A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft involving moral panic or mass hysteria. The classical period of witch-hunts in Early Modern Europe and Colonial North America took place in the Early Modern period or about 1450 to 1750, spanning the upheavals of the Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, resulting in an estimated 35,000 to 100,000 executions; the last executions of people convicted as witches in Europe took place in the 18th century. In other regions, like Africa and Asia, contemporary witch-hunts have been reported from Sub-Saharan Africa and Papua New Guinea and official legislation against witchcraft is still found in Saudi Arabia and Cameroon today. In current language, "witch-hunt" metaphorically means an investigation conducted with much publicity to uncover subversive activity, disloyalty and so on, but to weaken political opposition; the wide distribution of the practice of witch-hunts in geographically and culturally separated societies since the 1960s has triggered interest in the anthropological background of this behaviour.
The belief in magic and divination, attempts to use magic to influence personal well-being are human cultural universals. Belief in witchcraft has been shown to have similarities in societies throughout the world, it presents a framework to explain the occurrence of otherwise random misfortunes such as sickness or death, the witch sorcerer provides an image of evil. Reports on indigenous practices in the Americas and Africa collected during the early modern age of exploration have been taken to suggest that not just the belief in witchcraft but the periodic outbreak of witch-hunts are a human cultural universal. One study finds that witchcraft beliefs are associated with antisocial attitudes: lower levels of trust, charitable giving and group participation. Another study finds that income shocks lead to a large increase in the murder of "witches" in Tanzania. Punishment for malevolent sorcery is addressed in the earliest law codes; the Code of Hammurabi prescribes that If a man has put a spell upon another man and it is not yet justified, he upon whom the spell is laid shall go to the holy river.
If the holy river overcome him and he is drowned, the man who put the spell upon him shall take possession of his house. If the holy river declares him innocent and he remains unharmed the man who laid the spell shall be put to death, he that plunged into the river shall take possession of the house of him who laid the spell upon him. No laws concerning magic survive from Classical Athens. However, cases concerning the harmful effects of pharmaka – an ambiguous term that might mean "poison", "medicine", or "magical drug" – do survive those where the drug caused injury or death. Antiphon's speech "Against the Stepmother for Poisoning" tells of the case of a woman accused of plotting to murder her husband with a pharmakon; the most detailed account of a trial for witchcraft in Classical Greece is the story of Theoris of Lemnos, executed along with her children some time before 338 BC for casting incantations and using harmful drugs. In 451 BC, the Twelve Tables of Roman law had provisions against evil incantations and spells intended to damage cereal crops.
In 331 BC, 170 women were executed as witches in the context of an epidemic illness. Livy emphasizes. In 186 BC, the Roman senate issued a decree restricting the Bacchanalia, ecstatic rites celebrated in honor of Dionysus. Livy records that this persecution was because "there was nothing wicked, nothing flagitious, that had not been practiced among them". Consequent to the ban, in 184 BC, about 2,000 people were executed for witchcraft, in 182–180 BC another 3,000 executions took place, again triggered by the outbreak of an epidemic. There is no way to verify the figures reported by Roman historians, but if they are taken at face value, the scale of the witch-hunts in the Roman Republic in relation to the population of Italy at the time far exceeded anything that took place during the "classical" witch-craze in Early Modern Europe. Persecution of witches continued in the Roman Empire until the late 4th century AD and abated only after the introduction of Christianity as the Roman state religion in the 390s.
