Conservation and restoration of historic gardens
Historic garden conservation is a specialised type of historic preservation and conservation or restoration concerned with historical and landmark gardens and designed landscapes. Practitioners predominantly come from backgrounds in horticulture, garden design, landscape design, to prepare a management plan for a historic garden, such experts require knowledge and skills in environmental design, landscape history, architectural history, and management. Historic garden restoration is the task of restoring historic gardens to the character they had at a previous point in history. Since the use of old gardens is in flux, this involves a consideration of current. Several universities and colleges in England run undergraduate and postgraduate courses related to historic garden conservation, statutory protection exists for registered parks and designed landscapes. In Australia, the Australian Garden History Society is an organization to the UKs Garden History Society. The Garden History Society is the oldest such society in the world and it became The Gardens Trust in 2015, having merged with the Association of Gardens Trusts.
Its aims are to study history and conserve historic gardens. Since 1995 it is a statutory consultee on proposals affecting registered parks, gardens and it has about 1,500 members and publishes the Garden History journal twice-yearly, as well as a regular members newsletter. The society has a group for Scotland, with its own regular newsletter. The Welsh Historic Gardens Trust is a society specifically for gardens, parks. Most of the counties of England have their own trust, which were represented by the Association of Gardens Trusts, which since 2015 forms part of The Gardens Trust. In London there is the Garden Museum, covering all aspects of gardening history and with a large and growing collection of objects such as old tools. In the United States, The Garden Conservancy actively assists in the preservation of notable gardens, there is the California Garden and Landscape History Society for events and education in California specifically. The Garden Club of Virginia has restored many of the most notable gardens in Virginia since its founding around 1913.
A Historic Garden Week is run, in part to money for restorations. History of gardening Landscape design history Historic Gardens Foundation Garden History Society Garden Museum The Garden Conservancy
Xeriscaping is landscaping and gardening that reduces or eliminates the need for supplemental water from irrigation. It is promoted in regions that do not have easily accessible, plentiful, or reliable supplies of fresh water, Xeriscaping may be an alternative to various types of traditional gardening. In some areas, terms as water-conserving landscapes, drought-tolerant landscaping, plants whose natural requirements are appropriate to the local climate are emphasized, and care is taken to avoid losing water to evaporation and run-off. The specific plants used in xeriscaping depend upon the climate, Xeriscaping is different from natural landscaping, because the emphasis in xeriscaping is on selection of plants for water conservation, not necessarily selecting native plants. Public perception of xeriscaping has frequently been negative as many assume that these types of landscapes are ugly expanses of cactus, studies have shown that education in water conservation practices in the landscape can greatly improve the publics perception of xeriscaping.
The term zero-scaping or zeroscaping is sometimes substituted for xeriscaping due to phonetic similarity, when used seriously, zero-scaping usually refers to a different type of low-water landscaping that is often devoid, or nearly devoid of plants. Because the term was derived from the Greek root xeros, xeriscaping is sometimes misspelled xeroscaping, lowered consumption of water, Xeriscaped landscapes use up to two thirds less water than regular lawn landscapes. Makes more water available for domestic and community uses and the environment. Reduce Maintenance, Aside from occasional weeding and mulching Xeriscaping requires far less time, Xeriscape plants in appropriate planting design, and soil grading and mulching, takes full advantage of rainfall retention. Less cost to maintain, Xeriscaping requires less fertilisers and equipment, reduced waste and pollution, Lawn clippings can contribute to organic waste in landfills and the use of heavy fertilisers contributes to urban runoff pollution.
Xeriscape style may not conform to local aesthetics, Some homeowners associations have rules requiring a certain percentage of land to be used as lawns. Refutation, Because of drought and improved education, these rules either have been or are in the process of being overturned in many areas. Xeriscape contains hazardous plants, Some styles of xeriscaping include plants such as cacti and agave having thorns or serrated edges that may harm pets, There are many xeric plants that possess no sharp points, and many familiar plants like rose bushes and raspberry plants have thorns. Xeriscape installation cost is high, If a non-xeric landscape was originally present, For new construction, xeric landscaping can cost much less than a lawn. Whether new or a replacement, the water-saving cost benefit of a xeric landscape over a one is self-evident. Over time the cost savings can pay for the installation, in arid and semi-arid areas, drought-based water restrictions may necessitate the reduction of turf areas that would be likely to die due to a lack of water already occurring because of the drought.
