U.S. Route 141
US Highway 141 is a north–south United States Numbered Highway in the states of Wisconsin and Michigan. The highway runs north-northwesterly from an interchange with Interstate 43 in Bellevue, near Green Bay, to a junction with US 41/M-28 near Covington, Michigan. In between, it follows city streets in Green Bay and has a concurrent section with US 41 in Wisconsin. North of Green Bay, US 141 is either a freeway or an expressway into rural northern Wisconsin before downgrading to an undivided highway. In Michigan, US 141 is an undivided highway; the highway has two segments in each state. After that, it crosses back into Wisconsin for about 14 1⁄2 miles before crossing the state line one last time; the northernmost Michigan section is about 43 1⁄2 miles, making the overall length about 169 miles. When the US Highway System was formed on November 11, 1926, US 141 ran from Milwaukee to Green Bay, one segment of the modern highway in Michigan was designated US 102; this other designation was decommissioned in 1928 when US 141 was extended north from Green Bay into Michigan.
Michigan has rebuilt the highway in stages over the years to smooth out sharp curves in the routing. Since the 1960s, the section south of Green Bay has been converted into a freeway in segments. US 141 has ended southeast of Green Bay in Bellevue since the 1980s—the southern freeway segment was redesignated as I-43; the section north of Abrams, was converted to a freeway in the opening years of the 21st century, with an additional divided-highway section opening a few years later. As a bi-state highway, US 141 is a state trunk highway in Wisconsin and a state trunkline highway in Michigan. In Wisconsin, the segment through the Green Bay area is not on the National Highway System, except for about four blocks along Broadway Avenue, part of an intermodal connector with the Port of Green Bay; the NHS is a network of roads important to the country's economy and mobility. From the Green Bay suburb of Howard northward, including the entire length through Michigan, US 141 is a part of the NHS. From the I-43 interchange in Howard north to the split at Abrams, US 141 is a part of the Lake Michigan Circle Tour, a tourist route that surrounds Lake Michigan.
US 141 starts at an interchange with I-43 southeast of Green Bay in the suburb of Bellevue. From the terminus at exit 178, US 141 runs north to Main Street, northwesterly along Main Street through town. Wisconsin Highway 29 merges with US 141 at an intersection on the northwest side of Bellevue, the two highways run concurrently through residential subdivisions. Main Street continues to the north and into the city of Green Bay. US 141/WIS 29 runs along the banks of the East River. At the intersection with Monroe Avenue, WIS 29 turns south, joining WIS 54/WIS 57 while US 141 continues westward on Main Street to cross the Fox River on the Ray Nitschke Memorial Bridge. On the west side of the river, the highway follows Dousman Street for a block before turning north along Broadway Avenue for four blocks. From there, the highway follows Mather Street west to Velp Avenue. US 141 follows that street parallel to I-43 on the north side of Green Bay; this area is residential with some businesses on either side.
In the suburb of Howard, US 141 merges onto the US 41 freeway via the interchange at exit 170. US 41/US 141 has an interchange for I-43 just south of the Duck Creek crossing. From Howard northward, the freeway runs through suburban Brown County to Suamico, parallel to a line of the Escanaba and Lake Superior Railroad, through a mixture of farm fields and residential subdivisions. There are frontage roads on both sides of the freeway to provide access to the properties adjacent to US 41/US 141. There are a number of interchanges with county-maintained roads between Suamico and Abrams in Oconto County. At Abrams, US 141 splits from US 41 and heads northward while the latter freeway turns northeasterly; the landscape north of the split transitions to forest, the freeway crosses the Oconto River in Stiles south of the interchange with WIS 22. The freeway bypasses Lena to the east and continues north through mixed farm fields and forest to the county line. North of the line, US 141 continues to the Marinette County communities of Coleman and Pound as an expressway.
Through Coleman and Pound there is a Business US 141. Past the latter town, US 141 transitions from expressway to a two-lane undivided highway. South of Crivitz, US 141 crosses the Peshtigo River; the highway crosses a branch line of the ELS on the east side of Crivitz and continues north through woodland to the community of Middle Inlet. North of town, the roadway turns northeasterly to the community of Wausaukee where it intersects WIS 180. From there, the highway passes through the communities of Amberg and Beecher before coming into Pembine, where US 8 merges in from the west; the two highways run concurrently northeasterly to an intersection southeast of Niagara. US 8 separates to the east, US 141 turns northwestly along River Street into Niagara; the highway turns north along Roosevelt Road and over the Menominee River to exit the state of Wisconsin. Once in Michigan, 1 mile west of Quinnesec, US 141 meets and joins US 2; the two highways run concurrently westward into Iron Mountain along Stephenson Avenue, passing through a retail business corridor and into downtown.
