The working class comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour in manual-labour occupations and industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, most pink-collar jobs. Members of the working class rely for their income upon their earnings from wage labour. In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is used interchangeably with the term proletariat and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production; as with many terms describing social class, working class is defined and used in many different ways. The most general definition, used by Marxists and many socialists, is that the working class includes all those who have nothing to sell but their labour power and skills. In that sense it includes both white and blue-collar workers and mental workers of all types, excluding only individuals who derive their income from business ownership and the labour of others.
When used non-academically in the United States, however, it refers to a section of society dependent on physical labour when compensated with an hourly wage. For certain types of science, as well as less scientific or journalistic political analysis, for example, the working class is loosely defined as those without college degrees. Working-class occupations are categorized into four groups: unskilled labourers, artisans and factory workers. A common alternative, sometimes used in sociology, is to define class by income levels; when this approach is used, the working class can be contrasted with a so-called middle class on the basis of differential terms of access to economic resources, cultural interests, other goods and services. The cut-off between working class and middle class here might mean the line where a population has discretionary income, rather than sustenance; some researchers have suggested that working-class status should be defined subjectively as self-identification with the working-class group.
This subjective approach allows people, rather than researchers. In feudal Europe, the working class as such did not exist in large numbers. Instead, most people were part of the labouring class, a group made up of different professions and occupations. A lawyer and peasant were all considered to be part of the same social unit, a third estate of people who were neither aristocrats nor church officials. Similar hierarchies existed outside Europe in other pre-industrial societies; the social position of these labouring classes was viewed as ordained by natural law and common religious belief. This social position was contested by peasants, for example during the German Peasants' War. In the late 18th century, under the influence of the Enlightenment, European society was in a state of change, this change could not be reconciled with the idea of a changeless god-created social order. Wealthy members of these societies created ideologies which blamed many of the problems of working-class people on their morals and ethics.
In The Making of the English Working Class, E. P. Thompson argues that the English working class was present at its own creation, seeks to describe the transformation of pre-modern labouring classes into a modern, politically self-conscious, working class. Starting around 1917, a number of countries became ruled ostensibly in the interests of the working class; some historians have noted that a key change in these Soviet-style societies has been a massive a new type of proletarianization effected by the administratively achieved forced displacement of peasants and rural workers. Since four major industrial states have turned towards semi-market-based governance, one state has turned inwards into an increasing cycle of poverty and brutalization. Other states of this sort have either collapsed, or never achieved significant levels of industrialization or large working classes. Since 1960, large-scale proletarianization and enclosure of commons has occurred in the third world, generating new working classes.
Additionally, countries such as India have been undergoing social change, expanding the size of the urban working class. Karl Marx defined the working class or proletariat as individuals who sell their labour power for wages and who do not own the means of production, he argued. He asserted that the working class physically build bridges, craft furniture, grow food, nurse children, but do not own land, or factories. A sub-section of the proletariat, the lumpenproletariat, are the poor and unemployed, such as day labourers and homeless people. Marx considered them to be devoid of class consciousness. In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that it was the destiny of the working class to displace the capitalist system, with the dictatorship of the proletariat, abolishing the social relationshi
Robert Earl Wise was an American film director and editor. He won Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Picture for both West Side Story and The Sound of Music, he was nominated for Best Film Editing for Citizen Kane and directed and produced The Sand Pebbles, nominated for Best Picture. Among his other films are The Body Snatcher, Born to Kill, The Set-Up, The Day the Earth Stood Still, Destination Gobi, This Could Be The Night, Run Silent, Run Deep, I Want to Live!, The Haunting, The Andromeda Strain, The Hindenburg and Star Trek: The Motion Picture. Wise was the president of the Directors Guild of America from 1971 to 1975 and the president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences from 1984 through 1987. Contrasted with auteur directors such as Stanley Kubrick, who tended to bring a distinctive directorial "look" to a particular genre, Wise has been viewed as a craftsman, inclined to let the story concept set the style. Cineastes, such as Martin Scorsese, insist that despite Wise's legendary workaday concentration on stylistic perfection within the confines of genre and budget, his choice of subject matter and approach still functioned to identify Wise as an artist and not an artisan.
