This article is primarily about four-wheeled vehicle suspension. For information on two-wheeled vehicles suspensions see the motorcycle suspension, motorcycle fork, bicycle suspension, Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two. Suspension systems must support both roadholding/handling and ride quality, which are at odds with each other, the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. The suspension protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage, the design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different. An early form of suspension on ox-drawn carts had the swing on iron chains attached to the wheeled frame of the carriage. This system remained the basis for all suspension systems until the turn of the 19th century, no modern automobiles use the strap suspension system. Automobiles were initially developed as self-propelled versions of horse-drawn vehicles, horse-drawn vehicles had been designed for relatively slow speeds, and their suspension was not well suited to the higher speeds permitted by the internal combustion engine.
The first workable spring-suspension required advanced metallurgical knowledge and skill, within a decade, most British horse carriages were equipped with springs, wooden springs in the case of light one-horse vehicles to avoid taxation, and steel springs in larger vehicles. These were often made of steel and usually took the form of multiple layer leaf springs. Leaf springs have been around since the early Egyptians, ancient military engineers used leaf springs in the form of bows to power their siege engines, with little success at first. The use of springs in catapults was refined and made to work years later. Springs were not only made of metal, a tree branch could be used as a spring. Horse-drawn carriages and the Ford Model T used this system, and it is used today in larger vehicles. This was the first modern system and, along with advances in the construction of roads. In 1901 Mors of Paris first fitted an automobile with shock absorbers, with the advantage of a damped suspension system on his Mors Machine, Henri Fournier won the prestigious Paris-to-Berlin race on 20 June 1901.
Fourniers superior time was 11 hrs 46 min 10 sec, while the best competitor was Léonce Girardot in a Panhard with a time of 12 hrs 15 min 40 sec. Coil springs first appeared on a vehicle in 1906 in the Brush Runabout made by the Brush Motor Company. Today, coil springs are used in most cars, in 1920, Leyland Motors used torsion bars in a suspension system
Radiator (engine cooling)
Engine coolant is usually water-based, but may be oil. It is common to employ a water pump to force the engine coolant to circulate, in automobiles and motorcycles with a liquid-cooled internal combustion engine, a radiator is connected to channels running through the engine and cylinder head, through which a liquid is pumped. This liquid may be water, but is commonly a mixture of water. Antifreeze itself is usually ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, the radiator transfers the heat from the fluid inside to the air outside, thereby cooling the fluid, which in turn cools the engine. Radiators are used to cool automatic transmission fluids, air conditioner refrigerant, intake air. Radiators are typically mounted in a position where they receive airflow from the movement of the vehicle. Where engines are mid- or rear-mounted, it is common to mount the radiator behind a front grill to achieve sufficient airflow, the radiator may draw air from the flow over the top of the vehicle or from a side-mounted grill.
For long vehicles, such as buses, side airflow is most common for engine and transmission cooling, automobile radiators are constructed of a pair of header tanks, linked by a core with many narrow passageways, giving a high surface area relative to volume. This core is made of stacked layers of metal sheet, pressed to form channels. For many years radiators were made from brass or copper cores soldered to brass headers, modern radiators have aluminum cores, and often save money and weight by using plastic headers. This construction is more prone to failure and less easily repaired than traditional materials, an earlier construction method was the honeycomb radiator. Round tubes were swaged into hexagons at their ends, stacked together, as they only touched at their ends, this formed what became in effect a solid water tank with many air tubes through it. Some vintage cars use radiator cores made from coiled tube, a less efficient, radiators first used downward vertical flow, driven solely by a thermosyphon effect.
