Honesdale is a borough in and the county seat of Wayne County, United States. The borough's population was 4,480 at the time of the 2010 census. Honesdale is located 32 miles northeast of Scranton in a rural area that provides many recreational opportunities, such as boating, hiking, skiing, biking and rafting. Located in a coal mining region, during the nineteenth century it was the starting point of the Delaware and Hudson Canal, which provided for transport of coal to Kingston, New York, down the Hudson River to New York City. In the 19th century, the expansion of railroads superseded regular use of the canal. Honesdale was named for Philip Hone, former Mayor of New York and president of Honesdale's Delaware and Hudson Canal Company. Honesdale called "Dyberry Forks," was laid out as a village in 1826 when the D & H Canal was created, it was incorporated as a borough on January 28, 1831. The Honesdale Residential Historic District and the D & H Canal are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Honesdale is home to the first commercial steam locomotive run on rails in the United States, the Stourbridge Lion. On August 8, 1829, the Stourbridge Lion started in Honesdale, ran three miles to Seelyville, returned; the Stourbridge Lion, owned by the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company was regrettably considered too heavy for further use. D&H transported anthracite coal from mines near Carbondale to New York City via Honesdale and Kingston, New York. Coal was moved by a unique gravity-railroad from the mines to Honesdale where it was transferred to barges and transported via a 108-mile canal to Kingston, New York shipped by river barges down the Hudson River to New York City; the Wayne County Historical Society Museum contains a full-scale replica of the Stourbridge Lion. The museum is on Main Street, it is a brick structure. The Delaware Lackawaxen & Stourbridge Railroad Company operates The Stourbidge Line Rail Excursions departing from the platform at the Wayne County Visitors Center just off Torrey Lane.
Excursions run Presidents Weekend, a full schedule from May through October, special holiday trips in Nov. and December. Parts of the original Stourbridge Lion are on display at the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Museum in Baltimore, Maryland. Honesdale is located at 41°34′27″N 75°15′21″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 4.0 square miles, of which 3.9 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water of the Lackawaxen River, which flows through the heart of the town, its confluence with Dyberry Creek. The waters contain fish and other aquatic life and attract hundreds of ducks, as well as eagles and other raptors; as of the census of 2010, there were 4,480 people, 2,086 households, 1,147 families residing in the borough. The population density was 1,148.7 people per square mile. There were 2,357 housing units at an average density of 604.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.8% White, 0.9% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.8% of the population. There were 2,086 households out of which 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.8% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 45% were non-families. 39.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.88. In the borough the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 58.8% from 18 to 64, 18.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years; the median income for a household in the borough was $32,644, the median income for a family was $42,088. Males had a median income of $33,553 versus $30,179 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $20,122. About 19.1% of families and 19.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.4% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over.
The daily newspaper, The Wayne Independent, was established at Honesdale in 1878, emphasizes local stories. The Wayne Independent publishes Tuesday through Saturday; the local radio stations are 101.9 FM and 1590 am. In addition to local news and weather, WPSN broadcasts the Honesdale Hornets High School football games every Friday night during football season; the hospital serving Honesdale and the surrounding communities is Wayne Memorial Hospital. It is a successful and progressive nonprofit community hospital of 114 beds and does 75 million dollars of net revenue of business annually; the Hospital offers a wide array of advanced health services and is clinically affiliated with the Wayne Memorial Community Health Centers and The Commonwealth Medical College. Honesdale, the County seat, hosts the annual Wayne County Fair, starting on the first Friday in August as it has for over a century; the Fair draws thousands of visitors. It features typical county-fair events like horse racing, tractor pulling, livestock exhibits and other entertainments, many rides for children, home goods, much more.
The children's magazine Highlights for Children was founded in Honesdale in 1946. The publisher maintains its editorial headquarters on Church St. in Honesdale, while their business offices are in Ohio. Honesdale
Pierino Ronald "Perry" Como was an American singer and television personality. During a career spanning more than half a century he recorded for RCA Victor for 44 years, after signing with the label in 1943. "Mr. C.", as he was nicknamed, sold millions of records and pioneered a weekly musical variety television show. His weekly television shows and seasonal specials were broadcast throughout the world. In the official RCA Records Billboard magazine memorial, his life was summed up in these few words: "50 years of music and a life well lived. An example to all."Como received five Emmys from 1955 to 1959, a Christopher Award and shared a Peabody Award with good friend Jackie Gleason in 1956. He was inducted into the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Hall of Fame in 1990 and received a Kennedy Center Honor in 1987. Posthumously, Como received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2002, he has the distinction of having three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his work in radio and music.
