Celts in Transylvania
The appearance of Celts in Transylvania can be traced to the La Tène period. Excavation of the great La Tène necropolis at Apahida, Cluj County, the 3rd–2nd century BC site is remarkable for its cremation burials and chiefly wheel-made funeral vessels. The Celts exercised politico-military rule over Transylvania between the 4th and 2nd century BC and brought them a more advanced iron-working technology. They were responsible for the spread of the wheel into a much wider area than the one they occupied. They were followed by an equally large wave of Celts migrating west to east. Celts arrived in northwestern Transylvania in around 400–350 BC as part of their great migration eastwards, when Celtic warriors first penetrated these territories, the group seem to have merged with the domestic population of early Dacians and assimilated many Hallstatt cultural traditions. The second half of the 4th century BC saw the Middle La Tène Celtic culture emerge in north-western and central Dacia, Celtic artifacts dating to this time have been discovered at Turdaş, Haţeg and Mediaş in modern-day Romania.
By 1976, the number of Celtic sites found in Transylvania had reached about 150, archaeological investigations have highlighted several warrior graves with military equipment, suggesting that an elite Celtic military force penetrated the region. Celtic vestiges are found concentrated in the Transylvanian plateau and plain, as well as the upper Someş basin, whereas the valleys of Haţeg, Hunedoara, Făgăraş, Bârsa. Gheorghe and Ciuc have neither necropoleis nor settlements but only tombs or isolated items, these valleys, as well as those of Banat and Maramureş, have yielded contemporary Dacian findings. Of the Celtic cemeteries excavated, the most important are those in Ciumeşti and Pişcolt and these contain over 150 graves compared to the average of 50–70. Necropoleis have found at Sanislău, Curtuişeni, Galaţii Bistriţei. Twenty-three of the oldest graves from the extensive Fântânele, Mureş cemetery in Mureş County have been dated to the beginning of the 4th century BC, among European Celtic cemeteries, this one is second only to Munsingen in size.
The Geto-Dacian population is represented through a full range of contemporary native pottery types. Finds from Pişcolt reveal that the inhabitants of settlements in the area practiced inhumation, or reuse of a barrow or grave. At Ciumeşti cemetery, of the 34 graves excavated,21 were simple cremations in pits, seven featured inhumations, the number and type of finds in the graves differed in each case. In Transylvania, the Celts shifted from inhumation to cremation, either through natural progression or because of Dacian influence, almost without exception, the necropoleis so far studied are bi-ritual, although cremation appears to be more prevalent than inhumation. The Celts in Dacia certainly cremated their dead from the second La Tène period onwards and it is impossible to say whether the Celts turned away from the practice of cremation as the Scythians had
The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
Helmet of Peretu
The Helmet of Peretu is a Geto-Dacian silver helmet dating from the 5th century BC, housed in the National Museum of Romanian History, Bucharest. It comes from Peretu area, in the Teleorman County, there were 50 artifacts having 750g. The helmet is similar to the Helmet of Coţofeneşti and other three Getian gold or silver helmets discovered so far
Augustus Wollaston Franks
Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks KCB was an English antiquary and museum administrator. Born at Geneva, he was son of Captain Frederick Franks, R. N. and of Frederica Anne. His godfather was William Hyde Wollaston, a friend of his mother and his early years were spent mainly in Rome and Geneva. In September 1839 he went to Eton College, where he remained until 1843, Franks studied at Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1850 he was secretary of the first exhibition of art held in the rooms of the Society of Arts. In 1851, Franks was appointed assistant in the Department of Antiquities of the British Museum, the post was newly founded, and the brief was to develop a collection of British antiquities. Franks in a 45-year career at the Museum went on to five distinct departments. David M. Wilson writes that In many respects Franks was the founder of the British Museum. The Christy collection of ethnography in Victoria Street, was under his care before its incorporation into the British Museum collections and he became vice-president and ultimately president of the Society of Antiquaries, and in 1878 he declined the principal librarianship.
Franks retired on his birthday in 1896. In 1855 Franks was responsible for acquiring for the museum the finest items from the collection of Ralph Bernal, the Liberal politician and collector, including the outstanding Lothair Crystal. In 1892 he succeeded in raising the £8,000 needed to buy the Royal Gold Cup, to Franks this was his greatest acquisition, and he had temporarily had to fund the purchase with £5,000 of his own money. Towards the end of his career, he wrote, I think I may fairly say that I have created the department of which I am now Keeper, and at a very moderate cost to the country. When I was appointed to the Museum in 1851 the scanty collections out of which the department has grown occupied a length of 154 feet of wall cases, and 3 or 4 table cases. The collections now occupy 2250 feet in length of wall cases,90 table cases and 31 upright cases, Franks used personal influence on behalf of the Museum to help in the acquisition of collections. This he applied in the cases of Felix Slade, John Henderson, Lady Fellows for the collection of Sir Charles Fellows, William Burges, Franks had a substantial personal fortune, which he used to build up some remarkable personal collections in parallel with his museum work on acquisitions.