M-95 joins the two highways, all three pass Lake Antoine. M-95 turns off north of town and US 2/US 141 crosses the Menom
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Interstate 41 is a 176.33-mile-long Interstate Highway connecting the interchange of I-94 and U. S. Route 41, located 0.9 miles south of the Wisconsin–Illinois border at the end of the Tri-State Tollway in metropolitan Chicago, to an interchange with I-43 in metropolitan Green Bay, Wisconsin. The designation travels concurrently with US 41, I-894, US 45, I-43, sections of I-94 in Wisconsin and Illinois; the route was added to the Interstate Highway System on April 7, 2015, connects Milwaukee and the Fox Cities with Green Bay. I-41 begins at the I-94/US 41 interchange in Russell, located 0.9 miles south of the Wisconsin–Illinois border at the end of the Tri-State Tollway. The highway continues north concurrently with I-94 to the Mitchell Interchange in Milwaukee, turns west to run concurrently with I-894 and I-43 to the Hale Interchange, turns north to run concurrently with I-894 and US 45 to the Zoo Interchange, with the US 45 concurrency continuing until the I-41/US 41/US 45 split near Richfield.
The Interstate parallels I-43, which runs north–south along Lake Michigan from Milwaukee to Green Bay. I-41 runs through the Fox Green Bay, where it ends at the I-43 interchange; the Interstate is 176 miles long and located entirely within the state of Wisconsin, is concurrent with a adjusted alignment of US 41 to its termination in Green Bay. The freeway portion of US 41 and US 45 from Milwaukee through the Fox Valley to Green Bay was proposed and designated as an Interstate Highway as part of the 2005 highway funding bill. In the initial language of the bill, the route was named Interstate 41, which correlates with the U. S. Highway it parallels and complies with the Interstate naming guidelines through the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials; the final bill omitted the I-41 designation. In 2009, Green Bay officials began a campaign to have US 41 designated as a northern extension of I-55 from its current termination in Chicago, with the alternative being designated as a spur of I-43.
At the spring meeting of the Special Committee on U. S. Route Numbers of AASHTO on May 18, 2012, the I-55 designation was discussed by the committee. Coordination would have been required with the Federal Highway Administration and the Illinois Department of Transportation on the I-55 designation. However, IDOT officials were not interested in signing an extension of I-55 from its Chicago terminus to the state line. Therefore, the Wisconsin Department of Transportation decided to seek a different designation not requiring the cooperation of their Illinois counterparts. Four designations were proposed by WisDOT and put up for public review: two new primary designations and two auxiliary designations. At the end of October 2012, WisDOT submitted I-41 to AASHTO for consideration at their fall Special Committee meeting, where it was conditionally approved on November 16, 2012, pending FHWA concurrence. Official approval of I-41 hinged on weight limit exceptions being approved for the route, which passed the United States House of Representatives as H.
R. 4745 and awaited a United States Senate vote as S. 2438, but were passed in a different bill on December 16, 2014. On April 9, 2015, Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker announced that the FHWA had approved I-41 as part of the Interstate Highway System. According to WisDOT, the approval came two days earlier. WisDOT replaced or modified 3,500 signs in September 2015 after coordination with IDOT and the FHWA. Over the next 5–10 years, shoulders are slated to be rebuilt as older parts of the highway are upgraded; the re-designation to Interstate status makes the route subject to the Highway Beautification Act, meaning current advertising billboards along the Milwaukee to Green Bay portion of the road can no longer be upgraded or enlarged, nor can new signs be added. U. S. Roads portal Illinois portal Wisconsin portal Official US 41 Interstate conversion project page Interstate 41 at Interstate-Guide.com
Milwaukee metropolitan area
The Milwaukee metropolitan area is a major metropolitan area located in Southeastern Wisconsin, consisting of the city of Milwaukee and the surrounding area. There are several definitions of the area, including the Milwaukee–Waukesha–West Allis metropolitan area and the Milwaukee–Racine–Waukesha combined statistical area, it is the largest metropolitan area in Wisconsin, the 39th largest metropolitan area in the United States. The U. S. Census Bureau defines the Milwaukee Metropolitan area as containing four counties in southeastern Wisconsin: Milwaukee, Waukesha and Ozaukee; the Metropolitan population of Milwaukee was 1,572,245 in a 2014 estimate. The city of Milwaukee is the hub of the metropolitan area; the eastern parts of Racine County, eastern parts of Waukesha County, southern part of Ozaukee County, southeastern part of Washington County, remainder of Milwaukee County are the most urbanized parts of the outlying counties. The character of the area varies widely. Mequon and the North Shore are more white-collar, while West Milwaukee, West Allis, St. Francis are more blue-collar.