Originally conceived by Denver Water, the seven principles of xeriscaping have since expanded into simple and applicable concepts to creating landscapes that use less water. Plan and design, Create a diagram, drawn to scale, once a base plan of an existing site has been determined, the creation of a conceptual plan that shows the areas for turf, perennial beds, screens, etc. is undertaken
In everyday usage, a vegetable is any part of a plant that is consumed by humans as food as part of a meal. The term vegetable is somewhat arbitrary, and largely defined through culinary and it normally excludes other food derived from plants such as fruits and cereal grains, but includes seeds such as pulses. The original meaning of the vegetable, still used in biology, was to describe all types of plant, as in the terms vegetable kingdom. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, most vegetables are grown all over the world as climate permits, and crops may be cultivated in protected environments in less suitable locations. China is the largest producer of vegetables and global trade in agricultural products allows consumers to purchase vegetables grown in faraway countries, the scale of production varies from subsistence farmers supplying the needs of their family for food, to agribusinesses with vast acreages of single-product crops. Depending on the type of vegetable concerned, harvesting the crop is followed by grading, storing and marketing.
Vegetables can be either raw or cooked and play an important role in human nutrition, being mostly low in fat and carbohydrates. Many nutritionists encourage people to consume plenty of fruit and vegetables, the word vegetable was first recorded in English in the early 15th century. It comes from Old French, and was applied to all plants. It derives from Medieval Latin vegetabilis growing, flourishing, a change from a Late Latin meaning to be enlivening, quickening. The meaning of vegetable as a plant grown for food was not established until the 18th century, in 1767, the word was specifically used to mean a plant cultivated for food, an edible herb or root. The year 1955 saw the first use of the shortened, slang term veggie, the broadest definition is the words use adjectivally to mean matter of plant origin to distinguish it from animal, meaning matter of animal origin. More specifically, a vegetable may be defined as any plant, part of which is used for food, a secondary meaning being the edible part of such a plant. A more precise definition is any plant part consumed for food that is not a fruit or seed, falling outside these definitions are edible fungi and edible seaweed which, although not parts of plants, are often treated as vegetables.
In everyday language, the fruit and vegetable are mutually exclusive. Fruit has a precise meaning, being a part that developed from the ovary of a flowering plant. This is considerably different from the words culinary meaning, while peaches and oranges are fruit in both senses, many items commonly called vegetables, such as eggplants, bell peppers, and tomatoes, are botanically fruits. The question of whether the tomato is a fruit or a vegetable found its way into the United States Supreme Court in 1893
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its derives from the River Sheaf. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base. The population of the City of Sheffield is 569,700, Sheffield is the third largest English district by population. The metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000, in the 19th century, Sheffield gained an international reputation for steel production. Known as the Steel City, many innovations were developed locally, including crucible and stainless steel, Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, the 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield along with other British cities. Sheffields gross value added has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007, the economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber.
The city is in the foothills of the Pennines, and the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin. 61% of Sheffields entire area is space, and a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park. The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield is believed to have inhabited since at least the late Upper Palaeolithic period. The earliest evidence of occupation in the Sheffield area was found at Creswell Crags to the east of the city. In the Iron Age the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine tribe called the Brigantes and it is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts in and around Sheffield. Gradually, Anglian settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira, a Celtic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales and Waleswood close to Sheffield. The settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, date from the half of the first millennium. In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria, after the Norman conquest, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, and a small town developed that is the nucleus of the modern city.
