Choijin Lama Temple
The Choijin Lama Temple is a Buddhist monastery in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia. The complex consists of six temples occupied by the brother of the ruler the Eighth Bogd Jetsun Dampa Khan, Choijin Lama Luvsankhaidav, the state oracle and'Precious Wisdom and Clear Devotion' Khutugtu at the time; the complex was begun in 1904 and completed in 1908, in honor of the State Oracle Lama Lubsanhaidub /Losang Kedrup/, brother of the eighth Bogd Khan. The Choijin Lama Museum was a Buddhist temple complex, consisting of one main and five branch temples, it was active until 1937, when it was closed during the height of Communist repression against Buddhism and other religious traditions. In 1938 the complex was re-established as museum due to skillful efforts of wise people; this was. The main temple features an 18th-century gilt statue of Buddha Sakyamuni with a statue of Choijin Lama Luvsankhaidav on the Buddha's right and the embalmed corpse of Baldan Choephel on his left. In addition, the temple boasts a copious collection of religious instruments, thangka paintings, silk embroideries, wood carvings, a biggest collection of cham dance masks).
The annex to the temple contains an other temple, named'Zankhang' and a central square in which Choijin Lama Luvsankhaidav performed Oracle trance rituals. The Zuu Temple, dedicated to the Buddha Shakyamuni features papier-mache sculptures of Buddha in the past and future; the 16 arhat disciples of Buddha appear on the temple walls with four Maharajas protectors shown sitting in caves on either side of the door. The Yidam Temple was used as a place of prayer by Choijin Lama Luvsankhaidav, therefore closed to the public. In its center is a gilt bronze sculpture of one of the 84 Indian yogis, or Mahasiddha. Depicted are the tantric gods Kalacakra, Mahamaya and others with their shakti or consorts in postures of meditation that symbolize power and strength; the fourth temple, the temple of amugulang or peace, is dedicated to the first Mongolian reincarnation of Boghda Jevzundamba, Undur Gegeen Zanabazar. Choijin Lama Temple The museum, it preserves a rich heritage of Buddhist artifacts. Located in central Ulaanbaatar directly south of Sukhbaatar square, the museum is open year-round.
Explanations of the overwhelming collection are not as detailed as they could be, but each temple has room attendants who can provide additional material. The museum itself and its objects show the re-emergence of Buddhism in Mongolia after Communist repression, with a interesting display on Buddhist cham dancing and its modern revival. Choijin Lama Temple Museum website Media related to Choijin Lama Temple at Wikimedia Commons
Lonely Planet is a large travel guide book publisher. As of 2011, the company had sold 120 million books since inception and by early 2014, it had sold around 11 million units of its travel apps. Lonely Planet was founded by Tony Wheeler. In 1972, embarked on an overland trip through Europe and Asia to Australia, following the route of the Oxford and Cambridge Far Eastern Expedition; the company name originates from the misheard "lovely planet" in a song written by Matthew Moore. Lonely Planet's first book, Across Asia on the Cheap, had 94 pages, was written by the couple in their home; the original print run consisted of stapled booklets. Tony returned to Asia to write Across Asia on the Cheap: A Complete Guide to Making the Overland Trip, published in 1975; the Lonely Planet guide book series expanded in Asia, with the India guide book in 1981, expanded to rest of the world. Geoff Crowther was renowned for inserting his opinions into the text of the guides he wrote, his writing was instrumental to the rise of Lonely Planet.
The journalist used the term "Geoffness", in tribute to Crowther, to describe a quality, lost in travel guides. By 1999, Lonely Planet had sold 30 million copies of its travel guides; the company's authors benefited from profit-sharing and expensive events were held at the Melbourne office, at which limousines would arrive, filled with Lonely Planet employees. In 2007, the Wheelers and John Singleton sold a 75% stake in the company to BBC Worldwide, worth an estimated £63 million at the time; the company was ventured into television production. BBC Worldwide struggled following the acquisition, registering a £3.2 million loss in the year to the end of March 2009. By the end of March 2010, profits of £1.9 million had been generated, as digital revenues had risen 37% year-on-year over the preceding 12 months, a Lonely Planet magazine had grown and non-print revenues increased from 9% in 2007 to 22%. Lonely Planet's digital presence included 140 apps and 8.5 million unique users for lonelyplanet.com, which hosted the Thorn Tree travel forum.