Como was born in Pennsylvania. He was the seventh of ten children and the first American-born child of Pietro Como and Lucia Travaglini, who both immigrated to the US in 1910 from the Abruzzese town of Palena, Italy, he did not begin speaking English. The family had a second-hand organ his father had bought for $3. Pietro, a mill hand and an amateur baritone, had all his children attend music lessons if he could afford them. In a rare 1957 interview, Como's mother, described how her young son took on other jobs to pay for more music lessons, he showed more musical talent in his teenage years as a trombone player in the town's brass band, playing guitar, singing at weddings, as an organist at church. Como was a member of the Canonsburg Italian Band along with the father of singer Bobby Vinton, bandleader Stan Vinton, a customer at his barber shop. Young Como started helping his family at age 10, working before and after school in Steve Fragapane's barber shop for 50¢ a week. By age 13, he had graduated to having his own chair in the Fragapane barber shop, although he stood on a box to tend to his customers.
It was around this time that young Como lost his week's wages in a dice game. Filled with shame, he locked himself in his room and did not come out until hunger got the better of him, he managed to tell his father. His father told him he was entitled to make a mistake and that he hoped his son would never do anything worse than this; when Perry was 14, his father became unable to work because of a severe heart condition. Como and his brothers became the support of the household. Despite his musical ability, Como's primary ambition was to become the best barber in Canonsburg. Practicing on his father, young Como mastered the skills well enough to have his own shop at age 14. One of Como's regular customers at the barber shop owned a Greek coffee house that included a barber shop area, asked the young barber whether he would like to take over that portion of his shop. Como had so much work after moving to the coffee house, he had to hire two barbers to help with it, his customers worked at the nearby steel mills.
They did not mind spending money on themselves and enjoyed Como's song renditions. Perry did well when one of his customers would marry; the groom and his men would avail themselves of every treatment Como and his assistants had to offer. Como sang romantic songs while busying himself with the groom as the other two barbers worked with the rest of the groom's party. During the wedding preparation, the groom's friends and relatives would come into the shop with gifts of money for Como, he became so popular as a "wedding barber" in the Greek community that he was asked to provide his services in Pittsburgh and throughout Ohio. In 1932, Como left Canonsburg, moving about 100 miles away to Meadville, where his uncle had a barber shop in the Hotel Conneaut. Around 80 miles from Cleveland, it was a popular stop on the itinerary for dance bands who worked up and down the Ohio Valley. Como and their friends had gone to nearby Cleveland. Carlone invited anyone who thought he might have talent to sing with his band.
Young Como was terrified. Carlone was so impressed with Como's performance that he offered him a job; the young man was not certain if he should accept the offer Freddy Carlone had made, so he returned to Canonsburg to talk the matter over with his father. Perry expected his father would tell him to stay in the barber business, but to his surprise, the senior Como told him if he did not take the opportunity, he might never know whether or not he could be a professional singer; the decision was made with an eye on finances. Roselle was willing to travel with her husband and the band, but the salary was not enough to support two people on the road. Perry and Roselle were married in Meadville on July 31, 1933. Roselle returned home to Canonsburg. Three years after joining the Carlone band, Como m
Jo Elizabeth Stafford was an American traditional pop music singer and occasional actress, whose career spanned five decades from the late 1930s to the early 1980s. Admired for the purity of her voice, she underwent classical training to become an opera singer before following a career in popular music, by 1955 had achieved more worldwide record sales than any other female artist, her 1952 song "You Belong to Me" topped the charts in the United States and United Kingdom, the record becoming the first by a female artist to reach number one on the U. K. Singles Chart. Born in Coalinga, Stafford made her first musical appearance at age twelve. While still at high school she joined her two older sisters to form a vocal trio named The Stafford Sisters, who found moderate success on radio and in film. In 1938, while the sisters were part of the cast of Twentieth Century Fox's production of Alexander's Ragtime Band, Stafford met the future members of The Pied Pipers and became the group's lead singer.
