The Five Red Herrings
The Five Red Herrings is a 1931 novel by Dorothy L. Sayers, her sixth featuring Lord Peter Wimsey. In the United States it was published in the same year under the title Suspicious Characters; the novel includes a foreword in the form of a personal letter from the author "To my friend Joe Dignam, kindliest of landlords". The letter starts "Here at last is your book about Kirkcudbright. All the places are real places and all the trains are real trains, all the landscapes are correct, except that I have run up a few new houses here and there"; the novel is set in Galloway, a part of Scotland popular with artists and fishermen. Sandy Campbell is a talented painter, but a notoriously quarrelsome drunkard; when he is found dead in a stream, with a still-wet half-finished painting on the bank above, it is assumed that he fell in accidentally, fracturing his skull. Lord Peter Wimsey, in the region on a fishing holiday, suspects murder when he realises that something is missing from the scene which makes it impossible for Campbell to have worked on the painting.
Sayers includes a parenthetical note at this point: "Here Lord Peter Wimsey told the Sergeant what he was looking for and why, but as the intelligent reader will supply these details for himself, they are omitted from this page". A local doctor believes that the degree of rigor mortis suggests that Campbell died during the previous night. Whoever killed Campbell executed the painting in Campbell's distinctive style, to contrive the appearance of an accident. Six artists in the area are talented enough to achieve this: Farren, Gowan, Graham and Ferguson. All had recent public brawls with Campbell. One of the six is the criminal, five are red herrings. All the suspects behave suspiciously: some leave the district without explanation, others give inaccurate statements or conceal facts. Wimsey investigates with some assistance from his manservant Bunter and his friend in London, Charles Parker; the task of identifying the culprit is made more difficult because of the complexities of the local train timetables, the easy availability of bicycles, the resultant opportunities for the murderer to evade notice.
All six suspects are traced and give statements in which they deny killing Campbell, but none are satisfactory. The Procurator Fiscal, the Chief Constable and the investigating police officers meet with Wimsey to review the evidence; the police put forward several theories, implicating all of the suspects either as killer or as accessory. Asked for his opinion, Wimsey reveals that the true killer was in fact Ferguson, the only one of the artists who while painting kept spare tubes of paint in his pocket and who absentmindedly pocketed a tube of white while creating the faked painting, it was the absence of that tube. The police are sceptical but Wimsey offers a reconstruction, over the course of twenty-four hours demonstrates how the killer contrived the scene above the stream and established a false alibi. Ferguson confesses, but states that Campbell's death happened accidentally during a fight, was not murder; when the case is tried, the jury brings in a verdict of manslaughter, with a strong recommendation to mercy on the ground that "Campbell was undoubtedly looking for trouble".
Lord Peter Wimsey Mervyn Bunter: Wimsey's manservant Sandy Campbell: artist Hugh Farren: artist and suspect Henry Strachan: golf club secretary and suspect Matthew Gowan: wealthy artist and suspect Jock Graham: artist and suspect Michael Waters: English artist and suspect John Ferguson: Campbell's next-door neighbour and suspect Gilda Farren: Farren's wife Sir Maxwell Jamieson: Chief Constable Inspector Macpherson: Kirkcudbright Police Sergeant Dalziel: Newton Stewart Police The first edition was reviewed in The Spectator of 1931 by MI Cole. He found the impregnable alibis of the rather indistinguishable artist suspects, the elaborate examination of timetables, ticket punches and so on, to be taxing to the intelligence. Lord Peter Wimsey and the author's usual pleasant fantasies have retired into the background leaving a "pure-puzzle" book, disappointing and dull, he acknowledged, that it has been appreciated immensely by puzzle fanatics who possess "the type of mind that goes on solving crossword puzzles for and ever".