By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square, from 1570 to 1584, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor. During the 1740s, a form of the steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had previously been possible
New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
Paxton was born in 1803, the seventh son of a farming family, in Milton Bryan, Bedfordshire. Some references, list his year as 1801. This is, as he admitted in life, a result of misinformation he provided in his teens and he became a garden boy at the age of fifteen for Sir Gregory Osborne Page-Turner at Battlesden Park, near Woburn. After several moves, he obtained a position in 1823 at the Horticultural Societys Chiswick Gardens, the Horticultural Societys gardens were close to the gardens of William Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire at Chiswick House. The duke met the young gardener as he strolled in his gardens and became impressed with his skill and he offered the 20-year-old Paxton the position of head gardener at Chatsworth, which was considered one of the finest landscaped gardens of the time. Although the duke was in Russia, Paxton set off for Chatsworth on the Chesterfield coach arriving at Chatsworth at half past four in the morning and he married Bown in 1827, and she proved capable of managing his affairs, leaving him free to pursue his ideas.
He enjoyed a relationship with his employer who recognised his diverse talents. One of Paxtons first projects was to redesign the garden around the new wing of the house. He became skilled at moving mature trees, the largest, weighing about eight tons, was moved from Kedleston Road in Derby. Among several other projects at Chatsworth were the rock garden. At the time the use of houses was in its infancy. The next great building at Chatsworth was built for the first seeds of the Victoria regia lily which had sent to Kew from the Amazon in 1836. Although they had germinated and grown they had not flowered and in 1849 a seedling was given to Paxton to try out at Chatsworth. He entrusted it to Eduard Ortgies, a gardener and within two months the leaves were 4.5 ft in diameter, and a month it flowered. It continued growing and it became necessary to build a larger house. Inspired by the waterlilys huge leaves – a natural feat of engineering – he found the structure for his conservatory which he tested by floating his daughter Annie on a leaf, the secret was in the rigidity provided by the radiating ribs connecting with flexible cross-ribs.
Constant experimentation over a number of years led him to devise the design that inspired the Crystal Palace. With a cheap and light frame, the conservatory design had a ridge-and-furrow roof to let in more light
Winter Garden Atrium
The Winter Garden Atrium is a 10-story glass-vaulted pavilion on Vesey Street in New York Citys Brookfield Place office complex. Originally constructed in 1988, and substantially rebuilt in 2002, the Atrium houses various plants and flowers, the rear of the building opens onto the World Financial Center Plaza and the North Cove Yacht Harbor on the Hudson River. The Winter Garden Atrium, along with the rest of the Brookfield Place, was designed by architect César Pelli in 1985. Completed in 1988 at a cost of $60 million, the Atrium was originally connected to the World Trade Center via a 400 ft pedestrian bridge that spanned West Street. Reconstruction of the Winter Garden required 2,000 panes of glass,60,000 square feet of flooring and stairs. Reopened on September 17,2002, the Winter Garden was the first major structure to be restored following the attacks. President George W. Bush was present at the reopening ceremony, the pedestrian bridge was destroyed in the same attacks and was replaced by windows facing the former site of the World Trade Center.
Since its construction, the Winter Garden Atrium has hosted concerts, in the spring of 2003, an exhibit documenting the recovery process of the World Trade Center was installed by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation in the Winter Garden. The exhibit included early designs of Libeskinds Freedom Tower, that year, the eight finalists in the competition for the new buildings had their designs unveiled and displayed in the atrium. The Winter Garden continues to serve as a venue for art exhibits, World Trade Center Media related to Winter Garden Atrium at Wikimedia Commons Calendar of Events
Allium is a genus of monocotyledonous flowering plants that includes the cultivated onion, scallion and leek as well as chives and hundreds of other wild species. The generic name Allium is the Latin word for garlic, some sources refer to Greek αλεω by reason of the smell of garlic. The cooking and consumption of parts of the plants is due to the variety of flavours. The inclusion of a species to the genus Allium is taxonomically difficult, estimates of the number of species have been as low as 260, and as high as 979, but are most likely about 800–850. The type species for the genus is Allium sativum, Allium species occur in temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere, except for a few species occurring in Chile and tropical Africa. They vary in height between 5 cm and 150 cm, the flowers form an umbel at the top of a leafless stalk. The bulbs vary in size between species, from small to rather large, some species develop thickened leaf-bases rather than forming bulbs as such. Plants of the Allium genus produce chemical compounds that give them a characteristic onion or garlic taste, many are used as food plants, though not all members of the genus are equally flavorous.
