National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
St. John's Episcopal Church (Montgomery, Alabama)
St. John's Episcopal Church is a historic Gothic Revival church in Montgomery, United States, it was designed by the New York City architectural firm of Henry Dudley. The church was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on 24 February 1975. St. John's parish was organized in 1834 and by 1837 the parishioners had moved into a modest brick sanctuary on the corner of Perry and Jefferson Streets. After little more than a decade, the church needed to expand after the state capital moved to Montgomery and a rise in cotton production swelled the region's population; the current building was completed in 1855, in the same city block as the old, but facing Madison Street. St. John's Episcopal Church was involved in several historic events around the time of the American Civil War, it hosted the Secession Convention of Southern Churches in 1861, which had helped fuel the South's secession movement. St. John's was the church attended by the Confederate President, Jefferson Davis, when Montgomery was the capital of the Confederate States of America.
The church was forced to close its doors in 1865 under Union Army orders. The old building from the 1830s was torn down in 1869 and its bricks were used to construct an addition to the main structure; the building was expanded again in 1906. The church hosted many Army recruits from the nearby "Camp Sheridan" tent city during World War I, until the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic forced the church to temporarily close its doors. Between 1898 and 1901, St. John's rector was Edgar Gardner Murphy, who played a leading role in organizing first the Alabama and the National Child Labor Committee, which campaigned to strict limits on employment of children in factories. In 1901, he left St. John's to take over leadership of the Southern Education Board, an organization devoted to improving education--particularly public education--in the region. In May 1925, a bronze plaque in honor of President Jefferson Davis was dedicated. John Trotwood Moore, the State Librarian and Archivist of Tennessee, known defender of the KKK, segregation was invited to give a speech.
In 2019, after further researching the political context and motivations surrounding the dedication of the plaque the vestry of St. John's voted to have the plaque and pew removed from the sanctuary and moved to the parish archives; the church was renovated in the 1950s and again in 2006. National Register of Historic Places listings in Montgomery County, Alabama Episcopal Church of the Nativity Trinity Episcopal Church Historical Marker Database
Lower Commerce Street Historic District
The Lower Commerce Street Historic District is a 45-acre historic district in the old commercial district of Montgomery, Alabama. It includes fifty-two contributing buildings, it is bounded by the Central of Georgia railroad tracks, North Lawrence Street, Madison Avenue, Commerce Street. Architectural styles in the district include the Italianate, Classical Revival, Renaissance Revival, it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on March 29, 1979, the boundaries were subsequently increased on February 25, 1982 and January 15, 1987
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
City of St. Jude
The City of St. Jude is a 36-acre campus hosting a high school and church, was founded in 1934 by Father Harold Purcell with the aim of bringing "light and dignity to the poor." The City of St. Jude campus hosted the Stars for Freedom rally on the night of March 24, 1965, when celebrities volunteered to entertain weary marchers on the final night of the Selma to Montgomery marches; the campus was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990, is part of the Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail, created in 1996. Father Purcell started the first Catholic ministry for African Americans in Alabama, opening a dispensary in a rented house on Holt Street in Montgomery starting on June 2, 1934. Purcell received funds from Bishop Thomas Joseph Toolen, head of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mobile in 1936 and purchased 56 acres between Hill and Oak Streets, soon afterwards building and dedicating a church at the site to Saint Jude the Apostle in 1938. By 1938, the City of St. Jude had treated 8,000 unique patients.
The social center was built soon after the church, in 1939. The City of St. Jude proposed that a "Campsite 4 Experience" Museum would be housed at the social center while raising funds to build an interpretive center; the first classes at the City of St. Jude were held in the basement of the 1938 church. St. Jude Educational Institute was not explicitly segregated though Bishop Toolen did not support integration, early classes featured predominantly African American classes with some white students. During the 25th anniversary of the Selma to Montgomery marches, former Alabama Governor George Wallace stood in the doorway of the St. Jude Educational Institute to welcome civil rights activists; the St. Jude Catholic Hospital, which opened in 1951, was the first integrated hospital in the southeastern United States, it is the birthplace of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Coretta Scott King's two eldest children and Martin Luther III. After being shot following the Selma to Montgomery march, Viola Liuzzo was taken to the hospital at St. Jude, where doctors unsuccessfully tried to save her life.
Although the hospital closed in 1985, the building was converted to low-cost apartments in 1992. During the final night of the Selma to Montgomery marches on March 24, 1965, an estimated 10,000 marchers camped on an athletic field in the St. Jude campus and watched the Stars for Freedom rally, featuring many celebrities. Performances were held on a makeshift stage consisting of empty coffin shipping crates topped by plywood sheets; the next morning, the crowd that marched from the City of St. Jude was estimated at 25,000, the tail of the procession did not reach the Alabama State Capitol building until nearly ninety minutes after the leaders of the march; the pastor of St. Jude asked Bishop Toolen for permission to allow the marchers to camp overnight, granted, but Toolen warned the pastor "there would be consequences." After the march, donations to the City of St. Jude decreased precipitously, since the primary contributors were white Catholics who "agreed with helping blacks, agree with Martin Luther King."