Coolant is heated in the engine, becomes less dense, as the radiator cools the fluid, the coolant becomes denser and falls. This effect is sufficient for low-power stationary engines, but inadequate for all, all automobiles for many years have used centrifugal pumps to circulate the engine coolant because natural circulation has very low flow rates. A system of valves or baffles, or both, is incorporated to simultaneously operate a small radiator inside the vehicle. This small radiator, and the associated blower fan, is called the heater core, like the radiator, the heater core acts by removing heat from the engine. For this reason, automotive technicians often advise operators to turn on the heater and set it to if the engine is overheating
The term Engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning cleverness and ingeniare, meaning to contrive, devise. Engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the wedge, wheel, each of these inventions is essentially consistent with the modern definition of engineering. The term engineering is derived from the engineer, which itself dates back to 1390 when an engineer originally referred to a constructor of military engines. In this context, now obsolete, a referred to a military machine. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, the word engine itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning innate quality, especially mental power, hence a clever invention. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep, as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he probably designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC.
Ancient Greece developed machines in both civilian and military domains, the Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, and the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed, the first steam engine was built in 1698 by Thomas Savery. The development of this gave rise to the Industrial Revolution in the coming decades. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the 18th century, similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering, the fields known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering. The inventions of Thomas Newcomen and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to mechanical engineering. The development of specialized machines and machine tools during the revolution led to the rapid growth of mechanical engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is regarded as the father of civil engineering.
He was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, harbours and he was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse where he pioneered the use of hydraulic lime and his lighthouse remained in use until 1877 and was dismantled and partially rebuilt at Plymouth Hoe where it is known as Smeatons Tower. The United States census of 1850 listed the occupation of engineer for the first time with a count of 2,000, there were fewer than 50 engineering graduates in the U. S. before 1865. In 1870 there were a dozen U. S. mechanical engineering graduates, in 1890 there were 6,000 engineers in civil, mining and electrical. There was no chair of applied mechanism and applied mechanics established at Cambridge until 1875, the theoretical work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of electronics
Computational fluid dynamics
Computational fluid dynamics is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the required to simulate the interaction of liquids. With high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved, ongoing research yields software that improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios such as transonic or turbulent flows. Initial experimental validation of such software is performed using a tunnel with the final validation coming in full-scale testing. The fundamental basis of almost all CFD problems is the Navier–Stokes equations and these equations can be simplified by removing terms describing viscous actions to yield the Euler equations. Further simplification, by removing terms describing vorticity yields the full potential equations, for small perturbations in subsonic and supersonic flows these equations can be linearized to yield the linearized potential equations.
Historically, methods were first developed to solve the potential equations. Two-dimensional methods, using conformal transformations of the flow about a cylinder to the flow about an airfoil were developed in the 1930s. One of the earliest type of calculations resembling modern CFD are those by Lewis Fry Richardson, in the sense that these calculations used finite differences and divided the physical space in cells. Although they failed dramatically, these calculations, together with Richardsons book Weather prediction by numerical process, set the basis for modern CFD, in fact, early CFD calculations during the 1940s using ENIAC used methods close to those in Richardsons 1922 book. The computer power available paced development of three-dimensional methods, probably the first work using computers to model fluid flow, as governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, was performed at Los Alamos National Lab, in the T3 group. This group was led by Francis H. Harlow, who is considered as one of the pioneers of CFD.
Fromms vorticity-stream-function method for 2D, incompressible flow was the first treatment of strongly contorting incompressible flows in the world, the first paper with three-dimensional model was published by John Hess and A. M. O. Smith of Douglas Aircraft in 1967 and this method discretized the surface of the geometry with panels, giving rise to this class of programs being called Panel Methods. Their method itself was simplified, in that it did not include lifting flows and hence was mainly applied to ship hulls, the first lifting Panel Code was described in a paper written by Paul Rubbert and Gary Saaris of Boeing Aircraft in 1968. In time, more advanced three-dimensional Panel Codes were developed at Boeing, Douglas, McDonnell Aircraft, NASA, some were higher order codes, using higher order distributions of surface singularities, while others used single singularities on each surface panel. The advantage of the lower order codes was that they ran much faster on the computers of the time, today, VSAERO has grown to be a multi-order code and is the most widely used program of this class.