Wise achieved critical success as a director in a striking variety of film genres: horror, western, science fiction and drama, with many repeat successes within each genre. Wise's meticulous preparation may have been motivated by studio budget constraints, but advanced the moviemaking art. Robert Wise received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 1998. Wise was born in Winchester, the youngest son of Olive R. and Earl W. Wise, a meat packer; the family moved to Connersville, Fayette County, where Wise attended public schools. As a youth Wise's favorite pastime was going to the movies; as a student at Connersville High School, Wise wrote humor and sports columns for the school's newspaper and was a member of the yearbook staff and poetry club. Wise sought a career in journalism and following graduation from high school attended Franklin College, a small liberal arts college south of Indianapolis, Indiana, on a scholarship. In 1933, due to the family's poor financial situation during the Great Depression, Wise was unable to return to college for his second year and moved to Hollywood to begin a lifelong career in the film industry.
Wise's older brother, who had gone to Hollywood several years earlier and worked at RKO Pictures, found his younger brother a job in the shipping department at RKO. Wise worked odd jobs at the studio before moving into editing. Wise began his movie career at RKO as a music editor. In the 1930s, RKO was a small, budget-minded studio with "a strong work ethic" and "willingness to take artistic risks", fortunate for a newcomer to Hollywood such as Wise. At RKO, Wise became an assistant to T. K. Wood, the studio's head sound-effects editor. Wise's first screen credit was a ten-minute short subject called A Trip through Fijiland, made from RKO footage salvaged from an abandoned feature film; as Wise gained experience, he became more interested in editing film content, rather than sound, went to work for RKO film editor William "Billy" Hamilton. Wise's first film as Hamilton's assistant was Alfred Santell's Winterset. Wise continued to work with Hamilton on other films, including Stage Door, Having Wonderful Time and The Story of Vernon and Irene Castle.
In The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Fifth Avenue Girl and Wise, as assistant film editor, shared screen credit. Wise's first solo film editing work was on My Favorite Wife. At RKO, Wise worked with Orson Welles on Citizen Kane and was nominated for the Academy Award for Film Editing. Wise was the film's last living crew member. Although Wise worked as an editor on Citizen Kane, it is that while working on the film he became familiar with the optical printer techniques employed by Linwood Dunn, inventor of the practical optical printer, to produce effects for Citizen Kane such as the image projected in the broken snowglobe which falls from Kane's hand as he dies. In Citizen Kane, Welles used a deep-focus technique, in which heavy lights are employed to achieve sharp focus for both foreground and background in the frame. Wise used the technique in films that he directed. Welles' Citizen Kane influenced Wise's innovations in the use of sound in films such as The Set-Up, where Wise limited music to in-film sources, in Executive Suite, which used no music.
In addition, biographical films or biographical profiles of fictionalized characters such as Charles Foster Kane were the subjects of Wise's work, including Somebody Up There Likes Me, I Want to Live!, The Sound of Music, So Big, Run Silent, Run Deep and The Sand Pebbles, among others. Wise worked as editor on Welles' next film for RKO, The Magnificent Ambersons. While working as a film editor, Wise was called on to shoot additional scenes for the film. After Welles was dismissed from the studio, Wise continued editing films such as Seven Days Leave and The Fallen Sparrow, before he received his first directing assignment. For Wise, connecting to the viewer was the "most important part of making a film." Wise had a reputation for a strong work ethic and budget-minded frugality. In addition, he was known for his attention to detail and well-researched
The Public (film)
The Public is a 2018 American drama film directed and written by Emilio Estevez, who stars in the film alongside an ensemble cast including Alec Baldwin, Jena Malone, Christian Slater, Gabrielle Union, Taylor Schilling, Jacob Vargas, Michael Kenneth Williams, Jeffrey Wright. The film had its world premiere on September 2018, at the Toronto International Film Festival, it was released in the United States on April 2019, by Universal Pictures. After learning that emergency shelters are at full capacity when a brutal Midwestern cold front makes its way to Cincinnati, Ohio, a large group of homeless library patrons led by Jackson refuse to leave the downtown public library at closing time. What begins as a nonviolent Occupy sit-in and ragtag act of civil disobedience escalates into a standoff with local riot police, led by a no-nonsense crisis negotiator and a savvy district attorney with lofty political ambitions, all as two librarians are caught up in the middle of it. Emilio Estevez as Stuart Goodson, a librarian at the Cincinnati Public Library Alec Baldwin as Detective Bill Ramstead, a crisis negotiator for the Cincinnati Police Department Christian Slater as Josh Davis, the local district attorney for the City of Cincinnati Jena Malone as Myra, a librarian at the Cincinnati Public Library Taylor Schilling as Angela, Stuart's neighbor and love interest Michael K. Williams as Jackson, the homeless man who leads the Occupy sit-in at the library Jeffrey Wright as Mr. Anderson, the head librarian of the Cincinnati Public Library Gabrielle Union as Rebecca Parks, a local reporter Jacob Vargas as Ernesto, head of security for the library Richard T. Jones as Chief Edwards Bryant Bentley as Catcus Ray, the homeless man who helps Jackson in the sit-in at the library Ki Hong Lee as Chip Michael Douglas Hall as Smutts, homeless friend of Jackson's that sparks the idea of the sit-in In December 2016, it was announced that Alec Baldwin, Jena Malone, Taylor Schilling and Rhymefest would be joining Emilio Estevez in the film.