The Lex Cornelia de sicariis et veneficiis promulgated by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 81 BC became an important source of late medieval and early modern European law on witchcraft. This law banned the trading and possession of harmful drugs and poisons, possession of magical books and other occult paraphernalia. Strabo, Gaius Maecenas and Cassius Dio all reiterate the traditional Roman opposition against sorcery and divination, Tacitus used the term religio-superstitio to class these outlawed observances. Emperor Augustus strengthened legislation aimed at curbing these practices, for instance in 31 BC, by burning over 2,000 magical books in Rome, except for certain portions of the hallowed Sibylline Books. In AD 354, while Tiberius Claudius was emperor, 45 men and 85 women, who were all suspected of sorcery, were executed; the Hebrew Bible condemns sorcery. Deuteronomy 18:10–12 states: "No one shall be found among you who makes a son or daughter pass through fire, who practices divination, or is a soothsayer, or an augur, or a sorcerer, or one that casts spells, or who consults gh
NCIS (season 4)
The fourth season of the police procedural drama NCIS was broadcast between September 19, 2006 and May 22, 2007. Special Agent Gibbs left NCIS at the end of season three after a terrorist attack had been successful because his superiors did not heed his warnings in time; the team is now led by DiNozzo for a short time until Gibbs' eventual return. New characters introduced in this season are Michelle Lee, on DiNozzo's team and was transferred to the legal department upon Gibbs' return, Gibbs' former boss and mentor Mike Franks, both as recurring characters. Albeit in the season, Army CID Lieutenant Colonel Hollis Mann is introduced as another love interest for Gibbs. In December 2006, Bill Keveney from USA Today announced that the "CBS investigative drama NCIS topped the Nielsen viewership list for the first time with 17.4 million. CBS was the No. 1 network in viewers and young adults for the week of Dec. 11–17."TV Guide reported on May 5, 2007 that creator and showrunner Donald Bellisario would step down and leave the series due to a disagreement with series star Mark Harmon.
Because of Bellisario's "chaotic management style", Harmon threatened to leave NCIS. Co-executive producer Chas. Floyd Johnson and head writer Shane Brennan replaced Bellisario as showrunner. Mark Harmon as Leroy Jethro Gibbs, NCIS Senior Special Agent assigned to Washington's Navy Yard Michael Weatherly as Anthony DiNozzo, NCIS Special Agent, second in command Cote de Pablo as Ziva David, Mossad officer and Liaison To NCIS Pauley Perrette as Abigail Sciuto, Forensic Specialist attached to NCIS Sean Murray as Timothy McGee, NCIS Special Agent Lauren Holly as Jenny Shepard, NCIS Director David McCallum as Dr. Donald Mallard, Chief Medical Examiner for NCIS Joe Spano as Tobias Fornell, FBI Senior Special Agent Jessica Steen as Paula Cassidy, NCIS Senior Special Agent Brian Dietzen as Jimmy Palmer, Assistant Medical Examiner for NCIS Troian Bellisario as Sarah McGee Mary Mouser as Kelly Gibbs, Gibbs' deceased daughter Stephanie Mello as Cynthia Summer, NCIS Secretary to Director Shepard Muse Watson as Mike Franks, retired Senior Special Agent for NCIS Don Franklin as Ron Sacks, FBI Special Agent Scottie Thompson as Jeanne Benoit, Tony's girlfriend while undercover Armand Assante as Rene Benoit, NCIS target Susanna Thompson as Hollis Mann, Gibbs' girlfriend and Army CID Agent Liza Lapira as Michelle Lee, NCIS Special Agent David Dayan Fisher as Trent Kort, CIA Agent Enzo Cilenti as Mamoun Sharif, NCIS target Payton Spencer as Emily Fornell Cast and Crew Commentaries on Select Episodes Cast Roundtable Ducky's World Behind the Set: The Production Design of N.
C. I. S. Dressed to Kill: Dressing the Sets of N. C. I. S. Prop Master Picture Perfect: The Looks of N. C. I. S. Season of Secrets
The Witch Hunt
The Witch Hunt is a 1981 Norwegian drama film written and directed by Anja Breien. The film was entered into the main competition at the 38th edition of the Venice Film Festival. Lil Terselius as Eli Laupstad Bjørn Skagestad as Aslak Gimra Anita Björk as Ingeborg Eriksdotter Jaatun Erik Mørk as Henrik Ravn Ella Hval as Guri Mona Jacobsen as Maren Espen Skjønberg as Kristoffer Klomber Eilif Armand as Rasmus Knag Jan Hårstad as Njell Asserson Lars Andreas Larssen as Glaser Cay Kristiansen as Bolle Jens Okking as Blomme Jorunn Kjellsby as Dordi Häge Juve as Sigrid Lothar Lindtner as Asser The Witch Hunt on IMDb
Rush was a Canadian rock band made up of Geddy Lee, Alex Lifeson, Neil Peart. Formed in 1968, the band went through several configurations until arriving at its longest and most popular line-up when Peart replaced original drummer John Rutsey in July 1974, two weeks before the group's first tour of the United States. Rush is known for its musicianship, complex compositions, eclectic lyrical motifs drawing on science fiction and philosophy; the band's musical style has changed several times over the years, from a blues-inspired hard rock beginning moving into progressive rock, including a period marked by heavy use of synthesizers. In the early 1990s, Rush returned to a guitar-driven hard rock sound, which continued for the rest of their career. Rush announced plans to cease large-scale touring at the end of 2015. After nearly three years of an uncertain future, Lifeson reluctantly announced in January 2018 that the band had dissolved. According to the RIAA, Rush ranks 86th with sales of 25 million units in the U.