It has been used in the development of submarines, surface ships, helicopters, aircraft
Augmented reality is a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, graphics or GPS data. It is related to a general concept called mediated reality. As a result, the functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality. By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with a simulated one, augmentation is conventionally in real time and in semantic context with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during a match. With the help of advanced AR technology the information about the real world of the user becomes interactive. Information about the environment and its objects is overlaid on the real world and this information can be virtual or real, e. g. seeing other real sensed or measured information such as electromagnetic radio waves overlaid in exact alignment with where they actually are in space. Augmented reality brings out the components of the world into a persons perceived real world.
One example is an AR Helmet for construction workers which displays information about the construction sites, hardware components for augmented reality are, display and input devices. Various technologies are used in Augmented Reality rendering including optical projection systems, hand held devices, a head-mounted display is a display device paired to the forehead such as a harness or helmet. HMDs place images of both the world and virtual objects over the users field of view. Modern HMDs often employ sensors for six degrees of freedom monitoring that allow the system to align virtual information to the physical world, HMDs can provide VR users mobile and collaborative experiences. Specific providers, such as uSens and Gestigon, are even including gesture controls for full virtual immersion, in January 2015, Meta launched a project led by Horizons Ventures, Tim Draper, Alexis Ohanian, BOE Optoelectronics and Garry Tan. On February 17,2016, Meta announced their product at TED. AR displays can be rendered on devices resembling eyeglasses, a head-up display, known as a HUD, is a transparent display that presents data without requiring users to look away from their usual viewpoints.
Near eye augmented reality devices can be used as portable head-up displays as they can show data, many definitions of augmented reality only define it as overlaying the information. CrowdOptic technology can be used by Google Glass users to learn where to look at a point in time. In January 2015, Microsoft introduced HoloLens, which is an independent smartglasses unit, First impressions and opinions have been generally that HoloLens is a superior device to the Google Glass, and manages to do several things right in which Glass failed. Contact lenses that display AR imaging are in development and these bionic contact lenses might contain the elements for display embedded into the lens including integrated circuitry, LEDs and an antenna for wireless communication
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of letters, numbers or a combination of both, ticker symbol refers to the symbols that were printed on the ticker tape of a ticker tape machine. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market, for example, AAPL is for Apple Inc. OODH is for Orion DHC, Inc. and HD is for Home Depot, a stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, and is a way to uniquely identify that stock. The symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, the allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are typically between 1 and 4 letters and represent the name where possible. In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA, while in Asia, numbers are often used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts.
For example, the bank HSBCs stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005, symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a spelling of the company XON as its ticker symbol. The symbol of the firm after the merger was XOM, symbols are sometimes reused, in the US the single-letter symbols are particularly sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V that had previously used by Vivendi which had delisted. To fully qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known, on many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security. This is often done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker, although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent, generally limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes, the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number.
An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO6166, Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants. The ISIN identifies the security, not the exchange on which it trades, for instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, and is priced in five different currencies, it has the same ISIN on each, though not the same ticker symbol. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, and another identifier, following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still widely referred to as EPICs. Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN, in the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poors to bring a national standard to investing
It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field, to test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of research are documentation, interpretation, or the research and development of methods. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences, there are several forms of research, humanities, economic, business, practitioner research, technological, etc. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577, Research has been defined in a number of different ways. Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell and it consists of three steps, pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question. Original research is research that is not exclusively based on a summary and this material is of a primary source character.
The purpose of the research is to produce new knowledge. Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to, in analytical work, there are typically some new mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals, graduate students are commonly required to perform original research as part of a dissertation. Scientific research is a way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature, scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic, Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the correct answer to a question.
Context is always important, and context can be social, political, cultural, an example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, other studies aim to merely examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without particularly looking for reasons or motivations to explain these. These studies may be qualitative or quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, Artistic research, seen as practice-based research, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge
Engine control unit
It does this by reading values from a multitude of sensors within the engine bay, interpreting the data using multidimensional performance maps, and adjusting the engine actuators accordingly. Before ECUs, air-fuel mixture, ignition timing, and idle speed were set and dynamically controlled by mechanical. Most modern engines use some type of fuel injection to deliver fuel to the cylinders, the ECU determines the amount of fuel to inject based on a number of sensor readings. Oxygen sensors tell the ECU whether the engine is running rich or running lean as compared to ideal conditions, the throttle position sensors tell the ECU how far the throttle plate is opened when you press the accelerator. The mass air flow sensor measures the amount of air flowing into the engine through the throttle plate, the engine coolant temperature sensor measures whether the engine is warmed up or cool. Air/fuel mixture control of carburetors with computers is designed with a similar principle, most engine systems have idle speed control built into the ECU.