In their review of Crime novels, the US writers Barzun and Taylor called The 5 Red Herrings "A work that grows on rereading and remains in the mind as one of the richest, most colorful of her group studies. The Scottish setting, the artists in the colony, the train-ticket puzzle, the final chase place this triumph among the four or five chefs d'oeuvre from her hand"; the Five Red Herrings was adapted for television in 1975 as part of a series starring Ian Carmichael as Lord Peter and Glyn Houston as Bunter. It has been dramatised for BBC Radio with Carmichael as Lord Peter and Peter Jones as Bunter; the Five Red Herrings at Faded Page Dorothy L Sayers in Galloway, the scene of Five Red Herrings
Kolinsky sable-hair brush
A kolinsky sable-hair brush is a fine artists' paintbrush. The hair is obtained from the tail of a species of weasel rather than an actual sable; the "finest" brushes are made from the male hair only, but most brushes have a mix of about 60/40 male-to-female hair. Kolinsky bristles tend to be pale red in colour with darker tips; the weasel is not an animal, raised well in captivity, is isolated to the geographical region of Siberia. Due to this difficulty in harvesting the hair, the fact that other natural and artificial bristles are not comparable in quality, these bristles are rare and expensive. Kolinsky sables are used in watercolour brushes. Lesser grades of kolinsky sables are frequently used in oil painting, sometimes for glazing in acrylics. Due to their exceptional ability to be finely shaped, kolinsky sable brushes are prized in the dental ceramics industry, where they are used to hand-tint the ceramic appliances for a realistic appearance. Beginning in 2013, shipments to the U. S. of kolinsky hair brushes were halted and in some cases seized by the U.
S. Fish and Wildlife Service due to the kolinsky's inclusion in the international CITES agreement. Camel-hair brush
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae. Pigs include the domestic pig and its ancestor, the common Eurasian wild boar, along with other species. Related creatures outside the genus include the peccary, the babirusa, the warthog. Pigs, like all suids, are native to the African continents. Juvenile pigs are known as piglets. Pigs are social and intelligent animals. With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domestic pig is among the most populous large mammals in the world. Pigs can consume a wide range of food. Pigs are biologically similar to humans and are thus used for human medical research; the Online Etymology Dictionary provides anecdotal evidence as well as linguistic, saying that the term derives from Old English *picg, found in compounds, ultimate origin unknown. "young pig". Related to Low German bigge, Dutch big.... Another Old English word for "pig" was fearh, related to furh "furrow," from PIE *perk- "dig, furrow". "This reflects a widespread IE tendency to name animals from typical attributes or activities".
Synonyms grunter, oinker are from sailors' and fishermen's euphemistic avoidance of uttering the word pig at sea, a superstition based on the fate of the Gadarene swine, who drowned. The Online Etymology Dictionary traces the evolution of sow, the term for a female pig, through various historical languages: Old English sugu, su "female of the swine," from Proto-Germanic *su-, from PIE root *su- imitative of pig noise, it is likely that the word to call pigs, "soo-ie," is derived. An adjectival form is porcine. Another adjectival form is suine. A typical pig has a large head with a long snout, strengthened by a special prenasal bone and by a disk of cartilage at the tip; the snout is used to dig into the soil to find food and is a acute sense organ. There are four hoofed toes on each foot, with the two larger central toes bearing most of the weight, but the outer two being used in soft ground; the dental formula of adult pigs is 188.8.131.52.1.4.3. The rear teeth are adapted for crushing. In the male, the canine teeth form tusks, which grow continuously and are sharpened by being ground against each other.
Captive mother pigs may savage their own piglets if they become stressed. Some attacks on newborn piglets are non-fatal. Others may cause the death of the piglets and sometimes, the mother may eat the piglets, it is estimated that 50% of piglet fatalities are due to the mother attacking, or unintentionally crushing, the newborn pre-weaned animals. With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domestic pig is one of the most numerous large mammals on the planet; the ancestor of the domestic pig is the wild boar, one of the most numerous and widespread large mammals. Its many subspecies are native to all but the harshest climates of continental Eurasia and its islands and Africa as well, from Ireland and India to Japan and north to Siberia. Long isolated from other pigs on the many islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, pigs have evolved into many different species, including wild boar, bearded pigs, warty pigs. Humans have introduced pigs into Australia and South America, numerous islands, either accidentally as escaped domestic pigs which have gone feral, or as wild boar.