A few days it was announced that Gabrielle Union had been cast in the film. In January 2017, it was announced that Christian Slater, Jeffrey Wright and Michael Kenneth Williams had joined the cast of the film. Filming began in January 2017 in Ohio. Composers Tyler Bates and Joanne Higginbottom wrote the score for the film; the Public held its first screening as the opening night selection at the Santa Barbara International Film Festival on January 31, 2018. It was screened multiple times at the June 2018 meeting of the American Library Association, followed by a Q&A with Emilio Estevez, its official world premiere was held on September 9, 2018, at the Toronto International Film Festival. In January 2019, Universal Pictures Home Entertainment Content Group acquired US distribution rights to The Public; the film is set to be released in the United States on April 5, 2019. List of black films of the 2010s Official website The Public on IMDb The Public at Rotten Tomatoes Official trailer
Bank robbery is the crime of stealing money from a bank while bank employees and customers are subjected to force, violence, or a threat of violence. This refers to robbery of a bank branch or teller, as opposed to other bank-owned property, such as a train, armored car, or stagecoach, it is a federal crime in the United States. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting Program, robbery is "the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence or by putting the victim in fear." By contrast, burglary is "unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft." Bank robbery occurs in towns. This concentration is attributed to there being more branches in urban areas, but the number of bank robberies is higher than the number of branches; this has advantages both for law enforcement. In urban areas the transportation infrastructure is more developed where banks tend to cluster near retail shopping areas and commercial districts.
Such banks are profitable targets for robbers, who are afforded a number of potential escape routes. Law enforcement benefit by being able to respond more and the odds of catching a bank robber on or near the scene is higher than other types of crime; this is because most bank robberies are reported quickly while the crime is in progress. Many bank robbers are caught the same day; the clearance rate for bank robbery is among the highest of all crimes, at nearly 60%. The urban location of the crime contributes to its repeat victimization profile, a measure of how a crime victim will suffer a repeat of the original crime. One study carried out by the Home Office found that in England, one third of banks at which a robbery has occurred will be robbed again within three months, while the same study found that in Tallahassee, one quarter of robbed banks will suffer repeat robbery within a week, over half of robbed banks will be robbed again within a month; the Australian Institute of Criminology analyzed trends in bank robbery over a four-year period.
Of the 808 bank robbery incidents between January 1998 and May 2002 in which the number of offenders involved in the hold-up was recorded, 55% were committed by lone offenders, 25% by pairs, 20% by three or more robbers. Unarmed offenders accounted for 28% of robberies, caused the fewest number of injuries to victims, were the type of robber who most used a note to threaten bank staff, failed most in their robbery attempts. Unarmed gangs failed the least in their robbery attempts. Armed robbers used a disguise more compared to unarmed robbers, with armed pairs employing disguises most often. According to the Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics injuries occur in about two percent and a death occurs in less than one percent of all U. S. bank robberies. Violent takeover bank robberies that are portrayed in the media are rare; the majority of bank robberies taking place today are so-called "note jobs." These are accomplished by passing a written note to the teller demanding money. The idea is to attract as little attention as possible.
In most cases, other customers present in the bank during a robbery are unaware of what is occurring. Standard bank policy is to avoid violence as much as possible, so they will hand over the money and try to obey the robber's demands; the robber makes away with cash, but in small amounts. According to British Bankers' Association data, in 2007 there were 106 attempted or successful robberies in Britain in which an average of 1.6 persons were involved. One third of attempts came up empty while the average haul for a successful attempt was equivalent to 46,600 USD. 20% of the successes would prove less than successful by virtue of the robbers being arrested. According to The New York Times and the Saturday Evening Post, the first bank robbery in the United States occurred in March 1831. Two men, James Honeyman and William J. Murray, entered the City Bank of New York using forged keys; this allowed them to empty the vault of more than $245,000 in bank money. According to the Times, it can not be confirmed if this was a burglary.