BBC Worldwide acquired the remaining 25% of the company for £42.1 million from the Wheelers. By 2012 BBC wanted to divest itself of the company and in March 2013 confirmed the sale of Lonely Planet to Kelley's NC2 Media for US$77.8 million —, at nearly an £80 million loss. Lonely Planet's online community, the Thorn Tree, was created in 1996, it is named for a Naivasha thorn tree, used as a message board for the city of Nairobi, Kenya since 1902. The tree still exists in the Stanley Nairobi, it is used by over 600,000 travelers to look for advice. Thorn Tree has many different forum categories including different countries, places to visit depending on one's interests, travel buddies, Lonely Planet support. In 2009, Lonely Planet began publishing a monthly travel magazine called Lonely Planet Traveller, it is available in digital versions for a number of countries. Lonely Planet had its own television production company, which has produced series, such as Globe Trekker, Lonely Planet Six Degrees, Lonely Planet: Roads Less Travelled.
Toby Amies and Asha Gill took part in the Lonely Planet Six degrees. A mention in a Lonely Planet guidebook can draw large numbers of travellers, which changes places mentioned. For example, Lonely Planet has been blamed for the rise of what is sometimes referred to as'the Banana Pancake Trail' in South East Asia. In 1996, in response to a "Visit Myanmar" campaign by the Burmese military government, the Burmese opposition National League for Democracy and its leader Aung San Suu Kyi called for a tourism boycott; as the publication of Lonely Planet's guidebook to Myanmar is seen by some as an encouragement to visit that country, this led to calls for a boycott of Lonely Planet. Lonely Planet's view is that it highlights the issues surrounding a visit to the country, that it wants to make sure that readers make an informed decision. In 2009, the NLD formally dropped its previous stance and now welcomes visitors "who are keen to promote the welfare of the common people". In March 2019, Lonely Planet posted a video in Facebook falsely claiming that the Banaue Rice Terraces in the Philippines were created by "Chinese", leading to criticism.
The magazine tweeted in April 2019 that their Facebook video was indeed "misleading", that they would update the next Philippines book edition, but will not pull out current editions that wrongfully state that the terraces were made by the Chinese. Language education List of Language Self-Study Programs
Amarbayasgalant Monastery or the "Monastery of Tranquil Felicity", is one of the three largest Buddhist monastic centers in Mongolia. The monastery complex is located in the Iven Valley near the Selenge River, at the foot of Mount Büren-Khaan in Baruunbüren sum of Selenge Province in northern Mongolia; the nearest town is Erdenet, about 60 km to the southwest. The monastery was established and funded by order of Manchu Yongzheng Emperor to serve as a final resting place for Zanabazar, the first Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, or spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism for the Khalkha in Outer Mongolia and a spiritual mentor to both emperors' ancestor, the Kangxi Emperor. Tradition holds that while searching for an appropriate site to build the monastery, the exploratory group came across two young boys and Bayasqulangtu, playing on the steppe, they were inspired to build the monastery on that spot and to name it after the two children, Amur-Bayasqulangtu. More the location was chosen because it stood at the place where the lama's traveling Da Khuree was encamped at the moment of his death.
