The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Varsseveld is a town in the Netherlands, located in the Dutch municipality of Oude IJsselstreek. Varsseveld was a separate municipality between 1818, when it was merged with Wisch. Varsseveld hosted the 2009 Dutch Sidecarcross Grand Prix, on 7 June. Varsseveld hosted a Strongman contest, the Strongman Champions League Holland Grand Prix on June 1, 2008; the winner of the contest was Zydrunas Savickas from Lithuania. Football coach Guus Hiddink and cyclist Robert Gesink were raised in Varsseveld. J. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, "Varsseveld". Map of the former municipality, around 1868. Annual events include: Nationale motorcross Eeuwig Erbarmen Festival/’n drom men-wedstrijden Varssevelds Volksfeest Koetsentocht en Monicadag Hootchie Koe festival Goa dag
Terborg is a small city in the Dutch province of Gelderland, in the Achterhoek region in the east of the Netherlands. It is located in the municipality of Oude IJsselstreek; the city lies about 7 km southeast of Doetinchem. The population is about 4600 inhabitants. Terborg is situated on the river the Oude IJssel. In the centre of the little city lies Castle Wisch, founded in the 13th century. In the southeast of the city, near Silvolde lies. Terborg has a train station on the train route Arnhem - Winterswijk, trains call here twice every hour. Terborg received city rights in 1419; the patron saint of the city is Saint George. Its coat of arms still is Saint George on a horse; until 1813, Terborg was part of the fiefdom Wisch, together with the villages Silvolde en Varsseveld. Terborg was a separate municipality until 1818 when it was merged with Varsseveld into municipality Wisch. In 2005 it formed municipality Oude IJsselstreek with municipality Gendringen. In 1945, the town's Chasdei Enosh synagogue was destroyed by Nazis.
An exact replica of the historic building opened on June 7, 2018 in Mevo Horon Israel, inaugurated by Israeli descendants of Dutch Jews. The old synagogue, on the Silvoldeseweg, was built in 1901
Bontebrug is a village in the municipality of Oude IJsselstreek in the Dutch province of Gelderland. It's on the eastern bank of the river Oude IJssel south of Silvolde. On the other side of the river lies the village Ulft. For shopping and recreation, the inhabitants have to go there. Since 1 January 2005, Bontebrug has been a part of the newly formed municipality Oude IJsselstreek; as of 1 January 2015, Bontebrug has 182 inhabitants
Oude IJsselstreek is a municipality in the eastern Netherlands. It was established on 1 January 2005 through a merger of the former municipalities Gendringen and Wisch; the municipality belongs to the transition area between the rivers in the south, coming from Germany, the sandy soils of the Eastern Netherlands. It has 15 population centres. From Gendringen Breedenbroek, Gendringen, Netterden, Ulft and Voorst. From Wisch Bontebrug, Heelweg-Oost and Heelweg-West, Sinderen, Terborg and Westendorp. Terborg is the only population centre with city rights, but the largest one is Ulft with 10,000 inhabitants; the municipality of Oude IJsselstreek is considered to be divided into three units. The centres along the river Oude IJssel constitute the urban belt, Varsseveld in the east of the municipality is a rural village and the other centres are the external territories; the municipality plans to make Ulft the local centre. Seats in the municipality Oude IJsselstreek since 2014: Lokaal Belang GVS 8 seats Christian Democratic Appeal 5 seats Dutch Labour Party 3 seats Socialist Party 3 seats Democrats 66 2 seats People's Party for Freedom and Democracy 2 seats Hans Alberse was mayor of the newly established municipality Oude IJsselstreek since May 15, 2006.