The Post corrected this claim upon learning of a previous 1798 robbery of $162,821 from the Bank of Pennsylvania at Carpenters' Hall. The Carpenters' Hall theft may not have technically been a robbery as there were no signs of force and the thief may have had a key. On September 14, 1828, five men tunneled through a sewage drain in George Street and stole £14,000 in promissory notes and coins from the vault of the Bank of Australia, it has been described as the first bank robbery in Australia and the largest in Australian history at the equivalent of $20 million in today's currency. On December 15, 1863, a man walked into a bank in Middlesex County, shot the 17-year-old bookkeeper, stole $3,000 in large bills and $2,000 in small bills; the directors of the bank offered a $6,000 reward for the arrest of the murderer. This has been described as the first armed bank robbery in US history; the heist known as the 1907 Tiflis bank robbery in June 1907 in the Russian Empire resulted in 40 deaths, 50 injuries, the "expropriation" of 341,000 rubles
Robin Hood is a legendary heroic outlaw depicted in English folklore and subsequently featured in literature and film. According to legend, he was a skilled archer and swordsman. In some versions of the legend, he is depicted as being of noble birth, in modern time he is sometimes depicted as having fought in the Crusades before returning to England to find his lands taken by the Sheriff. In the oldest known versions he is instead a member of the yeoman class. Traditionally depicted dressed in Lincoln green, he is said to have robbed from the rich and given to the poor. Through retellings and variations a body of familiar characters associated with Robin Hood have been created; these include his lover, Maid Marian, his band of outlaws, the Merry Men, his chief opponent, the Sheriff of Nottingham. The Sheriff is depicted as assisting Prince John in usurping the rightful but absent King Richard, to whom Robin Hood remains loyal, his partisanship of the common people and his hostility to the Sheriff of Nottingham are early recorded features of the legend but his interest in the rightfulness of the king is not, neither is his setting in the reign of Richard I.
He became a popular folk figure in the Late Middle Ages, the earliest known ballads featuring him are from the 15th century. There have been numerous variations and adaptations of the story over the last six hundred years, the story continues to be represented in literature and television. Robin Hood is considered one of the best known tales of English folklore; the historicity of Robin Hood has been debated for centuries. There are numerous references to historical figures with similar names that have been proposed as possible evidence of his existence, some dating back to the late 13th century. At least eight plausible origins to the story have been mooted by historians and folklorists, including suggestions that "Robin Hood" was a stock alias used by or in reference to bandits; the first clear reference to'rhymes of Robin Hood' is from the alliterative poem Piers Plowman, thought to have been composed in the 1370s, but the earliest surviving copies of the narrative ballads that tell his story date to the second half of the 15th century, or the first decade of the 16th century.
In these early accounts, Robin Hood's partisanship of the lower classes, his devotion to the Virgin Mary and associated special regard for women, his outstanding skill as an archer, his anti-clericalism, his particular animosity towards the Sheriff of Nottingham are clear. Little John, Much the Miller's Son and Will Scarlet all appear, although not yet Maid Marian or Friar Tuck; the latter has been part of the legend since at least the 15th century, when he is mentioned in a Robin Hood play script. In modern popular culture, Robin Hood is seen as a contemporary and supporter of the late-12th-century king Richard the Lionheart, Robin being driven to outlawry during the misrule of Richard's brother John while Richard was away at the Third Crusade; this view first gained currency in the 16th century. It is not supported by the earliest ballads; the early compilation, A Gest of Robyn Hode, names the king as'Edward'. The oldest surviving ballad, Robin Hood and the Monk, gives less support to the picture of Robin Hood as a partisan of the true king.
The setting of the early ballads is attributed by scholars to either the 13th century or the 14th, although it is recognised they are not historically consistent. The early ballads are quite clear on Robin Hood's social status: he is a yeoman. While the precise meaning of this term changed over time, including free retainers of an aristocrat and small landholders, it always referred to commoners; the essence of it in the present context was'neither a knight nor a peasant or "husbonde" but something in between'. Artisans were among those regarded as'yeomen' in the 14th century. From the 16th century on, there were attempts to elevate Robin Hood to the nobility and in two influential plays, Anthony Munday presented him at the end of the 16th century as the Earl of Huntingdon, as he is still presented in modern times; as well as ballads, the legend was transmitted by'Robin Hood games' or plays that were an important part of the late medieval and early modern May Day festivities. The first record of a Robin Hood game was in 1426 in Exeter, but the reference does not indicate how old or widespread this custom was at the time.