Bandleader Tommy Dorsey hired them in 1939 to perform back-up vocals for his orchestra. In addition to her recordings with the Pied Pipers, Stafford featured in solo performances for Dorsey. After leaving the group in 1944, she recorded a series of pop standards for Capitol Records and Columbia Records. Many of her recordings were backed by the orchestra of Paul Weston, she performed duets with Gordon MacRae and Frankie Laine. Her work with the United Service Organizations giving concerts for soldiers during World War II earned her the nickname "G. I. Jo". Starting in 1945, Stafford was a regular host of the National Broadcasting Company radio series The Chesterfield Supper Club and appeared in television specials—including two series called The Jo Stafford Show, in 1954 in the U. S. and in 1961 in the U. K. Stafford married twice: first in 1937 to musician John Huddleston, she and Weston developed a comedy routine in which they assumed the identity of an incompetent lounge act named Jonathan and Darlene Edwards, parodying well-known songs.
The act proved popular at parties and among the wider public when the couple released an album as the Edwardses in 1957. In 1961, the album Jonathan and Darlene Edwards in Paris won Stafford her only Grammy Award for Best Comedy Album, was the first commercially successful parody album. Stafford retired as a performer in the mid-1960s, but continued in the music business, she had a brief resurgence in popularity in the late 1970s when she recorded a cover of the Bee Gees hit, "Stayin' Alive" as Darlene Edwards. In the 1990s, she began re-releasing some of her material through Corinthian Records, a label founded by Weston, she died in 2008 in Century City, Los Angeles, is interred with Weston at Holy Cross Cemetery, Culver City. Her work in radio and music is recognized by three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Jo Elizabeth Stafford was born in Coalinga, California, in 1917, to Grover Cleveland Stafford and Anna Stafford —a second cousin of World War I hero Sergeant Alvin York, she was the third of four children.
Both her parents enjoyed sharing music with their family. Stafford's father hoped for success in the California oil fields when he moved his family from Gainesboro, but worked in a succession of unrelated jobs, her mother was an accomplished banjo player and singing many of the folk songs which influenced Stafford's career. Anna insisted that her children should take piano lessons, but Jo was the only one among her sisters who took a keen interest in it, through this she learned to read music. Stafford's first public singing appearance was in Long Beach, where the family lived when she was twelve, she sang ``", a Stafford family sentimental favorite. Her second was far more dramatic; as a student at Long Beach Polytechnic High School with the lead in the school musical, she was rehearsing on stage when the 1933 Long Beach earthquake destroyed part of the school. With her mother's encouragement, Stafford planned to become an opera singer and studied voice as a child, taking private lessons from Foster Rucker, an announcer on California radio station KNX.
Because of the Great Depression, she abandoned that idea and joined her older sisters Christine and Pauline in a popular vocal group The Stafford Sisters. The two older Staffords were part of a trio with an unrelated third member when the act got a big booking at Long Beach's West Coast Theater. Pauline was too ill to perform, Jo was drafted in to take her place so they could keep the engagement, she asked her glee club teacher for a week's absence from school, saying her mother needed her at home, this was granted. The performance was a success, Jo became a permanent member of the group; the Staffords' first radio appearance was on Los Angeles station KHJ as part of The Happy Go Lucky Hour when Jo was 16, a role they secured after hopefuls at the audition were asked if they had their own musical accompanist. Christine Stafford said that Jo played piano, the sisters were hired though she had not given a public piano performance; the Staffords were subsequently heard on KNX's The Singing Crockett Family of Kentucky, California Melodies, a network radio show aired on the Mutual Broadcasting System.
While Stafford worked on The Jack Oakie Show she met John Huddleston—a backing singer on the programme—and they were married in October 1937. The couple divorced in 1943; the sisters found work in the film industry as backup vocalists, after graduating from high school, Jo worked on film soundtracks. The Stafford Sisters made their first recordi
The Anglican ministry is both the leadership and agency of Christian service in the Anglican Communion. "Ministry" refers to the office of ordained clergy: the threefold order of bishops and deacons. More Anglican ministry includes many laypeople who devote themselves to the ministry of the church, either individually or in lower/assisting offices such as lector, sub-deacon, Eucharistic minister, musicians, parish secretary or assistant, vestry member, etc. All baptized members of the church are considered to partake in the ministry of the Body of Christ. "...t might be useful if Anglicans dropped the word minister when referring to the clergy... In our tradition, ordained persons are either bishops, priests, or deacons, should be referred to as such." Each of the provinces of the Anglican Communion has a high degree of independence from the other provinces, each of them have different structures for ministry and governance. However, personal leadership is always vested in a member of the clergy (a bishop at provincial and diocesan levels, a priest and consensus derived by synodical government.