In 2015 he was replaced by the Commissaris van de Koning with Steven de Vreeze. Since July 2016 the new mayor is Otwin van Dijk. Dutch Topographic map of the municipality of Oude IJsselstreek, June 2015 In this rural municipality, there have been some places where iron ore was mined and processed. From the several enterprises the DRU was the largest, it closed in Ulft in 2003. Since 2009, the former DRU factory is a cultural centre that houses the local library of Ulft, a theater, a regional centre for vocational education and other facilities. Municipal council meetings take place in its conference room. Oude IJsselstreek is a member of the Ring of the European Cities of Iron Works and hosted the annual convention of 2010. Media related to Oude IJsselstreek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Sinderen is a village in the municipality of Oude IJsselstreek in the Dutch province of Gelderland. It is situated at the meeting of three roads, to Varsseveld and Gendringen, was on the border of the former municipalities of Gendringen and Wisch. There used to be a castle in Sinderen; the 12th-century Antonius Chapel survives. The meadow in front of the farm "D'n Huusboer" is surrounded by what was the castle moat, the remains of underground vaults from the castle can be found there. To the north of the village, a Reformed church was built between 1884 and 1887, it is now affiliated with the Protestant Church in the Netherlands and called the Keurhorster Church. Sinderens Belang, village website
Gelderland is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. With a land area of nearly 5,000 km2, it is the largest province of the Netherlands and shares borders with six other provinces and Germany; the capital is Arnhem. Other major regional centres in Gelderland are Ede, Zutphen, Tiel, Wageningen and Winterswijk. Gelderland had a population of just over two million in 2018; the province dates from states of the Holy Roman Empire and takes its name from the nearby German city of Geldern. According to the Wichard saga, the city was named by the Lords of Pont who fought and killed a dragon in 878 AD, they named the town they founded after the death rattle of the dragon: "Gelre!"The County of Guelders arose out of the Frankish pagus Hamaland in the 11th century around castles near Roermond and Geldern. The counts of Gelre acquired the Betuwe and Veluwe regions and, through marriage, the County of Zutphen, thus the counts of Guelders laid the foundation for a territorial power that, through control of the Rhine, Meuse and IJssel rivers, was to play an important role in the Middle Ages.
The geographical position of their territory dictated the external policy of the counts during the following centuries. Further enlarged by the acquisition of the imperial city of Nijmegen in the 13th century, the countship was raised to a duchy in 1339 by the Holy Roman Emperor, Louis IV. After 1379, the duchy was ruled by the counts of Egmond and Cleves; the duchy resisted Burgundian domination, but William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg was forced to cede it to Charles V in 1543, after which it formed part of the Burgundian-Habsburg hereditary lands. The duchy revolted with the rest of the Netherlands against Philip II of Spain and joined the Union of Utrecht. After the deposition of Philip II, its sovereignty was vested in the States of Gelderland, the princes of Orange were stadtholders. In 1672, the province was temporarily occupied by Louis XIV and, in 1713, the southeastern part including the ducal capital of Geldern fell to Prussia. Part of the Batavian Republic, of Louis Bonaparte’s Kingdom of Holland, of the French Empire, Gelderland became a province of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815.
During the Second World War, it saw heavy fighting between Allied Paratroopers, British XXX Corps and the German II SS Panzer Corps, at the Battle of Arnhem. Gelderland can be divided into four geographical regions: the Veluwe in the north, the Rivierenland including the Betuwe in the southwest, the Achterhoek or Graafschap in the east and the city-region of Arnhem and Nijmegen in the centre-south. In 2015, the 54 municipalities in Gelderland were divided into four COROPs: These municipalities were merged with neighbouring ones: Angerlo was merged into Zevenaar Dinxperlo was merged into Aalten Gorssel was merged into Lochem Hoevelaken was merged into Nijkerk Lichtenvoorde was merged into Groenlo Warnsveld was merged into Zutphen Wehl was merged into Doetinchem Millingen aan de Rijn and Ubbergen were merged into Groesbeek These municipalities were merged and given a new name: Borculo, Eibergen and Ruurlo have become Berkelland Hengelo, Hummelo en Keppel, Steenderen and Zelhem have become Bronckhorst Bergh and Didam has become Montferland Gendringen and Wisch have become Oude IJsselstreek In the 2001 movie A Knight's Tale, the protagonist, William Thatcher pretends to be a knight known as "Ulrich von Lichtenstein from Gelderland".