Metro Milwaukee draws commuters from outlying areas such as Madison and the Fox Cities. It is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis containing an estimated 54 million people; the Milwaukee–Racine–Waukesha Combined Statistical Area is made up of the Milwaukee–Waukesha–West Allis Metropolitan Statistical Area, the Racine Metropolitan Statistical Area, the Beaver Dam Micropolitan Statistica Area, the Watertown-Fort Atkinson Micropolitan Area, the Whitewater-Elkorn Micropolitan Area according to the U. S. Census. Updated definitions released in February 2013 added Dodge and Walworth Counties to the Milwaukee CSA. Kenosha, despite being just 32 miles from Milwaukee and 50 miles from Chicago, is included as part of the Chicago CSA, as Kenosha has more residents who commute to the Chicago area. In a 2014 estimate the Milwaukee–Racine–Waukesha Combined Statistical Area population was 2,043,904, the largest in Wisconsin and the 30th largest in the United States. There are eight counties in the U. S. Census Bureau's Milwaukee–Racine–Waukesha Combined statistical area.
Dodge Milwaukee Jefferson Ozaukee Racine Walworth Washington Waukesha Milwaukee Racine Waukesha Although each county and its various municipalities are self-governing, there is some cooperation in the metropolitan area. The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District is a state-chartered government agency which serves 28 municipalities in the five counties. At the same time, some in the area see the need for more consolidation in government services; the Kettl Commission and former Wisconsin Governor Scott McCallum have supported initiatives to do this. However, full consolidation has been criticized as a means of diluting minority voting power. Metro Milwaukee Portal 2003 article on consolidation of area governments https://web.archive.org/web/20170118134056/https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/bulletins/2013/b-13-01.pdf
U.S. Route 16
U. S. Route 16 is an east–west United States Highway between Rapid City, South Dakota and Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming; as of 2004, the highway's eastern terminus is at a junction with Interstate 90/U. S. Route 14, concurrent with I-190, in Rapid City, South Dakota; the western terminus is the east entrance to Yellowstone National Park, concurrent with US 14 and US 20. US 16 in Wyoming crosses through the towns of Newcastle and Upton before joining I-90 near Moorcroft, it runs concurrently with I-90 to Gillette, where it splits off north and arcs back down to the town of Buffalo. From Buffalo it goes over the Powder River Pass on its way to Worland. In Worland, it overlaps US 20 through the towns of Basin and Greybull. In Greybull, the two routes combine with US 14 and go west to Cody and into Yellowstone National Park. For most of the way it is a two-lane road. US 16 is known as Mount Rushmore Road in western South Dakota; the highway enters South Dakota east of Wyoming. It travels near the third-longest cave in the world.
The highway goes through the city of Custer and shares alignment with US 385. East of Hill City, US 16 splits off US 385, it becomes a four-lane divided highway, with the two roadways separated by up to a half-mile in some places, including the old gold-mining town of Rockerville, South Dakota, contained between the two roadways. In Rapid City, a truck bypass runs along Catron Boulevard and Elk Vale Road up to Exit 61 on I-90; the South Dakota section of US 16 is defined at South Dakota Codified Laws § 31-4-138. US 16 connected Detroit with Yellowstone, including a ferry link across Lake Michigan between Muskegon and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In Michigan, the route was in use long before automobiles and was known to white settlers as the Grand River Road, prior to the designation of US Routes in 1926, had been designated as M-16 in the 1920s from Detroit to south of Muskegon. In 1938, reflectorized discs were placed on US-16 every 100 feet from Detroit to Lansing, resulting in fewer nighttime traffic accidents.