At different levels of the church's structure, laity and bishops meet together with prayer to deliberate over church governance. These gatherings are variously called conferences, general or church-wide conventions, councils and vestries; the effect of Henry VIII's Act in Restraint of Appeals and first Act of Supremacy was to establish royal authority in all matters spiritual and temporal assigning the power of ecclesiastical visitation over the Church in the English Realm. Queen Elizabeth I, while declining the title of Supreme Head, was declared to be "Supreme Governor of this realm... as well in all spiritual or ecclesiastical things or causes as temporal". Thus, although the Church of England was regarded in the sixteenth century as a church of the Reformation, it nonetheless maintained the historic church structure including the maintenance of the threefold order of the ministry, with bishops, consecrated in apostolic succession, ordaining deacons and priests. Thus, Anglican ordained ministry resembles.
While the Puritan ascendency in England introduced a parallel presbyterian polity, Anglicanism worldwide is defined in part by the historic structure, although outside the British Isles it has no supreme governor. In recent years, due to increasing theological differences within the Anglican Communion, there have been a number of instances of "valid but irregular" ordinations performed by clergy acting outside the normal authority structures of the church. Under the Overseas and Other Clergy Measure 1967 the Church of England "recognizes and accepts" as valid the orders of two churches which, although Anglican in identity, are not members of the Anglican Communion: the Church of England in South Africa and the Free Church of England. In Anglican sacramental theology, certain ministerial functions can only be performed by individuals ordained into one or more of the three holy orders. There are two kinds of ministers in this sense; the ordinary minister of a sacrament has both the spiritual power to perform the sacrament and the legal authority to perform the sacrament.
An extraordinary minister has the spiritual power but may only perform the sacrament in certain special instances under canon law. If a person, neither an ordinary nor an extraordinary minister attempts to perform a sacrament, no preternatural effect happens. In the Anglican Communion, the following are ministers of the sacraments: Baptism: clergy. Confirmation: bishop. Eucharist: bishop or priest. Reconciliation of a penitent: bishop or priest. Healing: bishop or priest. Matrimony: the individuals to be married Holy Orders: at least one bishop ordains deacons and priests; the churches of the Anglican Communion maintain the historical episcopate, which ordains clergy into the three orders of deacon and bishop. Bishops provide the leadership for the Anglican Communion, in accordance with episcopal polity. All bishops, constituting a worldwide College of Bishops, are considered to be equal in orders. However, bishops have a variety of different responsibilities, in these some bishops are more senior than others.
All bishops, of diocesan rank and below, are styled the Right Reverend. Most bishops oversee a diocese, some are consecrated to assist diocesan bishops in large or busy dioceses, some are relieved of diocesan responsibilities so they can minister more widely. A few member churches of the Anglican Communion ordain women as bishops, many more have prepared the legislation for women to become bishops but have not yet ordained a woman to the episcopate. Anglican bishops are identified by the purple clergy shirt and cassock they are entitled to wear. However, bishops are permitted to wear other colours, a former Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, is seen wearing a black cassock. Bishops al
Michael Steven Bublé is a Canadian singer, songwriter and record producer. His first album reached the top ten in Canada and the UK, he found a worldwide audience with his 2005 album It's Time as well as his 2007 album Call Me Irresponsible – which reached number one on the Canadian Albums Chart, the UK Albums Chart, the US Billboard 200, the Australian ARIA Albums Chart and several European charts. Bublé's 2009 album Crazy Love debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 after three days of sales, remained there for two weeks, it was his fourth number one album on Billboard's Top Jazz Albums chart. His 2011 holiday album, was in first place on the Billboard 200 for the final four weeks of 2011 and the first week of 2012, totalling five weeks atop the chart, it made the top 5 in the United Kingdom. With this, Christmas became his third-consecutive number-one album on the chart. To Be Loved was released in April 2013. Bublé has sold over 75 million records worldwide, he has won numerous awards, including multiple Juno Awards.