The wild pig can take advantage of any forage resources. Therefore, it can live in any productive habitat that can provide enough water to sustain large mammals such as pigs. If there is increased foraging of wild pigs in certain areas, it can cause a nutritional shortage which can cause the pig population to decrease. If the nutritional state returns to normal, the pig population will most rise due to the pigs' increased reproduction rate. Pigs are omnivores, which means that they consume both animals. In the wild, they are foraging animals eating leaves, roots and flowers, in addition to some insects and fish; as livestock, pigs are fed corn and soybean meal with a mixture of vitamins and minerals added to the diet. Traditionally, they were raised on dairy farms and called "mortgage lifters", due to their ability to use the excess milk as well as whey from cheese and butter making combined with pasture. Older pigs will consume three to five gallons of water per day; when kept as pets, the optimal healthy diet consists of a balanced diet of raw vegetables, although some may give their pigs conventional mini pig pellet feed.
Domesticated pigs miniature breeds, are kept as pets. Domestic pigs are raised commercially as livestock; because of their foraging abilities and excellent sense of smell, they are used to find truffles in many European countries. Both wild and feral pigs are hunted; the short, coarse hairs of the pig are called brist
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, drying them into flexible sheets. It is a versatile material with many uses, including writing, packaging, decorating, a number of industrial and construction processes. Papers are essential in non-legal documentation; the pulp papermaking process is said to have been developed in China during the early 2nd century CE as early as the year 105 CE, by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun, although the earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2nd century BCE in China. The modern pulp and paper industry is global, with China leading its production and the United States right behind it; the oldest known archaeological fragments of the immediate precursor to modern paper date to the 2nd century BCE in China. The pulp paper-making process is ascribed to a 2nd-century CE Han court eunuch. In the 13th century, the knowledge and uses of paper spread from China through the Middle East to medieval Europe, where the first water powered paper mills were built.
Because paper was introduced to the West through the city of Baghdad, it was first called bagdatikos. In the 19th century, industrialization reduced the cost of manufacturing paper. In 1844, the Canadian inventor Charles Fenerty and the German F. G. Keller independently developed processes for pulping wood fibres. Before the industrialisation of paper production the most common fibre source was recycled fibres from used textiles, called rags; the rags were from hemp and cotton. A process for removing printing inks from recycled paper was invented by German jurist Justus Claproth in 1774. Today this method is called deinking, it was not until the introduction of wood pulp in 1843 that paper production was not dependent on recycled materials from ragpickers. The word "paper" is etymologically derived from Latin papyrus, which comes from the Greek πάπυρος, the word for the Cyperus papyrus plant. Papyrus is a thick, paper-like material produced from the pith of the Cyperus papyrus plant, used in ancient Egypt and other Mediterranean cultures for writing before the introduction of paper into the Middle East and Europe.
Although the word paper is etymologically derived from papyrus, the two are produced differently and the development of the first is distinct from the development of the second. Papyrus is a lamination of natural plant fibres, while paper is manufactured from fibres whose properties have been changed by maceration. To make pulp from wood, a chemical pulping process separates lignin from cellulose fibres; this is accomplished by dissolving lignin in a cooking liquor, so that it may be washed from the cellulose. Paper made from chemical pulps are known as wood-free papers–not to be confused with tree-free paper; the pulp can be bleached to produce white paper, but this consumes 5% of the fibres. There are three main chemical pulping processes: the sulfite process dates back to the 1840s and it was the dominant method extent before the second world war; the kraft process, invented in the 1870s and first used in the 1890s, is now the most practiced strategy, one of its advantages is the chemical reaction with lignin, that produces heat, which can be used to run a generator.
Most pulping operations using the kraft process are net contributors to the electricity grid or use the electricity to run an adjacent paper mill. Another advantage is that this process reuses all inorganic chemical reagents. Soda pulping is another specialty process used to pulp straws and hardwoods with high silicate content. There are two major mechanical pulps: groundwood pulp. In the TMP process, wood is chipped and fed into steam heated refiners, where the chips are squeezed and converted to fibres between two steel discs. In the groundwood process, debarked logs are fed into grinders where they are pressed against rotating stones to be made into fibres. Mechanical pulping does not remove the lignin, so the yield is high, >95%, however it causes the paper thus produced to turn yellow and become brittle over time. Mechanical pulps have rather short fibres. Although large amounts of electrical energy are required to produce mechanical pulp, it costs less than the chemical kind. Paper recycling processes can use mechanically produced pulp.