In most cases, both bulb and leaves are edible and the taste may be strong or weak, depending on the species, in the rare occurrence of sulfur-free growth conditions, all Allium species lose their usual pungency altogether. In the APG III classification system, Allium is placed in the family Amaryllidaceae, in some of the older classification systems, Allium was placed in Liliaceae. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown this circumscription of Liliaceae is not monophyletic, Allium is one of about fifty-seven genera of flowering plants with more than 500 species. It is by far the largest genus in the Amaryllidaceae, the genus Allium is characterised by herbaceous geophyte perennials with true bulbs, some of which are borne on rhizomes and an onion or garlic odor and flavor. A small number of species have tuberous roots, the bulbs outer coats are commonly brown or grey, with a smooth texture, and are fibrous, or with cellular reticulation. The inner coats of the bulbs are membranous, many alliums have basal leaves that commonly wither away from the tips downward before or while the plants flower, but some species have persistent foliage.
Plants produce from one to 12 leaves, most species having linear, the leaf blades are straight or variously coiled, but some species have broad leaves, including A. victorialis and A. tricoccum. The leaves are sessile, and very rarely narrowed into a petiole, the flowers, which are produced on scapes are erect or in some species pendent, having six petal-like tepals produced in two whorls. The flowers have one style and six stamens, the anthers. The ovaries are superior, and three-lobed with three locules, the fruits are capsules that open longitudinally along the capsule wall between the partitions of the locule
The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant, usually known in North America as the beet, table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet. It is one of several of the varieties of Beta vulgaris grown for their edible taproots. These varieties have been classified as B. vulgaris subsp, other than as a food, beets have use as a food colouring and as a medicinal plant. Many beet products are made from other Beta vulgaris varieties, particularly sugar beet, usually the deep purple roots of beetroot are eaten boiled, roasted or raw, and either alone or combined with any salad vegetable. A large proportion of the production is processed into boiled and sterilized beets or into pickles. In Eastern Europe, beet soup, such as borscht, is a popular dish, in Indian cuisine, cooked, spiced beet is a common side dish. Yellow-coloured beetroots are grown on a small scale for home consumption. The green, leafy portion of the beet is edible, the young leaves can be added raw to salads, whilst the adult leaves are most commonly served boiled or steamed, in which case they have a taste and texture similar to spinach.
Those greens selected should be from bulbs that are unmarked, instead of those with overly limp leaves or wrinkled skins, the domestication of beets can be traced to the emergence of an allele which enables biennial harvesting of leaves and taproot. Pickled beets are a food in many countries. A traditional Pennsylvania Dutch dish is pickled beet egg, hard-boiled eggs are refrigerated in the liquid left over from pickling beets and allowed to marinate until the eggs turn a deep pink-red colour. The same in Serbia where the popular cvekla is used as salad, seasoned with salt and vinegar. As an addition to horseradish it is used to produce the red variety of chrain. Popular in Australian hamburgers, a slice of pickled beetroot is combined with other condiments on a beef patty to make an Aussie burger, when beet juice is used, it is most stable in foods with a low water content, such as frozen novelties and fruit fillings. Beetroot can be used to make wine, food shortages in Europe following World War I caused great hardships, including cases of mangelwurzel disease, as relief workers called it.
It was symptomatic of eating only beets, the chemical adipic acid rarely occurs in nature, but happens to occur naturally in beetroot. From the Middle Ages, beetroot was used as a treatment for a variety of conditions, especially relating to digestion. Bartolomeo Platina recommended taking beetroot with garlic to nullify the effects of garlic-breath, during the middle of the 19th century wine often was coloured with beetroot juice
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture and its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the cathedrals, abbeys. It is the architecture of many castles, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings, for this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, the term Gothic architecture originated as a pejorative description. Hence, François Rabelais, of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of his utopian Abbey of Thélème, Here enter no hypocrites, slipping in a slighting reference to Gotz and Ostrogotz.