Though this activity was as an independent collector, it was of benefit to the holdings of the British Museum, Franks was an authority on classical art, especially Roman remains in Britain. He set up an exhibition of his Asian ceramics, mainly porcelain and he collected netsuke and tsuba from Japan, finger rings and drinking vessels
The Coppergate Helmet is an 8th-century Anglo-Saxon helmet found in York. It is remarkably well preserved and, together with the Benty Grange, Shorwell, Sutton Hoo, like many other helmets of Germanic Western and Northern Europe in the Early Middle Ages the construction of Coppergate helmet is derivative of Late Roman helmet types. It has a composite skull, the iron elements making up the skull are riveted together. Two deep cheek-pieces are attached to the skull by hinges, a mail curtain is attached to the lower rim of the helmet behind the cheek-pieces to defend the wearers neck and an unusually large nose-guard provided facial protection. The mail is remarkable in consisting of forge-welded links, rather than the far more common riveted links and it is richly decorated with brass ornamentation. On analysis, the helmet was found to be made of iron and its basic construction is almost identical to another surviving Anglo-Saxon helmet, the Pioneer helmet. It is very like the helmets depicted being worn by Anglo-Saxon Northumbrian cavalrymen on one of the Pictish Aberlemno Sculptured Stones, believed to depict the Battle of Dun Nechtain of 685.
The helmet has two low crests of brass, one running from front to back the other side to side. Oshere is a male Anglian name and XPI are the first three letters of the word Christos Χριστός in Greek, the brass crest terminates in a decorative animal head at the base of the nasal. The brass eyebrow decorations which flank the nasal terminate in animal heads, the decoration of the nasal itself consists of two intertwined beasts, whose bodies and limbs degenerate into interlace ornament. The helmet had been hidden in a well found near what is now the JORVIK Viking Centre and it is now in the Yorkshire Museum. Addyman, Peter V. Pearson, Tweddle, binns, James W. Norton, Edward C. The Latin inscription on the Coppergate helmet, the Anglian Helmet from 16–22 Coppergate. Viking Age arms and armour Coppergate Helmet Collections Page
The Hallaton Helmet is a decorated iron Roman cavalry parade helmet originally covered in a sheet of silver and decorated in places with gold leaf. It was discovered in 2000 near Hallaton, Leicestershire after Ken Wallace, further investigation by professional archaeologists from University of Leicester Archaeological Services discovered that the site appeared to have been used as a large-scale Iron Age shrine. Nine years of conservation and restoration has been undertaken by experts from the British Museum, the helmet is now on permanent display at the Harborough Museum in Market Harborough alongside other artefacts from the Hallaton Treasure hoard. Although it was shattered into thousands of pieces and is now heavily corroded. It was plated with silver-gilt and decorated with images of goddesses and it would have been used by a Roman auxiliary cavalryman for displays and possibly in battle. The identity of the owner is not known but the helmet was discovered on a native British ceremonial site, buried alongside thousands of Iron Age British and it is possible that the helmet was owned by a Briton who fought alongside the Romans during the conquest of Britain.
The helmet is an example of a three-piece Roman ceremonial cavalry helmet, made of iron covered with silver sheet. Such helmets were worn by Roman auxiliary cavalrymen in displays known as hippika gymnasia and may have worn in battle, despite their relative thinness. It is the only Roman helmet ever found in Britain that still has most of its silver-gilt plating attached, the helmet would originally have had two cheekpieces attached via holes in front of its ear guards. It has a prominent browguard, the shape of which is similar to that of the 3rd-century Guisborough Helmet, discovered in 1864 near Guisborough in Redcar, the rear of the helmet bowl descended to form a neckguard. As is the case with other Roman cavalry helmets, the Hallaton Helmet was very ornately decorated, a number of similar features have survived on the Hallaton Helmet. Its bowl is decorated with laurel wreaths while the scalloped browguard is edged with elaborate cabling, in the centre of the browguard is the bust of a woman flanked by repoussé lions.
