinagua were still there in the Verde Valley around 1300 A. D, they were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Some archaeologists place the Apache arrival in the Verde Valley around 1450 A.
D. Many Apache groups traveled over large areas; the Yavapai and Apache tribes were forcibly removed from the Verde Valley in 1876, to the San Carlos Indian Reservation, 180 miles southeast. About 1,500 people were marched, to San Carlos. Several hundred lost their lives; the survivors were interned for 25 years. About 200 Yavapai and Apache people returned to the Verde Valley in 1900 and have since intermingled as a single political entity although culturally distinct residing in the Yavapai-Apache Nation; the first Anglo settler, John J. Thompson, moved to Oak Creek Canyon in 1876, an area well known for its peach and apple orchards; the early settlers were ranchers. In 1902, when the Sedona post office was established, there were 55 residents. In the mid-1950s, the first telephone directory listed 155 names; some parts of the Sedona area were not electrified until the 1960s. Sedona began to develop as a tourist vacation-home and retirement center in the 1950s. Most of the development seen today was constructed in the 1990s.
As of 2007, there are no large tracts of undeveloped land remaining. In 1956, construction of the Chapel of the Holy Cross was completed; the chapel rises 70 feet out of a 1,000-foot redrock cliff. The most prominent feature of the chapel is the cross. A chapel was added. Inside the chapel there is a cross with benches and pews. Sedona played host to more than sixty Hollywood productions from the first years of movies into the 1970s. Stretching as far back as 1923, Sedona's red rocks were a fixture in major Hollywood productions—including films such as Johnny Guitar and the Badman, Desert Fury, Blood on the Moon, The Last Wagon, 3:10 to Yuma. However, the surroundings were identified to audiences as the terrain of Texas, California and Canada–US border territory. On June 18, 2006, a wildfire started by campers, began about one mile north of Sedona; the Brins Fire covered 4,317 acres on Brins Mesa, Wilson Mountain and in Oak Creek Canyon before the USDA Forest Service declared it 100 percent contained on June 28.
Containment cost was estimated at $6.4 million. On May 20, 2014, a wildfire started from an unknown cause began north of Sedona at Slide Rock State Park; the Slide Fire spread across 21,227 acres in Oak Creek Canyon over nine days and prompted evacuations. State Route 89A opened to Flagstaff in June, but all parking and canyon access was closed to the public until Oct. 1, 2014. Sedona is located in the Upper Sonoran Desert of northern Arizona. Sedona has hot summers. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.2 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 0.22%, is water. The red rocks of Sedona are formed by a unique layer of rock known as the Schnebly Hill Formation; the Schnebly Hill Formation is a thick layer of red to orange-colored sandstone found only in the Sedona vicinity. The sandstone, a member of the Supai Group, was deposited during the Permian Period. Sedona has a temperate semi-arid climate. In January, the average high temperature is 57 °F with a low of 31 °F.
In July, the average high temperature is 97 °F with a low of 64 °F. Annual precipitation is just over 19 inches; as of the census of 2000, there were 10,192 people, 4,928 households, 2,863 families residing in the city. The population density was 548.0 people per square mile. There were 5,684 housing units at an average density of 305.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.17% White, 0.49% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.94%
Kachina Village, Arizona
Kachina Village is a census-designated place in Coconino County, United States. The population was 2,622 at the 2010 census. Kachina Village is a bedroom community for Flagstaff. Kachina Village is located at 35°5′49″N 111°41′34″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.2 square miles, all of it land. This region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Kachina Village has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,664 people, 1,021 households, 658 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 2,228.3 people per square mile. There were 1,376 housing units at an average density of 1,151.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 88.96% White, 4.28% Native American, 0.34% Black or African American, 0.30% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.77% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races.
9.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,021 households out of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.4% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.5% were non-families. 20.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.08. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 26.0% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 37.4% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 4.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.6 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $45,703, the median income for a family was $51,037. Males had a median income of $34,375 versus $26,750 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $17,849. About 4.4% of families and 8.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.5% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.
Kachina Village is served by the Flagstaff Unified School District
Kaibito is a census-designated place in Coconino County, United States. The population was 1,522 at the 2010 census. Kaibito is located at 36°34′38″N 111°5′59″W, at an elevation of 5,810 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 16.0 square miles, all of it land. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Kaibito has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,607 people, 333 households, 302 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 100.6 people per square mile. There were 398 housing units at an average density of 24.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 99.19% Native American, 0.37% White, 0.06% Black or African American, 0.37% from two or more races. 0.12% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 333 households out of which 68.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.8% were married couples living together, 21.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 9.3% were non-families.
8.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.83 and the average family size was 5.17. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 49.3% under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 12.0% from 45 to 64, 3.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 18 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $36,250, the median income for a family was $41,016. Males had a median income of $31,477 versus $18,472 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $8,465. About 25.7% of families and 28.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.4% of those under age 18 and 34.4% of those age 65 or over. Kaibito is served by the Page Unified School District. Arizona portal List of census-designated places in Arizona List of communities on the Navajo Nation Media related to Kaibito, Arizona at Wikimedia Commons
Supai is a census-designated place in Coconino County, United States, within the Grand Canyon. As of the 2010 census, the CDP had a population of 208; the capital of the Havasupai Indian Reservation, Supai is the only place in the United States where mail is still carried out by mules. Supai has been referred to as "the most remote community" in the contiguous United States by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, it is accessible on foot or by mule. Supai has no automobiles in the community. Tourists and some residents were evacuated from Supai and surrounding area on August 17 and 18, 2008, due to flooding of Havasu Creek complicated by the failure of the earthen Redlands Dam after a night of heavy rainfall. Evacuees were taken to Arizona. More heavy rains were expected and a flash flood warning was put into effect, necessitating the evacuation, according to the National Park Service; the floods were significant enough to attract coverage from international media. Damage to the trails and campground was severe enough for Havasupai to close visitor access to the village and falls until the spring of 2009.
Further flooding in 2010 resulted in damage to repairs made and closures effective until May 2011. Located within the Grand Canyon, Supai is only accessible by pack animal or helicopter, it is the only place in the United States where mules still carry the mail, most of, food. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.7 square miles, all land. It lies 3,195 feet above sea level; as of the census of 2010, there were 43 households. The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.6% Native American, 0.5% White, 0.5% Other, 2.4% of mixed race. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.3% of the population. There were 43 households out of which 34.9% were married families living together, 32.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 18.6% were non-families. 16.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.84. In the CDP the population was spread out with 30.8% under the age of 16, 10.4% from 16 to 21, 54.8% from 21 to 65, 4.8% who are 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 25.2 years. 48.6% of the population was male. Supai can be reached by hiking 8 miles, descending 2,004 feet in elevation from Hualapai Hilltop through the Hualapai Canyon. Alternatively, the AirWest Helicopters service schedules flights from Hualapai Hilltop to Supai. Hualapai Hilltop is located about 70 miles from the community of Peach Springs, along paved BIA Road 18. Supai has a convenience store and a cafe. Media related to Supai, Arizona at Wikimedia Commons Official Havasupai Tribe site