Michael Steven Bublé was born in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, on September 9, 1975, to Lewis Bublé, a salmon fisherman, Amber. He has two younger sisters, Brandee, a children's book author, Crystal, an actress; the siblings were raised in the Roman Catholic faith. He attended Cariboo Hill Secondary School. Bublé is a Croatian last name from the town of Trogir, his paternal grandfather Frank was a native of Croatia. Frank's paternal grandmother was a Radoslavić, his own mother a Galović. According to an Oprah Winfrey interview on October 9, 2009, Bublé dreamed of becoming a famous singer from the age of two; when he was a teenager, he prayed to become a singer. His interest in jazz began around age five when his family played Bing Crosby's White Christmas album; the first time his family noticed his singing talent was at Christmas time when Bublé was 13 years old, they heard him powerfully sing the phrase "May your days be merry and bright" when the family was singing to the song "White Christmas" on a car ride.
Bublé had a strong passion for ice hockey and wanted to become a professional hockey player for the Vancouver Canucks growing up, but he believed he was not good enough. "I wanted so bad to be a hockey player... If I was any good at hockey, I wouldn't be singing right now." He played hockey in his youth, watched Vancouver Canucks games with his father, said that he "went to every single home game as a kid... I remember I wanted to be Gary Lupul, I wanted to be Ivan Hlinka. I used to think that being named Michael Bublé was pretty cool because I was close to being called Jiri Bubla." Bublé shared his hockey interest with his grandfather. From the age of 14, Bublé spent six years working during the summer as a commercial fisherman with his father and crewmates, he called the experience "the most deadly physical work I'll know in my lifetime. We'd be gone for two, sometimes three months at a time and the experience of living and working among guys over twice my age taught me a lot about responsibility and what it means to be a man."His first singing engagements were in nightclubs at the age of 16 and were facilitated by his Italian grandfather, Demetrio Santagà, a plumber from Preganziol, Treviso who offered his plumbing services in exchange for stage time for his grandson.
Bublé's grandfather paid for his singing lessons. Both his voice teacher, Sandi Siemens, his maternal grandfather never stopped believing that he would become a star. Bublé's maternal grandmother, was Italian, from Carrufo, L'Aquila; as a child entertainer he used the name "Mickey Bubbles". Bublé grew up listening to his grandfather's collection of jazz records and credits his grandfather in encouraging his love for jazz music. "My grandfather was my best friend growing up. He was the one who opened me up to a whole world of music that seemed to have been passed over by my generation. Although I like rock and roll and modern music, the first time my granddad played me the Mills Brothers, something magical happened; the lyrics were so romantic, so real. It was like seeing my future flash before me. I wanted to be a singer and I knew that this was the music that I wanted to sing."Bublé never stopped believing he would become a star but admitted he was the only one who believed in his dream, stating that his maternal grandfather thought Bublé was going to be "an opening act for somebody in Las Vegas".
He stated he never learned to read and write music, using only emotion to drive his songwriting ability. At the age of 18, Bublé entered a local talent contest and won, but he was disqualified by organizer Bev Delich for being underage. Delich entered him in the Canadian Youth Talent Search. After Bublé won that contest, he asked Delich to be his manager. Delich represented him for the next seven years, during which Bublé worked diligently at any job that came along: clubs, cruise ships, hotel lounges, shopping malls, talent shows. In 1996, Bublé appeared in TV's Death Game as a Drome Groupie. In 1996, he appeared in two episodes of The X-Files as a member of a submarine crew, his first national TV performance was on a 1997 award-winning Bravo! Documentary titled Big Band Boom!, directed by Mark Glover Masterson. Beginning in 1997, he became a frequent guest on Vicki Gabereau's national talk show on the CTV network. During its first season, the Vancouver-based program aired live, which worked in Bublé's favour.