Her identity is unclear, but she may have been an empress or goddess, the iconography is reminiscent of depictions of Cybele, the Magna Mater or Great Mother whose image was used to promote the values of the Augustan period a few decades after the helmet was deposited. However, the depiction has a number of features that are more in common with funerary art, the earguards are in the shape of silver ears, and the neckguard is decorated with a scrolling leaf pattern. Six detached cheekpieces were found within the bowl along with the disintegrated remains of a seventh. Hinges were found, as was the pin of one cheekpiece and it may have been forcibly removed or possibly sustained damage at a date, perhaps from a plough. The surviving cheekpieces are very elaborate, five of the cheekpieces show equestrian scenes, one depicts the triumph of a Roman emperor on horseback, holding his arm in the air as he is crowned with a laurel wreath by the goddess Victoria. A cowering barbarian is depicted below being trampled by the hooves of the emperors horse, another less well-preserved cheekpiece depicts a possibly Middle Eastern figure holding a large cornucopia, and a Roman helmet and shield below
Solder is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces. The word solder comes from the Middle English word soudur, via Old French solduree and soulder, from the Latin solidare, meaning to make solid. In fact, solder must be melted in order to adhere to and connect the pieces together, whenever possible, the solder should be resistant to oxidative and corrosive effects that would degrade the joint over time. Solder that is intended for use in making connections between electronic components usually has favorable electrical characteristics. Soft solder typically has a melting point range of 90 to 450 °C, and is used in electronics, plumbing. Manual soldering uses an iron or soldering gun. Alloys that melt between 180 and 190 °C are the most commonly used, soldering performed using alloys with a melting point above 450 °C is called hard soldering, silver soldering, or brazing. In specific proportions, some alloys can become eutectic — that is, non-eutectic alloys have markedly different solidus and liquidus temperatures, and within that range they exist as a paste of solid particles in a melt of the lower-melting phase.
In electrical work, if the joint is disturbed in the pasty state before it has solidified totally, for electrical and electronics work, solder wire is available in a range of thicknesses for hand-soldering, and with cores containing flux. It is available as a paste or as a preformed foil shaped to match the workpiece, alloys of lead and tin were commonly used in the past, and are still available, they are particularly convenient for hand-soldering. Lead-free solders have been increasing in use due to regulatory requirements plus the health and they are almost exclusively used today in consumer electronics. Plumbers often use bars of solder, much thicker than the used for electrical applications. Jewelers often use solder in thin sheets, which cut into snippets. In the US, manufacturers may receive tax benefits by reducing the use of lead-based solder, lead-free solders in commercial use may contain tin, silver, indium, zinc and traces of other metals. Most lead-free replacements for conventional 60/40 and 63/37 Sn-Pb solder have melting points from 5 to 20 °C higher and it may be desirable to use minor modification of the solder pots used in wave-soldering, to reduce maintenance cost due to increased tin-scavenging of high-tin solder.
Lead-free solder may be desirable for critical applications, such as aerospace and medical projects. Tin-Silver-Copper solders are used by two-thirds of Japanese manufacturers for reflow and wave soldering, tin-based solders readily dissolve gold, forming brittle intermetallics, for Sn-Pb alloys the critical concentration of gold to embrittle the joint is about 4%. Indium-rich solders are more suitable for soldering thicker gold layer as the rate of gold in indium is much slower
Helmet of Iron Gates
The Helmet of Iron Gates is a Geto-Dacian silver helmet dating from the 4th century BC, housed in the Detroit Institute of Arts, United States. It probably comes from Iron Gates area, in the Mehedinţi County, formerly it was in the collection of Franz Tau, Vienna. It is referred to as “Iron Gates” as it was dredged out of the Danube in the Iron Gate gorge in 1913 or 1914. But, there is no record of the Iron Gate material before 1931. It is probably that the so-called Iron Gates material was looted from the Agighiol grave shortly after its opening by local villagers, however, no other grave has been suggested for the Iron Gate helmet. And, In fact, it seems that both Agighiol and Iron Gates helmets had been made by the workshop, or by the same silversmith. Also, it appears that punchmarks on the helmets had been made by the same tool, almost identical in decoration and details of craftsmanship are the two silver beakers, now in Bucharest and New York, that reputedly came from the region of the Iron Gates.