Most recycled paper contains a proportion of virgin fibre for the sake of quality. There are three main classifications of recycled fibre:. Mill broke or internal mill waste – This incorporates any substandard or grade-change paper made within the paper mill itself, which goes back into the manufacturing system to be re-pulped back into paper; such out-of-specification paper is not sold and is therefore not classified as genuine reclaimed recycled fibre, however most paper mills have been reusing their own waste fibre for many years, long before recycling became popular. Preconsumer waste – This is offcut and processing waste, such as guillotine trims and envelope blank waste.
A solvent is a substance that dissolves a solute, resulting in a solution. A solvent is a liquid but can be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid; the quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning, as paint thinners, as nail polish removers and glue solvents, in spot removers, in detergents and in perfumes. Water is a solvent for the most common solvent used by living things. Solvents find various applications in chemical, pharmaceutical and gas industries, including in chemical syntheses and purification processes; when one substance is dissolved into another, a solution is formed. This is opposed to the situation. In a solution, all of the ingredients are uniformly distributed at a molecular level and no residue remains. A solvent-solute mixture consists of a single phase with all solute molecules occurring as solvates, as opposed to separate continuous phases as in suspensions and other types of non-solution mixtures.
The ability of one compound to be dissolved in another is known as solubility. In addition to mixing, the substances in a solution interact with each other at the molecular level; when something is dissolved, molecules of the solvent arrange around molecules of the solute. Heat transfer is involved and entropy is increased making the solution more thermodynamically stable than the solute and solvent separately; this arrangement is mediated by the respective chemical properties of the solvent and solute, such as hydrogen bonding, dipole moment and polarizability. Solvation does not cause a chemical chemical configuration changes in the solute. However, solvation resembles a coordination complex formation reaction with considerable energetics and is thus far from a neutral process. Solvents can be broadly classified into two categories: non-polar. A special case is mercury; the dielectric constant of the solvent provides a rough measure of a solvent's polarity. The strong polarity of water is indicated by its high dielectric constant of 88.
Solvents with a dielectric constant of less than 15 are considered to be nonpolar. The dielectric constant measures the solvent's tendency to cancel the field strength of the electric field of a charged particle immersed in it; this reduction is compared to the field strength of the charged particle in a vacuum. Heuristically, the dielectric constant of a solvent can be thought of as its ability to reduce the solute's effective internal charge; the dielectric constant of a solvent is an acceptable predictor of the solvent's ability to dissolve common ionic compounds, such as salts. Dielectric constants are not the only measure of polarity; because solvents are used by chemists to carry out chemical reactions or observe chemical and biological phenomena, more specific measures of polarity are required. Most of these measures are sensitive to chemical structure; the Grunwald–Winstein mY scale measures polarity in terms of solvent influence on buildup of positive charge of a solute during a chemical reaction.
Kosower's Z scale measures polarity in terms of the influence of the solvent on UV-absorption maxima of a salt pyridinium iodide or the pyridinium zwitterion. Donor number and donor acceptor scale measures polarity in terms of how a solvent interacts with specific substances, like a strong Lewis acid or a strong Lewis base; the Hildebrand parameter is the square root of cohesive energy density. It can not accommodate complex chemistry. Reichardt's dye, a solvatochromic dye that changes color in response to polarity, gives a scale of ET values. ET is the transition energy between the ground state and the lowest excited state in kcal/mol, identifies the dye. Another correlated scale can be defined with Nile red; the polarity, dipole moment and hydrogen bonding of a solvent determines what type of compounds it is able to dissolve and with what other solvents or liquid compounds it is miscible. Polar solvents dissolve polar compounds best and non-polar solvents dissolve non-polar compounds best: "like dissolves like".