When a scheduled guest was forced to cancel, the show's music producer asked Bublé to fill in at the last minu
Eurythmics were a British music duo consisting of members Annie Lennox and David A. Stewart. Stewart and Lennox were both in the band The Tourists, who split up in 1980; the duo released their first album, In the Garden, in 1981 to little fanfare, but went on to achieve global success with their second album Sweet Dreams, released in 1983. The title track was a worldwide hit, topping the charts in various countries including the U. S; the duo went on to release a string of hit singles and albums before they split up in 1990. By this time Stewart was a sought-after record producer, while Lennox began a solo recording career in 1992 with her debut album Diva. After a decade apart, Eurythmics reunited to record their ninth album, released in late 1999, they reunited again in 2005 to release the single "I've Got a Life", as part of a new Eurythmics compilation album, Ultimate Collection. The duo have won an MTV Video Music Award for Best New Artist in 1984, the Grammy Award for Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal in 1987, the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music in 1999, in 2005 were inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame.
Eurythmics have sold an estimated 75 million records worldwide. In 2017, the group was nominated for induction into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, were nominated again in 2018. Lennox and Stewart met in 1975 in a restaurant in London, they first played together in 1976 in the punk rock band The Catch. After releasing one single as The Catch in 1977, the band evolved into The Tourists. Stewart and Lennox were romantically involved; the Tourists achieved some commercial success, but the experience was an unhappy one. Personal and musical tensions existed within the group, whose main songwriter was Peet Coombes, legal wranglings happened with the band's management and record labels. Lennox and Stewart felt the fixed band line-up was an inadequate vehicle to explore their experimental creative leanings and decided their next project should be much more flexible and free from artistic compromise, they were interested in creating pop music, but wanted freedom to experiment with electronics and the avant-garde.
It was in a hotel in Wagga Wagga, while playing around with a portable mini-synthesizer that Lennox and Stewart decided to become a duo. Calling themselves Eurythmics, they decided to keep themselves as the only permanent members and songwriters, involve others in the collaboration "on the basis of mutual compatibility and availability." The duo signed to RCA Records. At this time and Stewart split as a couple. During the period that Lennox and Stewart were in The Tourists, as Eurythmics, they were managed by Kenny Smith and Sandra Turnbull of Hyper Kinetics Ltd, they recorded their first album in Cologne with Conny Plank. This resulted in the album In the Garden, released in October 1981; the album mixed psychedelic and electropop influences, featured contributions from Holger Czukay and Jaki Liebezeit, drummer Clem Burke, Robert Görl, flautist Tim Wheater. A couple of the songs were co-written by guitarist Roger Pomphrey; the album was not a commercial success. Lennox and Stewart activated their new Eurythmics mode of operation by touring the record as a duo, accompanied by backing tracks and electronics, carted around the country themselves in a horse-box.
During 1982, the duo retreated to Chalk Farm in London and used a bank loan to establish a small 8-track studio above a picture framing factory, giving them freedom to record without having to pay expensive studio fees. They began to employ much more electronics in their music, collaborating with Raynard Faulkner and Adam Williams, recording many tracks in the studio and playing live using various line-up permutations. However, the three new singles they released that year all performed badly on initial release in the UK. Although their mode of operation had given them the creative freedom they desired, commercial success was still eluding them and the responsibility of running so many of their affairs took its toll on both of them. Lennox suffered at least one nervous breakdown during this period, while Stewart was hospitalised with a collapsed lung. Eurythmics' commercial breakthrough came with their second album, Sweet Dreams, released in January 1983; the successful title track featured a dark and powerful sequenced synth bass line and a dramatic video that introduced the now orange crew-cut Lennox to audiences.
The song reached No. 2 on the UK Singles Chart, becoming one of the year's biggest sellers, topped the U. S. charts. The band's fortunes changed immensely from this moment on, Lennox became a pop icon, gracing the covers of numerous magazines including Rolling Stone, their previous single, "Love Is a Stranger", was re-released and became another chart success. The video for the song saw Lennox in many different character guises, a concept she would employ in various subsequent videos; the album's working title was Invisible Hands, inspiring the name of U. K. independent company Invisible Hands Music – known for releasing music by Hugh Cornwell, Mick Karn and Hazel O'Connor. The album featured a cover of the 1968 Sam & Dave hit "Wrap It Up", performed as a du
Christmas music comprises a variety of genres of music performed or heard around the Christmas season. Music associated with Christmas may be purely instrumental, or in the case of many carols or songs may employ lyrics whose subject matter ranges from the nativity of Jesus Christ, to gift-giving and merrymaking, to cultural figures such as Santa Claus, among other topics. Performances of Christmas music at public concerts, in churches, at shopping malls, on city streets, in private gatherings is an integral staple of the Christmas holiday in many cultures across the world. Music associated with Christmas is thought to have its origins in 4th-century Rome, in Latin-language hymns such as Veni redemptor gentium. By the 13th century, under the influence of Francis of Assisi, the tradition of popular Christmas songs in regional native languages developed. Christmas carols in the English language first appear in a 1426 work of John Awdlay, an English chaplain, who lists twenty five "caroles of Cristemas" sung by groups of'wassailers' who would travel from house to house.