Other states would do the same on their roads. US 16 crossed the South Dakota – Wyoming state line west of Spearfish. U. S. Route 216 was commissioned in 1930 as a loop off US 16 to the south between Rapid City and Moorcroft, crossing the state line west of Custer. In 1934, US 16 was moved to the US 216 alignment, while the former US 16 became part of an extension of US 14. In Michigan, most of US 16 was superseded by I-96 and a segment of Grand River Avenue in Detroit became M-5. US 16 was decommissioned in Wisconsin and eastern South Dakota to its present termini. Between Rapid City and Dexter, Minnesota, it has been supplanted by I-90. East of there it is now Minnesota State Highway 16 and Wisconsin Highway 16. In South Dakota it was replaced by various state highways and county roads: in West River the old alignment was transferred to county responsibility while in East River it remained a state-maintained highway. An older Alternate US 16 in South Dakota has become South Dakota Highway 240.
In South Dakota, in 2009, the South Dakota Department of Transportation designated US-16/US-385 between Custer and Hill City, which passes by the Crazy Horse Memorial, now being carved in the Black Hills, the Crazy Horse Memorial Highway. This segment of US-385 is a part of the George Hearst Memorial Highway. Mileage resets at the state line crossing. U. S. Route 116 U. S. Route 216 U. S. Route 16A in South Dakota Special routes of U. S. Route 16 Endpoints of US 16 Highways and Gas Stations- US Hwy 16 Page 1937 South Dakota Transportation Map 1930 Minnesota Transportation Map 1937 Wisconsin Transportation Map
Milwaukee County, Wisconsin
Milwaukee County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 947,735 and was estimated to be 951,448 in 2016, it is the most populous county in Wisconsin and the 45th most populous in the United States. Its county seat is Milwaukee, the most populous city in the state; the county was organized the following year. Milwaukee County is the most populous county of the Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, as well as of the Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI Combined Statistical Area. There are 19 cities in Milwaukee County, the largest being Milwaukee, West Allis, Oak Creek, Greenfield, in that order. Milwaukee County is the most densely populated county, ranks in the top 50 most populated counties when excluding Cook County, Illinois and the five New York City burroughs from the list; the county is home to two professional sports teams, the world's largest music festival. Portions of what is now Milwaukee County are known to have been inhabited by a number of Native American tribes, including the Sauk, Meskwaki or "Fox", Menomonee and Potawotami, with elements of other tribes attested as well.
In 1818, when the land to be Wisconsin was made part of Michigan Territory, territorial governor Lewis Cass created Brown County, which at that time included all the land now part of Milwaukee County. It remained a part of Brown county until 1834, when Milwaukee County was created, including the area south of the line between townships eleven and twelve north, west of Lake Michigan, north of Illinois, east of the line which now separates Green and Rock counties; this territory encompassed all of what are now Milwaukee, Kenosha, Racine, Walworth and Waukesha counties, as well as large parts of the present-day Columbia and Dodge counties. Milwaukee County remained attached to Brown County for judicial purposes until Aug. 25, 1835, when an act was passed by the Michigan territorial legislature giving it an independent organization. In 1836, the legislature divided the area south and east of the Wisconsin and Fox rivers into counties, as a consequence reducing Milwaukee County's extent to what is now Milwaukee and Waukesha counties.
In 1846 Waukesha County was created by taking from Milwaukee all of the territory west of range 21, reducing Milwaukee County to its present boundaries. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,189 square miles, of which 241 square miles is land and 948 square miles is water, it is the third-smallest county in Wisconsin by land area. It is watered by the Milwaukee, Menomonee and Root Rivers; the surface is undulating, the soil calcareous and fertile. Ozaukee County - north Racine County - south Waukesha County - west Washington County - northwest Lake Michigan - east As of the 2010 census, there were 947,735 people, 383,591 households, 221,019 families residing in the county; the population density was 3,932 people per square mile. There were 418,053 housing units at an average density of 1,734 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 60.6% White, 26.8% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 3.4% Asian, 0.003% Pacific Islander, 5.4% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races.