Authorities such as Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old medieval style, the Company disapproved of several of these new manners, which are defective and which belong for the most part to the Gothic. Gothic architecture is the architecture of the medieval period, characterised by use of the pointed arch. As an architectural style, Gothic developed primarily in ecclesiastical architecture, the greatest number of surviving Gothic buildings are churches. The Gothic style is most particularly associated with the cathedrals of Northern France. At the end of the 12th century, Europe was divided into a multitude of city states, norway came under the influence of England, while the other Scandinavian countries and Poland were influenced by trading contacts with the Hanseatic League. Angevin kings brought the Gothic tradition from France to Southern Italy, throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns. Germany and the Lowlands had large flourishing towns that grew in comparative peace, in trade and competition with other, or united for mutual weal.
Civic building was of importance to these towns as a sign of wealth. England and France remained largely feudal and produced grand domestic architecture for their kings and bishops, the Catholic Church prevailed across Europe at this time, influencing not only faith but wealth and power. Bishops were appointed by the lords and they often ruled as virtual princes over large estates. The early Medieval periods had seen a growth in monasticism, with several different orders being prevalent. Foremost were the Benedictines whose great abbey churches vastly outnumbered any others in France, a part of their influence was that towns developed around them and they became centers of culture and commerce
English landscape garden
The English garden presented an idealized view of nature. The work of Lancelot Capability Brown was particularly influential, by the end of the 18th century the English garden was being imitated by the French landscape garden, and as far away as St. Petersburg, Russia, in Pavlovsk, the gardens of the future Emperor Paul. It had a influence on the form of the public parks. These parks featured vast lawns and pieces of architecture and these gardens, modelled after the gardens of Versailles, were designed to impress visitors with their size and grandeur. William Kent was an architect and furniture designer who introduced Palladian style architecture to England and his gardens were designed to complement the Palladian architecture of the houses he built. He collaborated with Kent on several major gardens, providing the botanical expertise which allowed Kent to realize his architectural visions, Kent created one of the first true English landscape gardens at Chiswick House for Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington.
Between 1733 and 1736, he redesigned the garden, adding lawns sloping down to the edge of the river, for the first time the form of a garden was inspired not by architecture, but by an idealized version of nature. Rousham House in Oxfordshire is considered by some as the most accomplished, the patron was General Dormer, who commissioned Bridgeman to begin the garden in 1727, brought in Kent to recreate it in 1737. Bridgeman had built a series of gardens, including a grotto of Venus, on the slope along the river Cherwell, finally, he added cascades modelled on those of the garden of Aldobrandini and Pratolino in Italy, to add movement and drama. Stowe, in Buckinghamshire, was a more radical departure from the formal French garden. In the early 18th century, Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham, had commissioned Charles Bridgeman to design a formal garden, bridgemans design included an octagonal lake and a Rotunda designed by Vanbrugh. In the 1730s, William Kent and James Gibbs were appointed to work with Bridgeman, Kent remade the lake in a more natural shape, and created a new kind of garden, which took visitors on a tour of picturesque landscapes.
The garden attracted visitors from all over Europe, including Jean-Jacques Rousseau and it became the inspiration for landscape gardens in Britain and on the Continent. Stourhead, in Wiltshire, created by banker Henry Hoare, was one of the first picturesque gardens, Hoare had travelled to Italy on the Grand Tour and had returned with a painting by Claude Lorrain. He sought to create an ideal landscape out of the English countryside and he created artificial lakes and used dams and canals to transform streams or springs into the illusion that a river flowed through the garden. He compared his own role as a designer to that of a poet or composer. Here I put a comma, when its necessary to cut the view, I put a parenthesis, there I end it with a period, the most important were, Petworth in 1752, Chatsworth in 1761, Bowood in 1763, Blenheim Palace in 1764. Humphry Repton was the last great English landscape designer of the eighteenth century, to help clients visualize his designs, Repton produced Red Books with explanatory text and watercolors with a system of overlays to show before and after views