Great Dividing Range
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australias most substantial mountain range and the third longest land-based range in the world. The width of the range varies from about 160 km to over 300 km, the Dividing Range does not consist of a single mountain range. It consists of a complex of ranges, upland areas and escarpments with an ancient. The physiographic division name for the landmass is called the East Australian Cordillera, in some places the terrain is relatively flat, consisting of very low hills. Typically the highlands range from 300 m to 1,600 m in height, the mountains and plateaus, which consist of limestones, quartzite and dolomite, have been created by faulting and folding processes. In the north, the rivers on the west side of the drain towards the Gulf of Carpentaria. The higher and more rugged parts of the range do not necessarily part of the crest of the range. At some places it can be up to 400 km wide, notable ranges and other features which form part of the range complex have their own distinctive names.
The Great Dividing Range was formed during the Carboniferous period—over 300 million years ago—when Australia collided with what is now parts of South America, the range has experienced significant erosion since. For tens of thousands of years prior to British colonisation the ranges were home to various Aboriginal Australian nations and clans, evidence remains in some places of their traditional way of life including decorated caves and trails used to travel between the coastal and inland regions. Many descendants of these still exist today and remain the traditional owners. After British colonisation in 1788, the ranges were an obstacle to exploration, although not high, parts of the highlands were very rugged. Towns in the Blue Mountains were named each of these men. This was the start of the development of the districts of inland New South Wales. A road was built to Blaxland by convicts within six months, easier routes to inland New South Wales were discovered towards Goulburn to the southwest, and westwards from Newcastle.
Subsequent explorations were made across and around the ranges by Allan Cunningham, John Oxley, Hamilton Hume, Paul Edmund Strzelecki, Ludwig Leichhardt and these explorers were mainly concerned with finding and appropriating good agricultural land. By the late 1830s the most fertile rangelands adjacent to the ranges had been explored, appropriated from the traditional inhabitants. These included the Gippsland and Riverina regions in the south, up to the Liverpool Plains, various road and railway routes were subsequently established through many parts of the ranges, although many areas remain remote to this day
Dubbo /ˈdʌboʊ/ is a city in the Orana Region of New South Wales, Australia. It is the largest population centre in the Orana region, with a population of 40,975 as of 2012. It is located at the intersection of the Mitchell, the nearest city, Orange, is approximately 144 km away. Dubbo is located approximately 275 m above sea level,303 km north-west of Sydney and is a major road and it is linked by national highways north to Brisbane, south to Melbourne, east to Sydney and Newcastle, and west to Broken Hill and Adelaide. Dubbo is included in the records and weather forecast region for the Central West Slopes and in the Central West Slopes. Evidence of habitation by Indigenous Australians dates back approximately 40,000 years, the explorer and surveyor John Oxley was the first European to report on the area now known as Dubbo in 1818. The first permanent European settler in the area was English born Robert Dulhunty, there are records of squatters being given permission to set up large sheep and cattle stations in the area in 1824 but these were not maintained.
Dulhunty occupied a property, known as Dubbo station, from the early 1830s on a squatting basis, with the passing of the Squatting Act in 1836 he took out a licence on the property. Dulhunty showed an affinity with Indigenous Australians, his party included some 40 Aborigines and he favoured using Aboriginal names for properties, a popular current theory is the word means red earth, consistent with the local landscape. Dundullimal Homestead is a farmhouse from that period, built around 1840 by John Maugham on his 26, the building is one of the oldest homesteads still standing in western NSW and today is open to visitors. In 1846, due to the number of settlers in the area, a constables residence was completed in 1847 and a wooden slab construction courthouse and lock-up in early 1848. By this time, the settlement had only four buildings, the residence and lock-up, a store. Due to the lack of title for the land, in 1848 the storekeeper, Jean Emile Serisier, the plan was presented to the colonys Surveyor General in May 1849 by surveyor G.