S. Although total worldwide album sales are not calculated by any single entity, several industry sources estimated Rush's total worldwide album sales at over 40 million units as of 2017; the group has been awarded 24 gold, 14 platinum, 3 multi-platinum albums. Rush has received nominations for seven Grammy Awards; the band has won several Juno Awards, won an International Achievement Award at the 2009 SOCAN Awards, was inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame in 1994 and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2013. Over their careers, the members of Rush have been acknowledged as some of the most proficient players on their respective instruments, with each band member winning numerous awards in magazine readers' polls; the original line-up formed in the neighbourhood of Willowdale in Toronto, Ontario, by guitarist Alex Lifeson and front man Jeff Jones, drummer John Rutsey on September 18, 1968. Within a couple of weeks of forming, before their second performance and lead vocalist Jones left the band and was replaced by Geddy Lee, a schoolmate of Lifeson.
Their first gigs took place at the Coff-Inn, a youth centre in the basement of St. Theodore of Canterbury Anglican Church in North York. After several line-up reformations, Rush's official incarnation formed in May 1971 consisting of Lee and Rutsey; the name "Rush" was suggested by Bill. The band was managed by local Toronto resident Ray Danniels, a frequent attendee of Rush's early shows. After gaining stability in the line-up and honing their skills on the local bar and high school dance circuit, the band members released their first single "Not Fade Away", a cover of the Buddy Holly song, in 1973. Side B contained an original composition, "You Can't Fight It", credited to Rutsey; the single generated little reaction and, because of record company indifference, the band formed their own independent label, Moon Records. With the assistance of Danniels and the newly enlisted engineer Terry Brown, the band released its self-titled debut album in 1974, considered derivative of Led Zeppelin. Rush had limited local popularity until the album was picked up by WMMS, a radio station in Cleveland, Ohio.
Donna Halper, a music director and DJ working at the station, selected "Working Man" for her regular playlist. The song's blue-collar theme resonated with hard rock fans, this newfound popularity led to the album being re-released by Mercury Records in the U. S. After the release of the debut album, Rutsey left the band due to health difficulties stemming from diabetes and his distaste for touring, his last performance with the band was on July 1974, at Centennial Hall in London, Ontario. Rush selected Neil Peart as Rutsey's replacement. Peart joined the band on July 29, 1974, two weeks before the group's first US tour, they performed their first concert together, opening for Uriah Heep and Manfred Mann with an attendance of over 11,000 people at the Civic Arena in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on August 14. In addition to becoming the band's drummer, Peart assumed the role of principal lyricist from Lee, who had little interest in writing, despite having penned the lyrics of the band's first album.
Lee and Lifeson focused on the instrumental aspects of Rush. Fly by Night, Rush's first album after recruiting Peart, saw the inclusion of the band's first epic mini-tale "By-Tor and the Snow Dog", replete with complex arrangements and a multi-section format. Lyrical themes underwent dramatic changes because of Peart's love for fantasy and science-fiction literature. Despite these many differences, some of the music and songs still mirrored the blues style found on Rush's debut; the band followed Fly by Night with Caress of Steel, a five-track album featuring two extended multi-chapter songs, "The Necromancer" and "The Fountain of Lamneth". Some critics said Caress of Steel was unfocused and an audacious move for the band because of the placement of two back-to-back protracted songs, as well as a heavier reliance on atmospherics and story-telling, a large deviation from Fly by Night. Intended to be the band's break-through album, Caress of Steel sold below expectations and the promotional tour consisted of smaller venues, which led to the moniker the "Down the Tubes Tour".