Polar compounds like sugars or ionic compounds, like inorganic salts dissolve only in polar solvents like water, while non-polar compounds like oils or waxes dissolve only in non-polar organic solvents like hexane. Water and hexane are not miscible with each other and will separate into two layers after being shaken well. Polarity can be separated to different contributions. For example, the Kamlet-Taft parameters are dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen-bonding acidity and hydrogen-bonding basicity; these can be calculated from the wavelength shifts of 3–6 different solvatochromic dyes in the solvent including Reichardt's dye and diethylnitroaniline. Another option, Hansen's parameters, separate the cohesive energy density into dispersion and hydrogen bonding contributions. Solvents with a dielectric constant (more relative
Gouache, body color, opaque watercolor, or gouache, is one type of watermedia, paint consisting of natural pigment, water, a binding agent, sometimes additional inert material. Gouache is designed to be used with opaque methods of painting, it is used most by commercial artists for posters, illustrations and for other design work. Gouache has a considerable history going back over 600 years, it is similar to watercolor in that it can be re-wetted, it dries to a matte finish, the paint can become infused with its paper support. It is similar to acrylic or oil paints in that it is used in an opaque painting style and it can form a superficial layer. Many manufacturers of watercolor paints produce gouache and the two can be used together. Gouache paint is similar to watercolor, however modified to make it opaque. Just as in watercolor, the binding agent has traditionally been gum arabic but since the late nineteenth century cheaper varieties use yellow dextrin; when the paint is sold as a paste, e.g. in tubes, the dextrin has been mixed with an equal volume of water.
To improve the adhesive and hygroscopic qualities of the paint, as well as the flexibility of the rather brittle paint layer after drying, propylene glycol is added. Gouache differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to binder is much higher, an additional white filler such as chalk, a "body", may be part of the paint; this makes more opaque, with greater reflective qualities. Gouache dries to a different value than it appears when wet, which can make it difficult to match colors over multiple painting sessions, its quick coverage and total hiding power mean that gouache lends itself to more direct painting techniques than watercolor. "En plein air" paintings take advantage of this. Gouache is used most by commercial artists for works such as posters, illustrations and for other design work. Most 20th-century animations used it to create an opaque color on a cel with watercolor paint used for the backgrounds. Using gouache as "poster paint" is desirable for its speed as the paint layer dries by the quick evaporation of the water.
The use of gouache is not restricted to the basic opaque painting techniques using a brush and watercolor paper. It is applied with an airbrush; as with all types of paint, gouache has been used on unusual surfaces from Braille paper to cardboard. A variation of traditional application is the method used in the gouaches découpées created by Henri Matisse, his Blue Nudes series is a good example of the technique. A new variation in the formula of the paint is acrylic gouache; the term, derived from the Italian guazzo refers to paintings using this opaque method. "Guazzo", Italian for "mud", was a term applied to the early 16th century practice of applying oil paint over a tempera base, which could give a matted effect. In the 18th century in France, the term gouache was applied to opaque watermedia, although the technique is older. During the eighteenth century gouache was used in a mixed technique, for adding fine details in pastel paintings. Gouache was made by mixing water colours based on gum arabic with an opaque white pigment.
In the nineteenth century, water colours began to be industrially produced in tubes and a "Chinese white" tube was added to boxes for this purpose. That century, for decorative uses "poster paint" was mass-produced, based on the much cheaper dextrin binder, it was sold as a powder to be mixed with water. The dextrin replaced older paint types based on hide size. During the twentieth century, gouache began to be specially manufactured in tubes for more refined artistic purposes. Gum arabic was used as a binder but soon cheaper brands were based on dextrin, as is most paint for children. Examples of the medium A new variation in the formula of the paint is acrylic gouache, its concentrated pigment is similar to traditional gouache, but it is mixed with an acrylic-based binder, unlike traditional gouache, tempered with gum arabic. It is water-soluble when wet and dries to a matte and water-resistant surface when dry. Acrylic gouache differs from acrylic paint because it contains additives to ensure the matte finish and the reworking time is extended.
Some brands can sometimes be removed or "lifted" for several hours after application, during their drying time. Aquapasto Decalcomania Gouache from the Tate Demo of technique Info & history "Gouache". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion