WAP 2.0 specifies XHTML Mobile Profile plus WAP CSS, subsets of the W3C's standard XHTML and CSS with minor mobile extensions. Newer mobile browsers are full-featured Web browsers capable of HTML, CSS, ECMAScript, as well as mobile technologies such as WML, i-mode HTML, or cHTML. To accommodate small screens, they use Post-WIMP interfaces; the first mobile browser for a PDA was PocketWeb for the Apple Newton created at TecO in 1994, followed by the first commercial product NetHopper released in August 1996. The so-called "microbrowser" technologies such as WAP, NTTDocomo's i-mode platform and Openwave's HDML platform fueled the first wave of interest in wireless data services; the first deployment of a mobile browser on a mobile phone was in 1997 when Unwired Planet put their "UP. Browser" on AT&T handsets to give users access to HDML content. A British company, STNC Ltd. developed a mobile browser in 1997, intended to present the entire device UI. The demonstration platform for this mobile browser had 1 MIPS total processing power.
This was a single core platform, running the GSM stack on the same processor as the application stack. In 1999 STNC was acquired by Microsoft and HitchHiker became Microsoft Mobile Explorer 2.0, not related to the primitive Microsoft Mobile Explorer 1.0. HitchHiker is believed to be the first mobile browser with a unified rendering model, handling HTML and WAP along with ECMAScript, WMLScript, POP3 and IMAP mail in a single client. Although it was not used, it was possible to combine HTML and WAP in the same pages although this would render the pages invalid for any other device. Mobile Explorer 2.0 was available on the Benefon Q, Sony CMD-Z5, CMD-J5, CMD-MZ5, CMD-J6, CMD-Z7, CMD-J7 and CMD-J70. With the addition of a messaging kernel and a driver model, this was powerful enough to be the operating system for certain embedded devices. One such device was the Amstrad e-m@iler and e-m@iler 2; this code formed the basis for MME3. Multiple companies offered browsers for the Palm OS platform; the first HTML browser for Palm OS 1.0 was HandWeb by Smartcode software, released in 1997.
HandWeb included its own TCP/IP stack, Smartcode was acquired by Palm in 1999. Mobile browsers for the Palm OS platform multiplied after the release of Palm OS 2.0, which included a TCP/IP stack. A freeware browser for the Palm OS was Palmscape, written in 1998 by Kazuho Oku in Japan, who went on to found Ilinx. Still in limited use as late as 2003. Qualcomm developed the Eudora Web browser, launched it with the Palm OS based QCP smartphone. ProxiWeb was a proxy-based Web browsing solution, developed by Ian Goldberg and others at the University of California Berkeley and acquired by PumaTech. Released in 2001, Mobile Explorer 3.0 added iMode compatibility plus numerous proprietary schemes. By imaginatively combining these proprietary schemes with WAP protocols, MME3.0 implemented OTA database synchronisation, push email, push information clients and PIM functionality. The cancelled Sony Ericsson CMD-Z700 was to feature heavy integration with MME3.0. Although Mobile Explorer was ahead of its time in the mobile phone space, development was stopped in 2002.
In 2002, Inc. offered Web Pro on Tungsten PDAs based upon a Novarra browser. PalmSource offered a competing Web browser based on Access Netfront. Opera Software pioneered with its Small Screen Medium Screen Rendering technology; the Opera web browser is able to reformat regular web pages for optimal fit on small screens and medium-sized screens. It was the first available mobile browser to support Ajax and the first mobile browser to pass ACID2 test. Distinct from a mobile browser is a web-based emulator, which uses a "Virtual Handset" to display WAP pages on a computer screen, implemented either in Java or as an HTML transcoder; the following are some of the more popular mobile browsers. Some mobile browsers are miniaturized web browsers, so some mobile device providers provide browsers for desktop and laptop computers. Mobile transcoders reformat and compress web content for mobile devices and must be used in conjunction with built-in or user-installed mobile browsers; the following are several leading mobile transcoding services.
Openwave Web Adapter - used by Vodacom Vision Mobile Server Skweezer - used by Orange, JumpTap, Medio and others Teashark Opera Mini Loband by Aptivate Google Mobilizer — Defunct since February 2016. Replaced with Google Web Light. Smart
A mobile phone, cell phone, cellphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network. Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, Internet access, short-range wireless communications, business applications, video games, digital photography. Mobile phones offering only those capabilities are known as feature phones; the first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c. 2 kilograms.
In 1979, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone launched the world's first cellular network in Japan. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to over seven billion—enough to provide one for every person on Earth. In first quarter of 2016, the top smartphone developers worldwide were Samsung and Huawei, smartphone sales represented 78 percent of total mobile phone sales. For feature phones as of 2016, the largest were Samsung and Alcatel. A handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a "pocket-size folding telephone with a thin carbon microphone". Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from trains; the race to create portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive "generations", starting with the early zeroth-generation services, such as Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service and its successor, the Improved Mobile Telephone Service.
These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, were expensive. The first handheld cellular mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing 2 kilograms; the first commercial automated cellular network analog was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in 1979. This was followed in 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone system in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Several other countries followed in the early to mid-1980s; these first-generation systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. In 1991, the second-generation digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard; this sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators. Ten years in 2001, the third generation was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard.
This was followed by 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications, such as streaming media; the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard, offered in North America by Sprint, the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera. 5G is a technology and term used in research papers and projects to denote the next major phase in mobile telecommunication standards beyond the 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. The term 5G is not used in any specification or official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP, WiMAX Forum or ITU-R.
New standards beyond 4G are being developed by standardization bodies, but they are at this time seen as under the 4G umbrella, not for a new mobile generation. Smartphones have a number of distinguishing features; the International Telecommunication Union measures those with Internet connection, which it calls Active Mobile-Broadband subscriptions. In the developed world, smartphones have now overtaken the usage of earlier mobile systems. However, in the developing world, they account for around 50% of mobile telephony. Feature phone is a term used as a retronym to describe mobile phones which are limited in capabilities in contrast to a modern smartphone. Feature phones provide voice calling and text messaging functionality, in addition to basic multimedia and Internet capabilities, other services offered by the user's wireless service provider. A feature phone has additional functions over and above a basic mobile phone, only capable of voice calling and text messaging. Feature phones and basic mobile phones tend to use a proprietary, custom-designed software and user interface.
By contrast, smartphones use a mobile operating system that shares common traits across devices. There are Orthodox Jewish religious re
A web server is server software, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can satisfy World Wide Web client requests. A web server can, in general, contain one or more websites. A web server processes incoming network requests over several other related protocols; the primary function of a web server is to store and deliver web pages to clients. The communication between client and server takes place using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol. Pages delivered are most HTML documents, which may include images, style sheets and scripts in addition to the text content. A user agent a web browser or web crawler, initiates communication by making a request for a specific resource using HTTP and the server responds with the content of that resource or an error message if unable to do so; the resource is a real file on the server's secondary storage, but this is not the case and depends on how the web server is implemented. While the primary function is to serve content, a full implementation of HTTP includes ways of receiving content from clients.
This feature is used for submitting web forms, including uploading of files. Many generic web servers support server-side scripting using Active Server Pages, PHP, or other scripting languages; this means that the behaviour of the web server can be scripted in separate files, while the actual server software remains unchanged. This function is used to generate HTML documents dynamically as opposed to returning static documents; the former is used for retrieving or modifying information from databases. The latter is much faster and more cached but cannot deliver dynamic content. Web servers can be found embedded in devices such as printers, routers and serving only a local network; the web server may be used as a part of a system for monitoring or administering the device in question. This means that no additional software has to be installed on the client computer since only a web browser is required. In March 1989 Sir Tim Berners-Lee proposed a new project to his employer CERN, with the goal of easing the exchange of information between scientists by using a hypertext system.
The project resulted in Berners-Lee writing two programs in 1990: A Web browser called WorldWideWeb The world's first web server known as CERN httpd, which ran on NeXTSTEPBetween 1991 and 1994, the simplicity and effectiveness of early technologies used to surf and exchange data through the World Wide Web helped to port them to many different operating systems and spread their use among scientific organizations and universities, subsequently to the industry. In 1994 Berners-Lee decided to constitute the World Wide Web Consortium to regulate the further development of the many technologies involved through a standardization process. Web servers are able to map the path component of a Uniform Resource Locator into: A local file system resource An internal or external program name For a static request the URL path specified by the client is relative to the web server's root directory. Consider the following URL as it would be requested by a client over HTTP: http://www.example.com/path/file.html The client's user agent will translate it into a connection to www.example.com with the following HTTP 1.1 request: GET /path/file.html HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com The web server on www.example.com will append the given path to the path of its root directory.
On an Apache server, this is /home/www. The result is the local file system resource: /home/www/path/file.html The web server reads the file, if it exists, sends a response to the client's web browser. The response will describe the content of the file and contain the file itself or an error message will return saying that the file does not exist or is unavailable. A web server can be either incorporated in user space. Web servers that run in user-mode have to ask the system for permission to use more memory or more CPU resources. Not only do these requests to the kernel take time, but they are not always satisfied because the system reserves resources for its own usage and has the responsibility to share hardware resources with all the other running applications. Executing in user mode can mean useless buffer copies which are another handicap for user-mode web servers. A web server has defined load limits, because it can handle only a limited number of concurrent client connections per IP address and it can serve only a certain maximum number of requests per second depending on: its own settings, the HTTP request type, whether the content is static or dynamic, whether the content is cached, the hardware and software limitations of the OS of the computer on which the web server runs.
When a web server is near to or over its limit, it becomes unresponsive. At any time web servers can be overloaded due to: Excess legitimate web traffic. Thousands or millions of clients connecting to the web site in a short interval, e.g. Slashdot effect. A denial-of-service attack or distributed denial-of-service attack is an attempt to make a computer or network resource unavailable to its intended users.
Multimedia Messaging Service
Multimedia Messaging Service is a standard way to send messages that include multimedia content to and from a mobile phone over a cellular network. Users and providers may refer to such a message as a PXT, a picture message, or a multimedia message; the MMS standard extends the core SMS capability, allowing the exchange of text messages greater than 160 characters in length. Unlike text-only SMS, MMS can deliver a variety of media, including up to forty seconds of video, one image, a slideshow of multiple images, or audio; the most common use involves sending photographs from camera-equipped handsets. Media companies have utilized MMS on a commercial basis as a method of delivering news and entertainment content, retailers have deployed it as a tool for delivering scannable coupon codes, product images and other information; the 3GPP and WAP groups fostered the development of the MMS standard, now continued by the Open Mobile Alliance. Multimedia messaging service was built using the technology of SMS messaging, first developed in 1984 as a captive technology which enabled service providers to "collect a fee every time anyone snaps a photo."Early MMS deployments were plagued by technical issues and frequent consumer disappointments.
In recent years, MMS deployment by major technology companies have solved many of the early challenges through handset detection, content optimization, increased throughput. China was one of the early markets to make MMS a major commercial success as the penetration rate of personal computers was modest but MMS-capable camera phones spread rapidly; the chairman and CEO of China Mobile said at the GSM Association Mobile Asia Congress in 2009 that MMS in China was now a mature service on par with SMS text messaging. Europe's most advanced MMS market has been Norway, in 2008, the Norwegian MMS usage level passed 84% of all mobile phone subscribers. Norwegian mobile subscribers sent on average one MMS per week. Between 2010 and 2013, MMS traffic in the U. S. increased by 70% from 57 billion to 96 billion messages sent. This is due in part to the wide adoption of smartphones. MMS messages are delivered in a different way from SMS; the first step is for the sending device to encode the multimedia content in a fashion similar to sending a MIME message.
The message is forwarded to the carrier's MMS store and forward server, known as the MMSC. If the receiver is on a carrier different from the sender the MMSC acts as a relay, forwards the message to the MMSC of the recipient's carrier using the internet. Once the recipient's MMSC has received a message, it first determines whether the receiver's handset is "MMS capable", that it supports the standards for receiving MMS. If so, the content is sent to a temporary storage server with an HTTP front-end. An SMS "control message" containing the URL of the content is sent to the recipient's handset to trigger the receiver's WAP browser to open and receive the content from the embedded URL. Several other messages are exchanged to indicate the status of the delivery attempt. Before delivering content, some MMSCs include a conversion service that will attempt to modify the multimedia content into a format suitable for the receiver; this is known as "content adaptation". If the receiver's handset is not MMS capable, the message is delivered to a web-based service from where the content can be viewed from a normal internet browser.
The URL for the content is sent to the receiver's phone in a normal text message. This behavior is known as a "legacy experience" since content can still be received by a phone number if the phone itself does not support MMS; the method for determining whether a handset is MMS capable is not specified by the standards. A database is maintained by the operator, in it each mobile phone number is marked as being associated with a legacy handset or not; this method is unreliable, because customers can independently change their handsets, many of these databases are not updated dynamically. MMS does not utilize operator-maintained "data" plans to distribute multimedia content, only used if the operator clicks links inside the message. E-mail and web-based gateways to the MMS system are common. On the reception side, the content servers can receive service requests both from WAP and normal HTTP browsers, so delivery via the web is simple. For sending from external sources to handsets, most carriers allow a MIME encoded message to be sent to the receiver's phone number using a special e-mail address combining the recipient's public phone number and a special domain name, carrier-specific.
There are some interesting challenges with MMS that do not exist with SMS: Content adaptation: Multimedia content created by one brand of MMS phone may not be compatible with the capabilities of the recipient's MMS phone. In the MMS architecture, the recipient MMSC is responsible for providing for content adaptation, if this feature is enabled by the mobile network operator; when content adaptation is supported by a network operator, its MMS subscribers enjoy compatibility with a larger network of MMS users than would otherwise be available. Distribution lists: Current MMS specifications do not include distribution lists nor methods by which large numbers of recipients can be conveniently addressed by content providers, called Value-added service providers in 3GPP. Since most SMSC vendors have adopted FTP as an ad-hoc method by which large distribution lists are transferred to the SMSC prior to being used in a bulk-mess
Mozilla Firefox is a free and open-source web browser developed by The Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation. Firefox is available for Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux, BSD, illumos and Solaris operating systems, its sibling, Firefox for Android, is available. Firefox uses the Gecko layout engine to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards. In 2017, Firefox began incorporating new technology under the code name Quantum to promote parallelism and a more intuitive user interface. An additional version, Firefox for iOS, was released on November 12, 2015. Due to platform restrictions, it uses the WebKit layout engine instead of Gecko, as with all other iOS web browsers. Firefox was created in 2002 under the codename "Phoenix" by the Mozilla community members who desired a standalone browser, rather than the Mozilla Application Suite bundle. During its beta phase, Firefox proved to be popular with its testers and was praised for its speed and add-ons compared to Microsoft's then-dominant Internet Explorer 6.
Firefox was released on November 9, 2004, challenged Internet Explorer's dominance with 60 million downloads within nine months. Firefox is the spiritual successor of Netscape Navigator, as the Mozilla community was created by Netscape in 1998 before their acquisition by AOL. Firefox usage grew to a peak of 32% at the end of 2009, with version 3.5 overtaking Internet Explorer 7, although not Internet Explorer as a whole. Usage declined in competition with Google Chrome; as of January 2019, Firefox has 9.5% usage share as a "desktop" browser, according to StatCounter, making it the second-most popular such web browser. Firefox is still the most popular desktop browser in a few countries including Cuba and Eritrea with 72.26% and 83.28% of the market share, respectively. According to Mozilla, in December 2014, there were half a billion Firefox users around the world; the project began as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project by Dave Hyatt, Joe Hewitt, Blake Ross. They believed the commercial requirements of Netscape's sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser.
To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suite's software bloat, they created a stand-alone browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla Suite. On April 3, 2003, the Mozilla Organization announced that they planned to change their focus from the Mozilla Suite to Firefox and Thunderbird; the community-driven SeaMonkey was formed and replaced the Mozilla Application Suite in 2005. The Firefox project has undergone several name changes, it was titled Phoenix, which carried the implication of the mythical firebird that rose triumphantly from the ashes of its dead predecessor, in this case from the "ashes" of Netscape Navigator after it had been killed off by Microsoft Internet Explorer in the "First Browser War". Phoenix was renamed due to trademark issues with Phoenix Technologies. In response, the Mozilla Foundation stated that the browser would always bear the name Mozilla Firebird to avoid confusion. After further pressure, on February 9, 2004, Mozilla Firebird became Mozilla Firefox.
The name Firefox was said to be derived from a nickname of the red panda, which became the mascot for the newly named project. For the abbreviation of Firefox, Mozilla prefers Fx or fx, though it is abbreviated as FF; the Firefox project went through many versions before version 1.0 was released on November 9, 2004. In 2016, Mozilla announced a project known as Quantum, which sought to improve Firefox's Gecko engine and other components to improve Firefox's performance, modernize its architecture, transition the browser to a multi-process model; these improvements came in the wake of decreasing market share to Google Chrome, as well as concerns that its performance was lapsing in comparison. Despite its improvements, these changes required existing add-ons for Firefox to be made incompatible with newer versions, in favor of a new extension system, designed to be similar to Chrome and other recent browsers. Firefox 57, released in November 2017, was the first version to contain enhancements from Quantum, has thus been named Firefox Quantum.
Firefox supported add-ons using the XUL and XPCOM APIs, which allowed them to directly access and manipulate much of the browser's internal functionality. As they are not compatible with its m
Productivity software is application software used for producing information. Its names arose from the fact that it increases productivity of individual office workers, from typists to knowledge workers, although its scope is now wider than that. Office suites, which brought word processing and relational database programs to the desktop in the 1980s, are the core example of productivity software, they revolutionized the office with the magnitude of the productivity increase they brought as compared with the pre-1980s office environments of typewriters, paper filing, handwritten lists and ledgers. Some 78% of "middle-skill" occupations now require the use of productivity software. In the 2010s, productivity software has become more consumerized than it was, as computing becomes more integrated into daily personal life. Productivity software traditionally runs directly on a computer. For example, Commodore Plus/4 model of computer contained in ROM for applications of productivity software. Productivity software is one of the reasons.
Productivity software can fall into the following categories: Time Management Software: With time management software, one is able to track time on a desktop without any user intervention. This allows the person to analyse how much time is spent on each task and what one can do to re-prioritise his tasks and spend time on the most important tasks. Project Management Software: With project management software, one is able to delegate, track major projects and have a quick overview of the progress made by each team member. An office suite is a collection of bundled productivity software intended to be used by knowledge workers; the components are distributed together, have a consistent user interface and can interact with each other, sometimes in ways that the operating system would not allow. The earliest office suite for personal computers was Starburst in the early 1980s, comprising the word processor WordStar, together with companion apps CalcStar and DataStar. Various other suites arose in the 1980s, over the course of the 1990s Microsoft Office came to dominate the market, a position it retains as of 2018.
Existing office suites contain wide range of various components. Most the base components include: Word processor Spreadsheet Presentation programOther components of office suites include: Database software Graphics suite Desktop publishing software Formula editor Diagramming software Email client Communication software Personal information manager Notetaking software Groupware Project management software Web log analysis software Office Suites at Curlie
It describes 18 elements comprising the initial simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were influenced by SGMLguid, an in-house Standard Generalized Markup Language -based documentation format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4. HTML is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text and other material into visual or audible web pages. Default characteristics for every item of HTML markup are defined in the browser, these characteristics can be altered or enhanced by the web page designer's additional use of CSS. Many of the text elements are found in the 1988 ISO technical report TR 9537 Techniques for using SGML, which in turn covers the features of early text formatting languages such as that used by the RUNOFF command developed in the early 1960s for the CTSS operating system: these formatting commands were derived from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents. However, the SGML concept of generalized markup is based on elements rather than print effects, with the separation of structure and markup.
Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML. It was formally defined as such by the Internet Engineering Task Force with the mid-1993 publication of the first proposal for an HTML specification, the "Hypertext Markup Language" Internet Draft by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly, which included an SGML Document type definition to define the grammar; the draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes. Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms. After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based. Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests.
Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium. However, in 2000, HTML became an international standard. HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999, with further errata published through 2001. In 2004, development began on HTML5 in the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, which became a joint deliverable with the W3C in 2008, completed and standardized on 28 October 2014. November 24, 1995 HTML 2.0 was published as RFC 1866. Supplemental RFCs added capabilities: November 25, 1995: RFC 1867 May 1996: RFC 1942 August 1996: RFC 1980 January 1997: RFC 2070 January 14, 1997 HTML 3.2 was published as a W3C Recommendation. It was the first version developed and standardized by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group on September 12, 1996. Code-named "Wilbur", HTML 3.2 dropped math formulas reconciled overlap among various proprietary extensions and adopted most of Netscape's visual markup tags.
Netscape's blink element and Microsoft's marquee element were omitted due to a mutual agreement between the two companies. A markup for mathematical formu