In light of these events, Rush's record label tried to pressure the members into moulding their next album in a more commercially friendly and accessible fashion. Despite this, the album was the band's first taste of commercial success and their fir
Speak No Evil
Speak No Evil is the sixth album by Wayne Shorter. It was released in June 1966 by Blue Note Records; the music combines elements of hard modal jazz. The cover shows Wayne Shorter's first wife, Teruko Nakagami, whom he met in 1961. Speak No Evil was one of several albums Shorter recorded for Blue Note in 1964. At the same time, he was active in Miles Davis's band, so it is unlikely that Speak No Evil received any special attention at the time of its release, but the passage of time has led to the album being regarded as Shorter's finest, a highlight of the Blue Note catalogue. The Penguin Guide to Jazz selected this album as part of its suggested "Core Collection" calling it "by far Shorter's most satisfying record". Allmusic assigns the album five stars. Murray Horwitz stated in 2001 that "Speak No Evil is sort of a consolidation of Wayne Shorter's compositional excellence. It's consistent and wide-ranging. It's a manifesto for his ideas; those ideas were new 40 years ago, but they're still fresh today."
Rough Guide author Ian Carr wrote it is "a classic album in terms of both composition and improvisation, has been inspirational for many musicians". New York Times critic Ben Ratliff included the album in his publication Jazz: A Critic's Guide to the 100 Most Important Recordings stating that it offers "the first taste of a gnomic compositional style that would haunt jazz forevermore. Just about everybody playing jazz born in the 1950s and after accepts it as a foundation." Speak No Evil was released on LP in 1966, as BLP 4194 and BST 84194, first released on CD in 1987. The first remastered version, supervised by Rudy Van Gelder, was released in 1999, with an alternative version of "Dance Cadaverous". A definitive remastered limited edition was issued in Japan on SHM-CD on October 23, 2013, it includes two alternate takes unissued. The colour palette of the cover, featuring a sky blue dominant differs from the RVG edition one, restoring the original vinyl palette. All compositions by Wayne Shorter.
Wayne Shorter — tenor saxophone Freddie Hubbard — trumpet Herbie Hancock — piano Ron Carter — double bass Elvin Jones — drums
Witch Hunt (novel)
Witch Hunt is a 1993 crime novel by Ian Rankin, under the pseudonym "Jack Harvey". It is the first novel. A fishing boat sinks in the English Channel in the middle of the night, the evidence points to murder. Ex-MI5 operative Dominic Elder comes out of retirement to help investigate the explosion of the boat, as it appears that his long-time obsession, a female assassin known as "Witch", may be responsible. Using the boat to get to England from France, Witch left a subtle trail of clues to announce her arrival and to warn off Elder. But, the least of Special Branch's worries, if Elder's well-honed intuition is correct, he has seen her work before and knows her to be a resourceful enemy, who always seems a step ahead of the authorities. With an imminent summit of world leaders to be held in London, Witch's target seems obvious. Young Michael Barclay's thoroughness leads him onto Witch's trail, with the help of his liaison in the French police, Dominique Herault. Apart from her language help and guidance around Paris, Michael is sexually attracted to her.
The team of detectives and MI5 agents, the terrorist, play cat-and-mouse with each other in Scotland, England and briefly visit a former associate of Witch in prison in Germany
Umineko When They Cry
Umineko: When They Cry is a Japanese dōjin soft visual novel series produced by 07th Expansion. The first game in the series, Legend of the Golden Witch, was first released at Comiket 72 on August 17, 2007 playable on Windows; the story focuses on a group of eighteen people on a secluded island for a period of two days, the mysterious murders that befall them. Readers are challenged to discern whether the murders were committed by a human or of some other supernatural source, as well as the method and motive behind them. Umineko is the third title in the When They Cry series, preceded by Higurashi no Naku Koro ni and Higurashi no Naku Koro ni Kai, followed by Umineko no Naku Koro ni Chiru. Square Enix, Kadokawa Shoten, ASCII Media Works all published various manga adaptations of the series, it was turned into a 26-episode anime by Studio Deen, which aired in Japan between July and December 2009. A series of novels written by Ryukishi07 are published by Kodansha Box. A fighting game based on the franchise, Umineko: Golden Fantasia was released by 07th Expansion on December 31, 2010.