Boyle White. The settlement was gazetted as a village in November 1849 with the first land sales taking place in 1850, population growth was slow until the Victorian gold rush of the 1860s brought an increase in north-south trade. The first bank was opened in 1867, steady population growth saw the town proclaimed a municipality in 1872, when its population was 850. The railway extension of the western railway from Wellington to Dubbo was formally opened on 1 February 1881. By 1897, Dubbo had a store, Carrier Arms, a slab courthouse, a gaol. The final section of the Molong to Dubbo railway opened in late May 1925, Dubbo was officially proclaimed a city in 1966
Tumut /ˈtjuːmət/ or /ˈtʃuːmət/ is a town in the Riverina region of New South Wales, situated on the banks of the Tumut River. The name Tumut is derived from an Indigenous name for the area a word thought to mean a quiet resting place by the river, prior to European settlement and surrounding areas were part of the traditional lands of the Wiradjuri and Ngunnawal aboriginal peoples. The areas rivers may have been the boundaries or connection-points of these three language groups, during summertime, the high country was a meeting place for tribes, with Bogong moths being an abundant food source in the warmer months. Tumut sits on the north-west foothills of the Snowy Mountains and is referred to as the gateway to the Snowy Mountains Scheme, the former Tumut Shire was administered from offices located in the town. Tumut is approximately 410 kilometres south-west of Sydney and 525 kilometres north-east of Melbourne, Tumut is home to a number of historic buildings, including an Anglican church designed by Edmund Blacket and a Courthouse designed by James Barnet.
Many of the pubs in the town have been in use from the mid to late 1800s, early settlers established a large number of European deciduous trees throughout the area. The stand of Poplars and Willow, amongst others, Tumut celebrates this with the yearly Festival of the Falling Leaf. The name Tumut is derived from an Indigenous name for the area a word thought to mean a quiet resting place by the river, Tumut Post Office opened 1 January 1849. A public hospital opened in the town in 1900, after many years of lobbying by the local community, construction of the railway line from Gundagai began in 1901, reaching Tumut by 1903 with the first train arriving on 2 December that year. A further extension was built to Batlow and Kunama from a junction at Gilmore, Tumut was one of the ten areas short-listed in 1908 as a site for the Australian Capital Territory. Other locations that were short-listed include Albury, Bombala, Lake George, Tooma, Tumut is the centre of a thriving softwood industry based on plantation Pinus radiata.
CarterHoltHarvey Woodproducts Pty Ltd operate a sawmill on Adelong Road. 8 km further west on the Snowy Mountains Highway at Gilmore the company operates a sawlog processing plant. The Visy pulp and paper mill is located north of the Snowy Mountains Highway at Gadara, the Visy mill is the only paper mill owned by Visy that makes paper from wood, and is one of the biggest wood mills in Australia. Despite being more direct, the terrain and road conditions limit traffic via these routes and this has led to calls by the council and local businesses for funding to upgrade the Brindabella Road, as the increased traffic would provide the town greater economic opportunities. The town was served by a branch line from Cootamundra, which operated from 1903 until 1984. Although the line is not formally closed, it is unlikely to see service again with sections of track lifted during upgrades to the Hume Highway near Gundagai, Tumut Shire operates Tumut Airport, a small facility located a few kilometres out of town catering to general aviation.
Currently there are no scheduled services to the airport, the Tumut Blues compete in the Group 9 Rugby League competition, winning premierships in 1949,1973,2007,2008 and 2010
Bathurst, New South Wales
Bathurst /ˈbæθəst/ is a regional city in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. It is approximately 200 kilometres north-west of Sydney and is the seat of the Bathurst Regional Council, Bathurst is the oldest inland settlement in Australia and had an estimated population of 36,013 as at June 2015. Bathurst is often referred to as the Gold Country as it was the site of the first gold discovery, today education and manufacturing drive the economy. The internationally known racetrack Mount Panorama is a landmark of the city, Bathurst has an historic city centre with many buildings remaining from the gold rush period of the mid to late 1800s. The median age of the population is 34.0 years, which is particularly young for a regional centre. Population growth has reached 1. 6% per annum over the five years until 2010 and this growth over recent years has resulted in increased urban development including retail precincts, sporting facilities, housing estates and expanding industrial areas.