Some of the hospital employees resigned in the wake of the march, white students left the school. In 2008, the National Park Service recommended taking an offer from Alabama State University over the City of St. Jude for the third Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail interpretive center. After a fundraising effort, the City of St. Jude opened its own interpretive center in 2015; the following celebrities were present at Stars for Freedom: Daniel, Maryland B.. "Aerial view of marchers at the City of St. Jude in Montgomery, preparing to leave for the last leg of the Selma to Montgomery March". Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved 28 February 2017. Hilton, Mark. Pfingsten, Bill, ed. "City of St. Jude/The Selma to Montgomery March"
The Cassimus House is a historic Queen Anne style house at 110 North Jackson Street in Montgomery, Alabama. The two-story frame house was completed in 1893, it is the last residential structure remaining in its city block. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on August 13, 1976
Alabama State Capitol
The Alabama State Capitol, listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the First Confederate Capitol, is the state capitol building for Alabama located on Capitol Hill Goat Hill, in Montgomery, declared a National Historic Landmark on December 19, 1960. Alabama has had five political capitals during its history; the first was the territorial capital in St. Stephens in 1817, followed by the state convention in Huntsville in 1819 the first "permanent" capital in Cahaba in 1820, it was moved to Tuscaloosa in 1826, until coming to rest in Montgomery in 1846. The current structure is the state's fourth purpose-built capitol building, with the first at Cahaba, the second at Tuscaloosa, the last two in Montgomery; the first capitol building in Montgomery, located where the current building stands, burned after only two years. The current building was completed in 1851, although additional wings were added over the course of the following 140 years; the current capitol building temporarily served as the Confederate Capitol while Montgomery served as the first political capital of the Confederate States of America in 1861, before being moved to Richmond, Virginia.
Meeting in the Senate Chamber, the Provisional Constitution of the Confederate States was drawn up by the Montgomery Convention on February 4, 1861. The convention adopted the Permanent Constitution here on March 11, 1861. Over one hundred years the third Selma to Montgomery march ended at the front marble staircase of the Capitol, with the marches and events surrounding them directly leading to the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Architecturally, the building is Greek Revival in style with some Beaux-Arts influences; the central core of the building, as well as the east wing to the rear of the structure, is three-stories over a below-grade basement. The north and south wings are two-stories over a raised basement; the front facade, seen today is 350 feet wide and 119 feet tall from ground level to the top of the lantern on the dome. The first capitol building to be built in Montgomery was designed by Stephen Decatur Button of Philadelphia. Andrew Dexter, one of Montgomery's founders, kept a prime piece of property empty in anticipation of the capital being moved to Montgomery from Tuscaloosa.
This property, atop what was known as Goat Hill due to its use as a pasture, was chosen as the site for the new capitol building. Construction began in 1846, with the new building presented to the state on December 6, 1847. Button credited much of his architectural inspiration to Minard Lafever's Beauties of Modern Architecture. Button's building was stuccoed brick, with two full stories set over a rusticated raised basement. A two-story monumental portico with six Composite columns, topped by a broad pediment, was centered on the middle five bays of the front elevation. A central dome, 40 feet in diameter, sat directly on a supporting ring at the main roof level behind the portico; the dome was crowned with an elaborate lantern patterned after the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. This first capitol building burned on December 14, 1849, little more than two years after its completion; the ruins were cleared with a new building soon to follow. The current capitol building was built from 1850 to 1851, with Barachias Holt as supervising architect.
Holt from Exeter, was a master mechanic by trade. Following his work on the capitol he created a successful sash and blind factory in Montgomery; the new building utilized the brick foundations and general layout of Button's previous structure, with modifications by Holt. The modifications included a full three-story building over a basement and a three-story front portico, this time without a pediment. Holt's dome was a departure from the previous work this time the wood and cast iron dome was supported on a ring of Corinthian columns and topped with a simple twelve-sided glazed lantern. John P. Figh and James D. Randolph were the principal contractors. Figh had completed extensive brickwork on the William Nichols-designed campus for the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa. Randolph was in charge of the carpentry work, at least accomplished by subcontractors. Nimrod E. Benson and Judson Wyman were the building supervisors; the new capitol building was first occupied by the Alabama Legislature on October 1, 1851.
The clock over the portico was installed in February 1852. The clock, along with a bell, was purchased by the City of Montgomery and presented to the state in 1852. In proportion to the capitol building, the clock appears as a square white box with black dials and crowned with a gabled roof; the dials are 10 feet in diameter with a 3-foot hour hands. It has been criticized as architecturally inappropriate on various occasions since its initial installation. With the secession of Alabama and six other Deep South states and subsequent formation of the Confederacy in February 1861, the building served as its first capitol until May 22, 1861. A commemorative brass marker in the shape of a six-pointed star is set into the marble floor of the front portico at the precise location where Jefferson Davis stood on February 18, 1861, to take his oath of office as the only President of the Confederate States of America. In 1961 Governor John Patterson flew a seven-starred version of the Stars and Bars over the capitol for several days in celebration of the centennial of the Civil War.
His successor, George Wallace, raised the Confederate Battle Flag over the dome on April 25, 1963, the date of his meeting with U. S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy to discuss desegregation at the University of Alabama, as a symbol of defiance to the federal government. The