The other designs chased on the helmet are clearly within the Scythian sphere, the helmet type is related to and probably a little earlier in date than the gold helmet in Bucharest which shows some Sarmatian aspects. Lacking evidence of comparable helmets in the Scythian homeland, we may assign this helmet to a development of a helmet type found in Kuban dating in the early years of the fifth century B. C, with the addition of some Greek features, such eyes were considered to be a borrowing from the Greek world where greaves and shields have eyes that have been considered truly apotropaic, serving to divert evil. However, it is argued that the display the feature of doubling of attributes. Besides the eyes, there is the stag depicted with eight legs that is interpreted as “I run twice as fast”, the “apotropaic eyes” could say, I see twice as well. The motif in question is that of a bird with a great round eye. The beakers that reputedly came from the region of the Iron Gates carry the same eagle-hare motif, getae Dacia History of Romania Goldman, Bernard.
DACIAN ART AND THE EAGLE-HARE MOTIF, International Union of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences. Flying stags and power in Thracian art pp. 117-132, the Archaeology of contextual meanings edited by Ian Hodder. DIA helmet page Gold and Silver Armour of the Getian-Dacian Elite
It is now on display at the British Museum in London. The helmet was dredged from the bed of the River Thames close to Waterloo Bridge in 1868, in 1988 its successor body, the Port of London Authority, donated the helmet to the British Museum. The main part of the helmet is constructed from two sheets of bronze, one forming the front and one the back of the helmet, that are riveted together at the sides and top. A separate crescent-shaped bronze piece is riveted to the bottom of the front sheet, a decorative strip with a row of rivets overlays the join between the front and back sheets, and goes around the base of the horns. At the end of the strip, on sides of the helmet, is a ring fitting for a chin-strap or cheekpiece. There are a number of holes around the bottom edge. The helmet was decorated with six bronze studs, one of which is now missing and these have cross scores on them that suggest they were designed to hold red glass enamel studs, but these are no longer present. There is a repoussé decoration in the La Tène style on the front, the design is similar to that on the Snettisham Great Torc.
Being made from thin sheets, the helmet would have been too fragile for use in battle. In this respect it is similar to Iron Age bronze shields that have been found, alternatively, it has been suggested that the helmet is in any case too small for most adult males, and may have been worn by a wooden statue of a Celtic deity. The Waterloo Helmet is one of only three Iron Age helmets found in England and the horned helmet dating to the Iron Age to have been found anywhere in Europe. However, there are several Iron Age depictions of people wearing horned helmets from elsewhere in Europe. There are some carvings of Gauls wearing horned helmets on the arch at Orange, dating to c.55 BC. An Iron Age bas-relief at Brague, near Antibes in France, canterbury helmet Battersea shield Wandsworth Shield Witham Shield Horned helmet at the British Museum
A helmet is a form of protective gear worn to protect the head from injuries. More specifically, a helmet aids the skull in protecting the human brain, ceremonial or symbolic helmets without protective function are sometimes used. The oldest known use of helmets was by Assyrian soldiers in 900 BC, soldiers still wear helmets, now often made from lightweight plastic materials. In civilian life, helmets are used for activities and sports, dangerous work activities. Since the 1990s, most helmets are made from resin or plastic, the word helmet is diminutive from helm, a medieval word for protective combat headgear. The Medieval great helm covers the head and often is accompanied with camail protecting throat. Originally a helmet was a helm which covered the head only partly, all helmets attempt to protect the users head by absorbing mechanical energy and protecting against penetration. Their structure and protective capacity are altered in high-energy impacts, beside their energy-absorption capability, their volume and weight are important issues, since higher volume and weight increase the injury risk for the users head and neck.
Anatomical helmets adapted to the head structure were invented by neurosurgeons at the end of the 20th century. Helmets used for different purposes have different designs, for example, a bicycle helmet must protect against blunt impact forces from the wearers head striking the road. A helmet designed for rock climbing must protect against heavy impact, sports helmets may have an integrated metal face protector. Baseball batting helmets have an expanded protection over the ear, which protects the jaw from injury, motorcycle helmets often have flip-down face screens for rain and wind protection, and they may have projecting visors to protect the eyes from glare. Hard hats for construction workers are mainly to protect the wearer from falling objects such as tools. Helmets for riot police often have flip-down clear visors and thick padding to protect the back of the neck, Modern firefighters helmets protect the face and back of the head against impact and electricity, and can include masks, communication systems, and other accessories.
Welding helmets protect the eyes and face and neck from flash burn, ultraviolet light and heat. They have a window, called a lens shade, through which the welder looks at the weld. People with some medical conditions must wear a helmet to protect the brain, due to a gap in the braincase, mixed martial arts helmets have ear pads to prevent serious injuries to the athletes, who do not usually endure such force to the ears. Crash helmets for F1 racing drivers, their design and construction have evolved enormously, nevertheless and neck trauma remains the greatest single injury risk to drivers