Bathurst is located on the edge of the Great Dividing Range in the Macquarie River plain. The city is located adjacent to the Macquarie River which is part of the Murray-Darling basin, the city is protected by a levee bank to protect the city from occasional flood events. Mount Panorama is located 3 kilometres from the CBD and effectively within the city limits, it is 877 metres AMSL, Bathurst is located adjacent to the Great Western Highway which begins in the centre of the city of Sydney and finishes at Bathurst. Within the city, two state highways start, the Mitchell Highway to Bourke and the Mid-Western Highway to Hay. Bathurst is located approximately mid-way along a road route from Canberra and Goulburn to Mudgee. Bathurst is located on the Main Western Railway line that starts at Sydney Central Station, the Macquarie River divides Bathurst with the CBD located on the western side of the river. Four road bridges and two bridges span the river within the city area. Two physical components comprise the Bathurst region, the Bathurst Basin and they are drained by the Macquarie, Turon and Campbells Rivers to the north and Abercrombie and Isabella Rivers to the south.
The central basin area of the Bathurst area is mainly granite soils while in the north area sandstone, greywacke, siltstones and minor volcanos predominate. The south is more complex geology with siltstones, greywacke and chert, basalt and granite intrusions and embedded volcanic, underlying Bathurst is the dominant feature of Bathurst granite and at Mount Panorama and Mount Stewart basalt occurs. Due to its elevation, Bathurst has a highland climate. Bathurst is in Australias cool temperate zone which is defined as having mild to warm summers
Mudgee /ˈmʌdʒi/ is a town in the Central West of New South Wales, Australia. It is in the broad fertile Cudgegong River valley 261 kilometres north-west of Sydney, Mudgee is at the centre of the Mid-Western Regional Council local government area. At the 2011 census, Mudgee had a population of 9,830 people, the Mudgee district lies across the edge of the geological structure known as the Sydney Basin. Mudgee has developed as a wine producing region and is therefore dependant on wine manufacturing as a part of its economy. It is heavily dependant on several major mines in the surrounding area, other rural produce includes cattle, wheat, olives, tomatoes, corn and dairy products. These, however, do not play as major a role as the mining industry, the Ulan coal mines are in the district. During the 19th century, the area was a major goldmining area and these mines have further potential to expand in the region, however they are the topic of local environmental concerns. Tourism is an industry based largely on the wineries. A laboratory was established in 1987 to test meat for pesticide residues, local real estate and living costs skyrocketed since 2010 when the mining boom began to peak.
This has rolled onto the local population, who have since had increased difficulty in living in the town, the name Mudgee is derived from the Wiradjuri term Moothi meaning Nest in the Hills or mou-gee meaning contented. James Blackman was the first European settler to cross the Cudgegong River in 1821 followed quickly by Lieutenant William Lawson who was commandant of Bathurst. Lawson would take up 6,000 acres in the area and Henry Cox, sons of William Cox, were the first settlers on the Cudgegong River when they established the Menah run,3 kilometres north of the current town. Martial law was declared by Governor Brisbane in 1824 leading to the killing of a number of the Wiradjuri people. While the site of Mudgee was surveyed for a village in 1823, Menah was the settlement having a police station. It has been claimed that Robert Hoddle designed the village which was gazetted in 1838. John Blackman built a hut, the first dwelling in Mudgee. By 1841, there were 36 dwellings, three hotels, a hospital, a post office, two stores and an Anglican church, the police station moved from Menah in the mid-1840s while an Anglican school was established in that decade as well.
In 1851, the population of Mudgee was 200, the population exploded as the discovery of gold in nearby Hargraves by Edward Hargraves led to a gold rush in New South Wales
Boorowa is a farming town in the South West Slopes of New South Wales, Australia. At the 2011 census, Boorowa had a population of 1,211 people and it is located in a valley 340 kilometres west of Sydney and 487 metres above sea-level. The town is in Hilltops Council local government area, prior to European settlement the area is thought to have been occupied by the Wiradjuri or Gandangara Indigenous Australians. It is believed that the name Burrowa, the spelling, derives from the local aboriginal language. The first European to travel through what is now Boorowa Shire was surveyor George Evans, unofficial occupation of the district began in 1821 with Irishmen Rodger Corcoran and Ned Ryan, both former convicts who had received their ticket of leave from the Governor. The first land grant in the area was issued to Thomas Icely in 1829. A mill was operating on the town site of Boorowa by 1837, along with an inn. Governor Gipps proposed the creation of a village named Burrowa in 1842, that spot proved unsuitable and the village was established on its present site in 1843.