The engine RPM is monitored by the position sensor which plays a primary role in the engine timing functions for fuel injection, spark events. Idle speed is controlled by a programmable throttle stop or an air bypass control stepper motor. Early carburetor-based systems used a programmable throttle stop using a bidirectional DC motor, early Throttle body injection systems used an idle air control stepper motor. Effective idle speed control must anticipate the engine load at idle, a full authority throttle control system may be used to control idle speed, provide cruise control functions and top speed limitation. Some engines have Variable Valve Timing, in such an engine, the ECU controls the time in the engine cycle at which the valves open. The valves are usually opened sooner at higher speed than at lower speed and this can the increase the flow of air into the cylinder, increasing power and fuel economy. Experimental engines have made and tested that have no camshaft. Such engines can be started and run without a motor for certain multi-cylinder engines equipped with precision timed electronic ignition.
Such a static-start engine would provide the efficiency and pollution-reduction improvements of a mild hybrid-electric drive, the first production engine of this type was invented and introduced by Italian automaker Fiat in the Alfa Romeo MiTo. Their Multiair engines use electronic valve control which dramatically improve torque and horsepower, the valves are opened by hydraulic pumps, which are operated by the ECU. The valves can open several times per intake stroke, based on engine load, the ECU decides how much fuel should be injected to optimize combustion. At steady load conditions, the valve opens, fuel is injected, under a sudden increase in throttle, the valve opens in the same intake stroke and a greater amount of fuel is injected
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
Electronic control unit
In automotive electronics, Electronic Control Unit is a generic term for any embedded system that controls one or more of the electrical system or subsystems in a transport vehicle. Taken together, these systems are referred to as the cars computer Sometimes one assembly incorporates several of the individual control modules. Some modern motor vehicles have up to 80 ECUs, embedded software in ECUs continues to increase in line count and sophistication. Managing the increasing complexity and number of ECUs in a vehicle has become a key challenge for original equipment manufacturers, automotive ECUs are being developed following the V-model. Recently the trend is to dedicate a significant amount of time and it is rare that a module is developed fully from scratch. The design is generally iterative and improvements are made to both the hardware and software, the development of most ECUs are carried out by Tier 1 suppliers based on specifications provided by the OEM. As part of the development cycle, manufacturers perform detailed FMEAs, extensive testing and validation activities are carried out as part of the Production part approval process to gain confidence of the hardware and software.
On-board diagnostics or OBD help provide specific data related to which system or component failed or caused a failure during run time, some people are eager to modify their ECU so as to be able to add more functionality to it. Most ECUs these days however come equipped with locks which prevent users of modifying the ECU. The protection locks are made in a way that, when circumvented and this in effect makes modifying the ECU by circumventing the protection illegal
It is the first purpose-built race car by the Acura division of Honda Motor Company, part of their multi-year program to eventually compete in endurance race. The car debuted in 2007 in the American Le mans Series before expanding to customers in Europe, over the years various specifications of the ARX-01 chassis have been developed, each signified by a letter suffix. In 2010 Acura withdrew their name from the program and Honda Performance Development which developed the car for Acura continued the program into 2011. Acura planned to use the chassis for the first year, to build their own chassis for 2008. At the Detroit auto show, Acura showed their first customer chassis, following the announcement of the three teams involved in the project, Acura announced that for 2007 each team would concentrate on a certain aspect of development for the planned 2008 car. Andretti Green Racing and Highcroft Racing would use Courage LC75 chassis, the third team, Fernández Racing, would use a Lola chassis and concentrate on developing the new Acura V8 engine.