Construction took place between 1727 and 1736 and Zanabazar's remains were transferred there in 1779. Amarbayasgalant monastery is dedicated to Maitreya. Unlike Erdene Zuu Monastery, an ensemble of temple halls of different styles, Amarbayasgalant shows great stylistic unity; the overriding style is Chinese, with some Tibetan influence. The monastery resembles Yongzheng's own palace Yonghegong in Beijing. Consisting of over 40 temples, the monastery was laid out in a symmetrical pattern, with the main buildings succeeding one another along a North-South axis, while the secondary buildings are laid out on parallel sides. Amarbayasgalant was one of the few monasteries to have escaped destruction during the Stalinist purges of 1937, after which only the buildings of the central section remained. Many of the monks were executed by the country's Communist regime and the monastery's artifacts, including thangkas and manuscripts were looted, although some were hidden until more fortunate times. Today, only 28 temples remain.
Restoration work began in 1988 with funds provided by UNESCO and private sources and some of the new statuary was commissioned in New Delhi, India. Media related to Amarbayasgalant Monastery at Wikimedia Commons Amarbayasgalant Monastery Site
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state, it is sandwiched between China to Russia to the north. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan. At 1,564,116 square kilometres, Mongolia is the 18th-largest and the most sparsely populated sovereign state in the world, with a population of around three million people, it is the world's second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population. Ulaanbaatar shares the rank of the world's coldest capital city with Moscow and Nur-Sultan. 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. The majority of its population are Buddhists.
The non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs; the majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs and other minorities live in the country in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups; the area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history, his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century.
By the early 1900s one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, achieved actual independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state. After the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990; this led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, transition to a market economy. Homo erectus inhabited Mongolia from 850,000 years ago. Modern humans reached Mongolia 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic; the Khoit Tsenkher Cave in Khovd Province shows lively pink and red ochre paintings of mammoths, bactrian camels, ostriches, earning it the nickname "the Lascaux of Mongolia". The venus figurines of Mal'ta testify to the level of Upper Paleolithic art in northern Mongolia.
Neolithic agricultural settlements, such as those at Norovlin, Tamsagbulag and Rashaan Khad, predated the introduction of horse-riding nomadism, a pivotal event in the history of Mongolia which became the dominant culture. Horse-riding nomadism has been documented by archeological evidence in Mongolia during the Copper and Bronze Age Afanasevo culture; the wheeled vehicles found in the burials of the Afanasevans have been dated to before 2200 BC. Pastoral nomadism and metalworking became more developed with the Okunev culture, Andronovo culture and Karasuk culture, culminating with the Iron Age Xiongnu Empire in 209 BC. Monuments of the pre-Xiongnu Bronze Age include deer stones, keregsur kurgans, square slab tombs, rock paintings. Although cultivation of crops has continued since the Neolithic, agriculture has always remained small in scale compared to pastoral nomadism. Agriculture arose independently in the region; the population during the Copper Age has been described as mongoloid in the east of what is now Mongolia, as europoid in the west.
Tocharians and Scythians inhabited western Mongolia during the Bronze Age. The mummy of a Scythian warrior, believed to be about 2,500 years old, was a 30- to 40-year-old man with blond hair; as equine nomadism was introduced into Mongolia, the political center of the Eurasian Steppe shifted to Mongolia, where it remained until the 18th century CE. The intrusions of northern pastoralists into China during the Shang dynasty and Zhou dynasty presaged the age of nomadic empires; the concept of Mongolia as an independent power north of China is expressed in a letter sent by Emperor Wen of Han to Laoshang Chanyu in 162 BC: Since prehistoric times, Mongolia has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to power and prominence. Common institutions were the office of the Khan, the Kurultai and right wings, imperial army and the decimal military system; the first of these empires, the Xiongnu of undetermined
Danzandarjaa Monastery is a small monastery built in the 1990s in Mörön, Khövsgöl Province to replace the original and much larger Mörön Monastery, destroyed in 1937. The town of Mörön grew around the monastic complex, founded in 1809-11 on the banks of the Delgermörön river. At its height in the early 20th century the monastery was home to 2000 monks. Dorjjavyn Luvsansharav, a leader of the Mongolia People's Revolutionary Party during the violent Stalinist repressions in Mongolia, studied at the monastery between 1910 and 1921. In the late 1930s Luvsansharav directed a brutal persecution of the Buddhist Church in Mongolia that resulted in the closure and destruction of over 700 monasteries, including Mörön Monastery, destroyed in 1937. After the 1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia the monastery was rebuilt on the western edge of the town and reopened in June 1990, it now contains an impressive collection of thangka. Danzandarjaa Monastery Media related to Danzandarjaa Monastery at Wikimedia Commons