Bushrangers roamed the surrounding unsettled wild mountainous land, making raids into the town, the district was given over to farming, although it received a push along when gold was found at Carcoar, Browns Creek and Kings Plains. Gold mines were established although copper and iron were extracted, samuel Marsdens copper mine operated until 1900. The towns rugby team competed for the Maher Cup during the 20th century. The next best option was a line to the town. The arrival of the railway in 1874 spurred on development and Burrowas name was changed to Boorowa. Boorowa replaced Carcoar as the service centre to local farmlands. It became a municipality in 1888, by the turn of the century a butter factory and freezing works were major employers in the town. Passenger trains ceased in 1980 and the Boorowa railway line from Galong to Boorowa closed in 1987, the town is located on the Boorowa River, a tributary of the Lachlan River. The Murrumbidgee River drains the southern portion of the Boorowa district, the soil in the area is rich volcanic soil washed down over millennia from an extinct volcano known as Mount Canemumbola.
October long weekend - The Running of the Sheep down the street of Boorowa during the Irish Woolfest
Leeton, New South Wales
Leeton is a town in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. Leeton is situated approximately 550 km west of Sydney and 450 km north of Melbourne in the productive Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area, Leeton is administered by Leeton Shire Council. Leetons urban population in 2011 was 6,733 and as of 2001, Leeton is situated in one of the most productive farming regions in the state, with citrus, rice and wheat farms found throughout the Leeton Shire. Leeton is Australias Rice Capital as it is home to the SunRice headquarters, other industry includes Freedom Foods, Berri Juices, Riverina Beef and Murrumbidgee Irrigation. Leeton is renowned as The Heart of SunRice Country, Leeton holds a number of town landmarks, including the Roxy Theatre, War Memorial, Madonna Place, St Peters Church, and the historic Hydro Motor Inn which are located in the centre of town. Leetons areas feature large towers that store the towns water, Leeton is a purpose-built town designed by Walter Burley Griffin after the irrigation schemes were announced by the New South Wales Government in the early 1900s.
The town has a circular structure and streetscape. Leeton has distinct commercial, industrial, educational, health and cultural areas, the unique design of Leeton is still considered a practical method of planning even though Leeton was founded over 90 years ago. The town is named after Charles Alfred Lee, a Minister for Public Works in New South Wales from 1904 to 1910, in 1912 a water tower was built to supply water to the tent town. Leeton Post Office opened on 6 September 1912, on 3 April 1913 the first block of land was sold in the town. During 1913 a kurrajong tree which became known as the Pioneers Tree, was planted as a feature in Kurrajong Avenue, and a butter factory was established in the town. In 1914 World War I broke out, of the population of 2000 people,200 men were serving in the armed forces making it difficult to maintain the plantings in the irrigation area. During 1914 and 1915 an abattoir and canning factory were established in the town, in August 1913 Walter Burley Griffin visited the town to complete its design.
The Commission chose and appointed an Advisory Board which was made up of farmers which already had been in operation in the Yanco area since 1913. On 1 January 1928 the Willimbong Shire was formed with the name Willimbong being retained until 19 July 1946 when it was renamed as Leeton Shire. In 1929 the Roxy Theatre was built on a vacant block of land on the corner of Wade. In 1930 Willimbong Shire become the trustee of the Leeton Racecourse, established in 1912, in August 1931 Southern Cross became the first aircraft to officially landing at the aerodrome. During 1935 work was done at the aerodrome for it to be licensed to take aircraft including commercial aircraft
Wagga Wagga is a major regional city in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. The central business district is focused around the commercial and recreational grid bounded by Best and Tarcutta Streets and the Murrumbidgee River, the main shopping street of Wagga is Baylis Street which becomes Fitzmaurice Street at the northern end. The city is in a valley and much of the city has a problem with urban salinity. The original inhabitants of the Wagga Wagga region were the Wiradjuri people, in 1829, Charles Sturt became the first European explorer to visit the future site of the city. The town, positioned on the site of a ford across the Murrumbidgee, was surveyed and gazetted as a village in 1849, in 1870, the town was gazetted as a municipality. During the negotiations leading to the federation of the Australian colonies, during World War I the town was the starting point for the Kangaroo recruitment march. The Great Depression and the resulting hardship saw Wagga Wagga become the centre of a movement for the Riverina region.