13.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 383,591 households, of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.1% were married couples living together, 17.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.4% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the age distribution was spread out, with 24.9% under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.6 years. For every 100 females there were 93.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. As of the 2000 census, there were 940,164 people, 377,729 households and 225,126 families resided in the county; the population density was 3,931 people per square mile. There were 400,093 housing units at an average density of 1,656 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 65.6% White, 24.6% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 2.6% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.2% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. 8.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.0 % were of 10.9 % Polish and 5.3 % Irish ancestry. There were 377,729 households, of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.0% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.4% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.13. In the county, the age distribution was spread out, with 26.4% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, from 1980 to 2000, the residential pattern of Blacks versus Whites in Milwaukee County was the most segregated in the country. Milwaukee County is governed through an eighteen-mem
A road map or route map is a map that displays roads and transport links rather than natural geographical information. It is a type of navigational map that includes political boundaries and labels, making it a type of political map. In addition to roads and boundaries, road maps include points of interest, such as prominent businesses or buildings, tourism sites and recreational facilities and restaurants, as well as airports and train stations. A road map may document non-automotive transit routes, although these are found only on transit maps; the Turin Papyrus Map is sometimes characterized as the earliest known road map. Drawn around 1160 BC, it depicts routes along dry river beds through a mining region east of Thebes in Ancient Egypt; the Dura-Europos Route map is the oldest known map of Europe preserved in its original form. It is a fragment of a map drawn onto a leather portion of a shield by a Roman soldier in c. 235 AD. It depicts several towns along the northwest coast of the Black Sea.
The Tabula Peutingeriana, a copy of a scroll dating to about 350 AD, plots the extent of the Cursus publicus, the Roman road network that ran from Europe and North Africa to West Asia. It is schematic, compressing the Mediterranean Sea to a sliver and orienting the Italian Peninsula to run east-west; the Gough Map, dating to about 1360, is the oldest known road map of Great Britain. In 1500, Erhard Etzlaub produced the "Rom-Weg" Map, the first known road map of medieval Central Europe, it was produced to help religious pilgrims reach Rome for the occasion of the "Holy Year 1500". Rand McNally's first road map, the New Automobile Road Map of New York City & Vicinity, was published in 1904. Gousha was founded in 1926 by former Rand McNally employees. General Drafting was founded in 1909; these three companies produced most of the eight billion free maps handed out at American filling stations over a period of about 1920 to 1980. The practice of offering free maps diminished in the 1970s; the first Michelin map was produced in 1910.
With the rise of GPS navigation and other electronic maps in the 21st century, the use of printed maps is waning. An alternative to, in many ways the precursor of the road map, was the itinerarium, a listing of towns and other stops, with intervening distances; the Tabula Peutingeriana, mentioned above, is in effect an itinerarium in visual form, offering routes and distances with little geographical accuracy. Road maps come in many shapes and scales. Small, single-page maps may be used to give an overview of a region's major features. Folded maps can offer greater detail covering a large region. Electronic maps present a dynamically generated display of a region, with its scale and level of detail specified by the user. Road maps can vary in complexity, from a simple schematic map used to show how to get to a single specific destination, to a complex electronic map, which may layer together many different types of maps and information – such as a road map plotted over a topographical 3D satellite image.
Highway maps give an overview of major routes within a medium to large region ranging from a few dozen to a few thousand miles or kilometers. Street maps cover an area of a few miles or kilometers within a single city or extended metropolitan area. City maps are a specialized form of street map. A road atlas is a collection of road maps covering a region as small as a city or as large as a continent bound together in a book. Spiral binding is a popular format for road atlases, to permit lay-flat usage and to reduce wear and tear. Atlases may cover a number of discrete regions, such as all of the states or provinces of a given nation, or a single continuous region in high detail split across several pages. Many motoring organisations those in the European Union, North America and New Zealand produce road maps. In addition, many transport companies, such as train and airline companies, have published "road" maps in the past, in their case calling them "route map". In the past, these were published on print paper.
Many old route maps are now considered collectible items and command increasing prices on auction sites and houses and on antique stores. Road maps distinguish between major and minor thoroughfares by using thicker lines or bolder colors for the major roads. Printed road maps include an index of cities and other destinations found on the map; these indexes give the location of the feature on the map via a grid reference. Inset maps may be used to provide greater detail for a specific area, such as a city map inset into a map of a state or province. A distance matrix is included showing the distance between pairs of cities. Since it is a symmetric matrix, only the upper triangle is displayed. Bicycle map Transit map Geographers' A-Z Map Company Ordnance Survey Timetable Airline timetable History of Cartography, vol. 6: "American Promotional Road Mapping in the Twentieth Century". Cartography and Geographic Information Science. Check Road Maps of any location "Road Route Map"