In the 16th century, various Christmas carols still sung to this day, including "The 12 Days of Christmas", "God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen", "O Christmas Tree", first emerged. The Victorian Era saw a surge of Christmas carols associated with a renewed admiration of the holiday, including "Silent Night", "O Little Town of Bethlehem", "O Holy Night"; the first Christmas songs associated with Saint Nicholas or other gift-bringers came during 19th century, including "Up on the Housetop" and "Jolly Old St. Nicholas". Many older Christmas hymns were translated or had lyrics added to them during this period in 1871 when John Stainer published a influential collection entitled "Christmas Carols New & Old". Few notable carols were produced from the beginning of the 20th century until the Great Depression era of the 1930s, when a stream of songs of American origin were published, most of which did not explicitly reference the Christian nature of the holiday, but rather the more secular traditional Western themes and customs associated with Christmas.
These included songs aimed at children such as "Santa Claus Is Comin' to Town" and "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer", as well as sentimental ballad-type songs performed by famous crooners of the era, such as "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas" and "White Christmas", the latter of which remains the best-selling single of all time as of 2018. Popular Christmas music produced from after World War II until the present day has remained thematically and instrumentally similar to the songs produced in the early 20th century. Since the dawn of the rock era in the mid-1950s, much of the Christmas music produced for popular audiences has had explicitly romantic overtones, only using Christmas as a setting; the 1950s featured the introduction of novelty songs that used the holiday as a target for satire and source for comedy. Exceptions such as "The Christmas Shoes" have re-introduced Christian themes as complementary to the secular Western themes, a plethora of traditional carol cover versions by various artists have explored all music genres.
Music was an early feature of its celebrations. The earliest examples are hymnographic works intended for liturgical use in observance of both the Feast of the Nativity and Theophany, many of which are still in use by the Eastern Orthodox Church; the 13th century saw the rise of the carol written in the vernacular, under the influence of Francis of Assisi. In the Middle Ages, the English combined circle called them carols; the word carol came to mean a song in which a religious topic is treated in a style, familiar or festive. From Italy, it passed to France and Germany, to England. Christmas carols in English first appear in a 1426 work of John Audelay, a Shropshire priest and poet, who lists 25 "caroles of Cristemas" sung by groups of wassailers, who went from house to house. Music in itself soon became one of the greatest tributes to Christmas, Christmas music includes some of the noblest compositions of the great musicians. During the Commonwealth of England government under Cromwell, the Rump Parliament prohibited the practice of singing Christmas carols as Pagan and sinful.
Like other customs associated with popular Catholic Christianity, it earned the disapproval of Protestant Puritans. Famously, Cromwell's interregnum prohibited all celebrations of the Christmas holiday; this attempt to ban the public celebration of Christmas can be seen in the early history of Father Christmas. The Westminster Assembly of Divines established Sunday as the only holy day in the calendar in 1644; the new liturgy produced for the English church recognised this in 1645, so abolished Christmas. Its celebration was declared an offence by Parliament in 1647. There is some debate as to the effectiveness of this ban, whether or not it was enforced in the country. Puritans disapproved of the celebration of Christmas—a trend which continually resurfaced in Europe and the USA through the eighteenth and twentieth centuries; when in May 1660 Charles II restored the Stuarts to the throne, the people of England once again practiced the public singing of Christmas carols as part of the revival of Christmas customs, sanctioned by the king's own celebrations.
William Sandys's Christmas Carols Ancient and Modern, contained the first appearance in print of many now-classic English carols, contributed to the mid-Victorian revival of the holiday. Singing carols in church was instituted on Christmas Eve 1880 in Truro Cathedral, England, now seen in churches all over t