Umineko When They Cry is a murder mystery game described as a "sound novel" by 07th Expansion. A sound novel is similar to a visual novel, though the gameplay requires no player interaction as the game is composed of text dialogues. While a visual novel's basis would be the visual aspect, as the name suggests, a sound novel's basis takes more care in producing an atmosphere via the music, sound effects, the story itself; as such, the original Umineko games have a simple-looking art style, which stays consistent over the course of the series' releases. The original releases contain no voice acting for the characters. During gameplay, the Tips Mode can be viewed via the game's internal menu, which includes save and load functions; this mode allows the player to read various supplementary information on the characters and story that may or may not be useful in solving the mystery. These are updated according to the progression of the story; the goal of the game is to try to come up with a solution to the many murders and mysterious events that occur, discern the truth of the events of the story.
An in-game feature introduced in Turn of the Golden Witch is the "red truth", where any text written is red is said to state the indisputable truth, offering clues to the reader to both create theories as well as to break them. In contrast to this is the "blue truth" introduced in Alliance of the Golden Witch, used to present theories that deny the witch while abiding by existing red truths. If not countered by a relevant red truth, blue truths may be treated as actual fact; when an episode is completed for the first time, an additional short epilogue called "Tea Party" becomes available to play, offering crucial plot points that advance the overall progression of the story. When that scenario is completed, a second epilogue called "????" becomes available to advance the story. After all the scenarios in a given game copy have been completed, a Music Box section becomes available on the title menu, enabling the player to listen to any of the music used throughout the game. Umineko no Naku Koro ni is set on October 4, 1986 on Rokkenjima, a small island owned by the wealthy Ushiromiya family.
The Ushiromiya family gathers for the annual family conference, which concerns the division of assets belonging to Kinzo, the ailing family head. Battler Ushiromiya, one of Kinzo's grandchildren, has been absent from the family conference for the past six years, having lived with the family of his deceased mother and renounced the Ushiromiya name during the time out of protest towards the remarriage between his father and his second wife, Kyrie. Upon his return, Battler becomes reacquainted with the legend of the "Golden Witch" Beatrice, rumored to have given Kinzo ten tons of gold in the past to revive the Ushiromiya family, crippled in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake. A portrait of her lies in the entrance hall of the Ushiromiya family mansion, a puzzling epitaph is written below it, it is rumored that whoever solves the epitaph's riddle will receive the gold and become the successor to the Ushiromiya family. A typhoon soon traps the eighteen people on the island, occult-like murders begin to occur in accordance with the contents of the witch's epitaph in ways that seem impossible for a human to have committed.
At the end of the first game, the ceremony described by the epitaph is completed and the witch Beatrice revives. Battler, the only one who refuses to acknowledge the existence of witches or magic, is sent to a parallel dimension, from where events on Rokkenjima can be overseen. From this point on, Battler and Beatrice become locked in a game of twisted logic where the murders on Rokkenjima repeat themselves in different ways. Battler's goal is to attempt to explain all of the mysterious events on Rokkenjima from the standpoint that they are caused by a human, while Beatrice's goal is to deny Battler's theories until he is forced to accept her existence. In the final two games, Beatrice's true identity is revealed to be Sayo Yasuda, Kinzo's illegitimate child, who masquerades as two of the family's servants and Kanon. Bearing a grudge against the Ushiromiya family, resenting Battler for forgetting their relationship during his six-year absence, Sayo plots several ways to commit a mass murder-suicide, which are embellished as a fantastical murder mystery written in message bottles that Sayo throws into the sea, forming the basis of th