Wagga Wagga became a town during World War II with the establishment of a military base at Kapooka and Royal Australian Air Force bases at Forest Hill. After the war, Wagga Wagga was proclaimed as a city in 1946, in 1982 the city was amalgamated with the neighbouring Kyeamba and Mitchell Shires to form the City of Wagga Wagga local government area. Wagga Wagga is at the end of the Riverina region where the slopes of the Great Dividing Range flatten. The city straddles the Murrumbidgee River, one of the rivers of the Murray-Darling Basin. This location astride some of the transport routes in the nation has made Wagga Wagga an important heavy truck depot for a number of companies including Toll Holdings. Wagga Wagga is upstream from the Riverina plain in the mid-catchment range of the Murrumbidgee River in an alluvial valley confined by low bedrock hills, much of Wagga Wagga is on heavy clay soils in a large drainage basin with a small catchment discharge point. Groundwater therefore cannot leave easily, leading to Wagga Wagga having a problem with waterlogged soil and soil salination, urban salination in Wagga Wagga is now the subject of a large multi-pronged approach to prevent further salination and reclaim salt-affected areas.
The main shopping street of Wagga Wagga is Baylis Street which becomes Fitzmaurice Street at the northern end, the Wollundry Lagoon is the water focus of the city centre and has been a key element in the development and separation of the north and south parts of the city centre. Major industrial areas of Wagga Wagga include the suburb of Bomen. Thomas Mitchell, the surveyor who served under Lord Wellington named many of the streets after Peninsula War veterans, Wagga Wagga has a temperate climate with hot dry summers and cool to cold winters. Under the Köppen climate classification, the city has a subtropical climate
Cowra is a town in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. It is the largest population centre and the seat for the Cowra Shire. Cowra is located approximately 310 m above sea level on the banks of the Lachlan River in the Lachlan Valley, by road it is approximately 310 km South-West of the state capital Sydney and 189 km North of the nations capital Canberra. The town is situated at the intersection of three state highways the Mid-Western Highway, Olympic Highway and the Lachlan Valley Way. Cowra is included in the records and weather forecast region for the Central West Slopes. The first explorer, George William Evans, entered the Lachlan Valley in 1815 and he named the area the Oxley Plains after his superior the surveyor-general, John Oxley. In 1817 he deemed the area unfit for settlement, a military depot was established not long after at Soldiers Flat near present-day Billimari. Arthur Ranken and James Sloan, from Bathurst, were amongst the first white settlers on the Lachlan and they moved to the area in 1831.
The township of Coura Rocks had its beginnings in 1844, around 1847, the township site became known as Cowra, and in 1849, was proclaimed a village. In the 1850s many gold prospectors passed through headed for gold fields at Lambing Flat, the first school was established in 1857. The first bridge over the Lachlan River was built in 1870, gold was discovered at Mount McDonald in the 1880s. The rail head, from Sydney, reached Cowra in 1886, local government was granted in 1888. The first telephone exchange was established in 1901, the town water supply was established in 1909, the gasworks in 1912 and town supplied electricity was introduced in 1924. Cowra hosts an annual Festival of International Understanding, featuring a parade, balloons for the kids, during World War II, Cowra was the site of a prisoner of war camp. Most of the detainees were captured Japanese and Italian military personnel, on 5 August 1944, at least 545 Japanese POWs attempted a mass breakout from the camp. Simultaneously, other Japanese prisoners committed suicide, or were killed by their countrymen, during the breakout and subsequent recapture of POWs, four Australian guards and 231 Japanese died, and 108 prisoners were wounded.
The dead Japanese were buried in Cowra in the specially created Japanese War Cemetery and this is the only such cemetery in Australia, and holds some of the dead from the World War II air raids on Darwin. An Avenue of Honour commemorates those who died in World War I, Cowra has a temperate climate, with average maximum temperatures ranging from 32 °C in summer to 14 °C in winter, while minimums range from 16 °C to 2 °C
Hay, New South Wales
Hay is a town in the western Riverina region of south western New South Wales, Australia. It is the centre of Hay Shire local government area. The town itself is built beside the Murrumbidgee River, part of the Murray-Darling river system, the main business district of Hay is situated on the north bank of the river. Aboriginal communities in the western Riverina were traditionally concentrated in the more habitable river corridors, the district surrounding Hay was occupied by at least three separate Aboriginal groups at the time of European settler expansion onto their lands. In late 1829 Charles Sturt and his men passed along the Murrumbidgee River on horses and they launched their whale-boat near the Murrumbidgee-Lachlan junction and continued the journey by boat to the Murray River and eventually to the sea at Lake Alexandrina. During the late-1830s stock was regularly overlanded to South Australia via the Lower Murrumbidgee, at the same time stockholders were edging westward along and the Lachlan, Murrumbidgee and Murray systems.