The Robin Hood games are known to have flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries. It is stated as fact that Maid Marian and a jolly friar entered the legend through the May Games; the earliest surviving text of a Robin Hood ballad is the 15th-century "Robin Hood and the Monk". This is preserved in Cambridge University manuscript Ff.5.48. Written after 1450, it contains many of the elements still associated with the legend, from the Nottingham setting to the bitter enmity between Robin and the local sheriff; the first printed version is A Gest of Robyn Hode, a collection of separate stories that attempts to unite the episodes into a single continuous narrative. After this comes "Robin Hood and the Potter", contained in a manuscript of c. 1503. "The Potter" is markedly different in tone from "The Monk": whereas the earlier tale is'a thriller' the latter is more comic, its plot involving trickery and cunning rather than straightforward force. Other early texts are dramatic pieces, the earliest being the fragmentary Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham.
Barry Levinson is an American filmmaker and actor. Levinson's best-known works are mid-budget drama films such as Diner, he won the Academy Award for Best Director for Rain Man which won the Academy Award for Best Picture. Levinson was born in Baltimore, the son of Violet "Vi" and Irvin Levinson, who worked in the furniture and appliance business, his family is of Russian Jewish descent. Levinson's first writing work was for variety shows such as The Marty Feldman Comedy Machine, The Lohman and Barkley Show, The Tim Conway Show, The Carol Burnett Show. After some success as a screenwriter – notably the Mel Brooks comedies Silent Movie and High Anxiety and the Oscar-nominated script... And Justice for All – Levinson began his career as a director with Diner, for which he had written the script and which earned him an Oscar nomination for Best Original Screenplay. Diner was the first of four films set in the Baltimore of Levinson's youth; the other three were Tin Men, a story of aluminum-siding salesmen in the 1960s starring Richard Dreyfuss and Danny DeVito.
His biggest hit, both critically and financially, was Rain Man, a sibling drama starring Dustin Hoffman and Tom Cruise. The film won four Academy Awards, including Best Director, it won the Golden Bear at the 39th Berlin International Film Festival. Levinson directed starring Robert Redford. Redford would direct Quiz Show, cast Levinson as television personality Dave Garroway. Levinson directed the classic war comedy Good Morning, starring Robin Williams, with whom he collaborated on the fantasy Toys and the political comedy Man of the Year. Levinson directed the critically acclaimed historical crime drama Bugsy, which starred Warren Beatty and was nominated for ten Academy Awards, he directed Dustin Hoffman again in Wag the Dog, a political comedy co-starring Robert De Niro about a war staged in a film studio. The film won the Silver Bear – Special Jury Prize at the 48th Berlin International Film Festival. Levinson partnered with producer Mark Johnson to form the film production company Baltimore Pictures.
The two parted ways in 1994. Levinson has been a producer or executive producer for such major productions as The Perfect Storm, directed by Wolfgang Petersen, he has a television production company with Tom Fontana and served as executive producer for a number of series, including Homicide: Life on the Street and the HBO prison drama Oz. Levinson played an uncredited main role as a judge in the short-lived TV series The Jury. Levinson published his first novel, Sixty-Six, in 2003. Like several of his films, it is set in Baltimore in the 1960s, he directed two webisodes of the American Express ads "The Adventures of Seinfeld and Superman". In 2004, Levinson was the recipient of the Austin Film Festival's Distinguished Screenwriter Award. Levinson directed a documentary PoliWood about the 2008 Democratic and Republican National Conventions; the documentary, produced by Tim Daly, Robin Bronk and Robert E. Baruc, had its premiere at the 2009 Tribeca Film Festival. Levinson is developing a film based on the Boston crime boss.
The film Black Mass is based on the book by Dick Lehr and Gerard O'Neill, is said to be the "true story of Billy Bulger, Whitey Bulger, FBI agent John Connelly and the FBI's witness protection program, created by J. Edgar Hoover."Levinson finished production on The Humbling, starring Al Pacino. Levinson directed Rock the Kasbah, written by Mitch Glazer; the film starred Bill Murray, Bruce Willis, Kate Hudson, Zooey Deschanel, Leem Lubany, Scott Caan, Danny McBride, Kelly Lynch, Arian Moayed, Taylor Kinney, Beejan Land. In 2010 Levinson received the Laurel Award for Screenwriting Achievement, the lifetime achievement award from the Writers Guild of America. Executive producer only Kafka Wilder Napalm A Little Princess Donnie Brasco The Perfect Storm Analyze That Deliver Us from Eva Executive producer only Official website Barry Levinson on IMDb Barry Levinson at AllMovie Barry Levinson at The Interviews: An Oral History of Television Barry Levinson on Charlie Rose