Ongi Monastery is the collective name for the ruins of two monasteries that face each other across the Ongi River in Saikhan-Ovoo district of Dundgovi Province, in south-central Mongolia. The Barlim Monastery is located on the north bank of the river while the Khutagt Monastery sits on the south bank; the older southern complex consisted of various administrative buildings as well as 11 temples. The northern complex, built in the 18th century, consisted of 17 temples - among them one of the largest temples in all of Mongolia; the grounds housed 4 Buddhist universities. Founded in 1660, it was one of the largest monasteries in Mongolia and housed over 1000 monks at its height; the ruins are situated about 18 km south of the town of Saikhan Ovoo. Both complexes of Ongi Monastery were destroyed in 1939 during anti-religious purges carried out under Khorloogiin Choibalsan, the leader of the Communist Party of Mongolia. Over 200 monks were killed, many surviving monks were imprisoned or forcibly laicized and conscripted into the Communist controlled army.
A large number of ruins including a tall stupa can be seen on the river and on the surrounding hills. In the 1990s, it was decided to rebuild the monastery; the first temple was inaugurated in 2004. There is a small museum in a ger in front of it. One of the stupas has just been reconstructed as well, it has a conmemorative plaque indicating the names of the monks who were killed in 1939
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established after the 1917 October Revolution; the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; the Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan. During operations on the Eastern Front, it accounted for 75–80% of casualties the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS suffered during the war and captured the Nazi German capital, Berlin. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote: "There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, and, to create a people's militia and to fuse it with the army."
At the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. 23% of the male population of the Russian Empire were mobilized. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters, 1.8 million dead, 5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners. He estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million. While the Imperial Russian Army was being taken apart, "it became apparent that the rag-tag Red Guard units and elements of the imperial army who had gone over the side of the Bolsheviks were quite inadequate to the task of defending the new government against external foes." Therefore, the Council of People's Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918. They envisioned a body "formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes." All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible. Its role being the defense "of the Soviet authority, the creation of a basis for the transformation of the standing army into a force deriving its strength from a nation in arms, furthermore, the creation of a basis for the support of the coming Socialist Revolution in Europe."
Enlistment was conditional upon "guarantees being given by a military or civil committee functioning within the territory of the Soviet Power, or by party or trade union committees or, in extreme cases, by two persons belonging to one of the above organizations." In the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a "collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary." Because the Red Army was composed of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations and assistance with farm work. Some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army. If they were turned away they would prepare care-packages. In some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army; the Council of People's Commissars appointed itself the supreme head of the Red Army, delegating command and administration of the army to the Commissariat for Military Affairs and the Special All-Russian College within this commissariat. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy.
Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as people's commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars. At a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked: "We have no army; the demoralized soldiers are fleeing, panic-stricken, as soon as they see a German helmet appear on the horizon, abandoning their artillery and all war material to the triumphantly advancing enemy. The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies. We have no power to stay the enemy; the Russian Civil War occurred in three periods: October 1917 – November 1918: From the Bolshevik Revolution to the First World War Armistice, developed from the Bolshevik government's nationalization of traditional Cossack lands in November 1917. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledin's Volunteer Army in the River Don region; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics.
The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in which twelve foreign countries supported anti-Bolshevik militias. A series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. January 1919 – November 1919: Initially the White armies advanced: from the south, under General Anton Denikin; the Whites defeated the Red Army on each front. Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked: the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchak's army in June, the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-Nove