By 1839 all of the river frontages in the vicinity of present-day Hay were occupied by squatters, by the mid-1850s pastoral runs in the western Riverina were well-established and prosperous. The nearby Victorian gold-rushes provided a market for stock. The prime fattening country of the Riverina became a sort of holding centre, one of the popular routes established in the mid-1850s crossed the Murrumbidgee River at Lang’s Crossing-place. The locality where Hay township developed was known as Lang’s Crossing place. It was the crossing on the Murrumbidgee River of a well-travelled stock-route leading to the markets of Victoria, in 1856-7 Captain Francis Cadell, pioneer of steam-navigation on the Murray River, placed a manager at Lang’s Crossing-place with the task of establishing a store. In December 1857 Thomas Simpson re-located from Deniliquin to establish a blacksmith shop, six months the Canadian shipwright Henry Leonard arrived, he commenced building a hotel and dwelling-house near Simpson’s buildings and launched a punt on the river.
In August 1858 steamers owned by rival owners, Francis Cadell and William Randell, Henry Jeffries, the leaseholder of Illilawa station, was vehemently opposed to Henry Leonards operations, threats against his punt caused Leonard to stand guard with a loaded gun. An attempt by Jeffries to pull down Leonard’s hotel as it was being constructed caused an outcry from those advocating a settlement at the location, in consequence the NSW Government sent a surveyor to map out a new township. Henry Leonard completed his inn and opened it on 30 October 1858, the Murrumbidgee Punt Hotel was described as a large size weatherboard building with a shingled roof and a fine verandah along the front. By mid-1859 the Department of Lands had proclaimed reservations on either side of the river at Langs Crossing-place and Henry Shiell was appointed Police Magistrate. By October 1859 the township had been named Hay after John Hay, the same month successful land-sales were held at Hay. Lang’s Crossing Place Post Office opened on 16 April 1859 and was renamed Hay in 1861, in early 1860 a brick court-house and lock-up was built at Hay
Howlong /ˈhaʊlɒŋ/ is a town 28 kilometres west of Albury, and is situated on the Murray River which separates the Australian states of New South Wales and Victoria. The town is located on the Riverina Highway, there is a bridge across the Murray into Victoria. Howlong is in the Federation Council local government area, at the 2011 census, Howlong had a population of 2,551. Prior to the founding of the township the Surveyor-General of New South Wales at that time Major Thomas Mitchell crossed the Murray River during his exploration of the area. Three years two men with a property in the set off on the second longest cattle drive of its kind attempted in Australia at that time driving 300 head to South Australia. The township appears to have taken its title from a property named Hoolong in the area which was owned by Isaac Rudd and was named after an Aboriginal place name meaning beginning of the plains, Howlong as a township was laid out in 1854. The Post Office opened on 1 January 1861 and it has frequently been noted on lists of unusual place names.
Howlong is now an important inland township which services the villages of the area with a range of stores that meet most of the everyday needs of the people of the area. The town is immortalised in the song By the time I get to Howlong from Spiderbaits album Grand Slam, media related to Howlong, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons
John Rudder, PhD, has studied the Australian Aboriginal languages, of Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory and the state of New South Wales, Australia. In 1964, Rudder went to Arnhem Land as a teacher, in that time he learned to speak the language of the region, and analysed its grammar and syntax. Intensive weekend camps and other sessions have seen a number of Wiradjuri speakers who are beginning to re-establish the language. For instance, these speakers are beginning to write songs and poems that are being taught to children, secondary effects of the cultural use of the Wiradjuri language are being felt within the language group, and beyond. He recently returned to painting, and his entry was selected for display in the exhibition of the inaugural Phoenix Prize for spiritual art in 2005, Rudder has been a member of the Uniting Church in Australia. Until her death in 2008 he was married to Trixie, a lay pastor for a congregation of the Uniting Church at Gunning. In December 2010 he remarried and moved to Sydney, john says that his relationships – what most white Australians would call friendships and family – are mostly with the Aboriginal people.
His recent writing has been extensively in collaboration with Stan Grant