A third Courage LC75 would be retained by Honda of America for use as a developmental prototype, by early 2007, all three teams had begun testing their cars as well as beginning modification. With the application approved, the Acura Courage LC75s were renamed as Acura ARX-01a, elements of the Acura V8, dubbed the AL7R, share similar architecture with the Honda engine used in the Indy Racing League although none of the parts are interchangeable. The two new Acura ARX-01as, along with the other Lola team car, debuted at the 200712 Hours of Sebring after much preparation. Battling not only the Porsche squads in their own class, they attempted to compete with the Audi R10 diesels in the higher LMP1 class throughout the race. During the race the ARX-01a showed the ability to at least keep close to the Audi, yet was unable to truly fight for the lead. However, in the end the Acura ARX-01a of Andretti Green Racing was able to survive the race better than competitors and managed to take the class victory.
The second ARX-01a of Highcroft Racing took sixth overall, while the Acura-powered Lola of Fernández Racing took third. In the third race of the season at Long Beach, Acura gained their first overall pole, on July 12,2008, the #9 Patrón Highcroft Racing ARX-01 earned Acuras first-ever overall victory in the American Le Mans Series. David Brabham and Scott Sharp started the Highcroft entry from pole and this was followed by a second overall win at the Detroit Sports Car Challenge, this time led by Andretti Green Racings Franck Montagny and James Rossiter. The Acura ARX-01b won six of the races in the LMP2 class for 2008, with four for Highcroft. Highcroft was ranked second in the Teams Championship, Andretti Green fourth, Fernandez fifth, Acura lost the LMP2 consturctors championship to Porsche by a single point. In 2009, Fernandez Racing continued to compete with a version of the ARX-01, while Acura unveiled an LMP1 class ARX-02 for Highcroft Racing
The individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. The new material may be preferred for reasons, common examples include materials which are stronger, lighter. More recently, researchers have begun to actively include sensing, actuation and communication into composites. The most advanced examples perform routinely on spacecraft and aircraft in demanding environments, the earliest man-made composite materials were straw and mud combined to form bricks for building construction. Ancient brick-making was documented by Egyptian tomb paintings and daub is one of the oldest man-made composite materials, at over 6000 years old. Concrete is a material, and is used more than any other man-made material in the world. As of 2006, about 7.5 billion cubic metres of concrete are made each year—more than one metre for every person on Earth. 2181–2055 BC and was used for death masks Cob Mud Bricks, concrete was described by Vitruvius, writing around 25 BC in his Ten Books on Architecture, distinguished types of aggregate appropriate for the preparation of lime mortars.
For structural mortars, he recommended pozzolana, which were volcanic sands from the beds of Pozzuoli brownish-yellow-gray in colour near Naples. Natural cement-stones, after burning, produced cements used in concretes from post-Roman times into the 20th century, the glass fiber is relatively strong and stiff, whereas the polymer is ductile. Thus the resulting fiberglass is relatively stiff, flexible, concrete is the most common artificial composite material of all and typically consists of loose stones held with a matrix of cement. Concrete is a material, and will not compress or shatter even under quite a large compressive force. However, concrete cannot survive tensile loading, therefore, to give concrete the ability to resist being stretched, steel bars, which can resist high stretching forces, are often added to concrete to form reinforced concrete. Fibre-reinforced polymers or FRPs include carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer or CFRP, and glass-reinforced plastic or GRP, if classified by matrix there are thermoplastic composites, short fiber thermoplastics, long fibre thermoplastics or long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics.
There are numerous thermoset composites, including paper composite panels, many advanced thermoset polymer matrix systems usually incorporate aramid fibre and carbon fibre in an epoxy resin matrix. Shape memory polymer composites are high-performance composites, formulated using fibre or fabric reinforcement and they can be reheated and reshaped repeatedly without losing their material properties. These composites are ideal for such as lightweight, deployable structures, rapid manufacturing. Although high strain composites exhibit many similarities to shape memory polymers, Composites can use metal fibres reinforcing other metals, as in metal matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, which includes bone and concrete