Secularity is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being allied with or against any particular religion. The word secular was not related or linked to religion, but was a freestanding term in Latin which would relate to any mundane endeavour. However, the term, saecula saeculorum as found in the New Testament in the Vulgate translation of the original Koine Greek phrase "εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων", e.g. at Galatians 1:5, was used in the early Christian church, in the doxologies, to denote the coming and going of the ages, the grant of eternal life, the long duration of created things from their beginning to forever and ever. The idea of a dichotomy between religion and the secular originated in the European Enlightenment. Furthermore, since religion and secular are both Western concepts that were formed under the influence of Christian theology, other cultures do not have words or concepts that resemble or are equivalent to them. In many cultures, "little conceptual or practical distinction is made between'natural' and'supernatural' phenomena" and the notions of religious and nonreligious dissolve into unimportance, nonexistence, or unawareness since people have beliefs in other supernatural or spiritual things irrespective of belief in God or gods.
Conceptions of what is and what is not religion vary in contemporary East Asia as well. The shared term for "irreligion" or "no religion" with which the majority of East Asian populations identify themselves implies non-membership in one of the institutional religions but not non-belief in traditional folk religions collectively represented by Chinese Shendao and Japanese Shinto. In modern Japan, religion has negative connotation since it is associated with foreign belief systems so many identify as "nonreligious", but this does not mean they have a complete rejection or absence of beliefs and rituals relating to supernatural, metaphysical, or spiritual things. In the Meiji era, the Japanese government consciously excluded Shinto from the category of religion in order to enforce State Shinto while asserting their state followed American-mandated requirements for freedom of religion. One can regard eating and bathing as examples of secular activities, because there may not be anything inherently religious about them.
Some religious traditions see both eating and bathing as sacraments, therefore making them religious activities within those world views. Saying a prayer derived from religious text or doctrine, worshipping through the context of a religion, performing corporal and spiritual works of mercy, attending a religious seminary school or monastery are examples of religious activities; the "secular" is experienced in diverse ways ranging from separation of religion and state to being anti-religion or pro-religion, depending on the culture. For example, the United States has both separation of church and state and pro-religiosity in various forms such as protection of religious freedoms. A related term, involves the principle that government institutions and their representatives should remain separate from religious institutions, their beliefs, their dignitaries. Many businesses and corporations, some governments operate on secular lines; this stands in contrast to government with deity as its highest authority.
Secular and secularity derive from the Latin word saeculum which meant "of a generation, belonging to an age" or denoted a period of about one hundred years. In the ancient world, saeculum was not defined in contrast to any sacred concerns and had a freestanding usage in Latin, it was in Christian Latin of medieval times, that saeculum was used for distinguishing this temporal age of the world from the eternal realm of God. The Christian doctrine that God exists outside time led medieval Western culture to use secular to indicate separation from religious affairs and involvement in temporal ones; this does not imply hostility to God or religion, though some use the term this way. According to cultural anthropologists such as Jack David Eller, secularity is best understood, not as being "anti-religious", but as being "religiously neutral" since many activities in religious bodies are secular themselves and most versions of secularity do not lead to irreligiosity. According to the anthropologist Jack David Eller's review of secularity, he observes that secularization is diverse and can vary by degree and kind.
He notes the sociologist Peter Glasner's ten institutional, normative, or cognitive processes for secularization as: Decline – the reduction in quantitative measures of religious identification and participation, such as lower church attendance/membership or dec
Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service religious. The word consecration means "association with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, the term is used in various ways by different groups; the origin of the word comes from the Latin word consecrat, which means dedicated and sacred. A synonym for to consecrate is to sanctify. Images of the Buddha and bodhisattvas are ceremonially consecrated in a broad range of Buddhist rituals that vary depending on the Buddhist traditions. Buddhābhiseka is a Sanskrit term referring to these consecration rituals. "Consecration" is used in the Catholic Church as the setting apart for the service of God of both persons and objects. The ordination of a new bishop is called a consecration. While the term "episcopal ordination" is now more common, "consecration" was the preferred term from the Middle Ages through the period including the Second Vatican Council; the Vatican II document Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy n. 76 states, Both the ceremonies and texts of the ordination rites are to be revised.
The address given by the bishop at the beginning of each ordination or consecration may be in the mother tongue. When a bishop is consecrated, the laying of hands may be done by all the bishops present; the English text of Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition, 1997, under the heading "Episcopal ordination—fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders", uses "episcopal consecration" as a synonymous term, using "episcopal ordination" and "episcopal consecration" interchangeably. The Code of Canon Law Latin-English Edition, under "Title VI—Orders" uses the term sacrae ordinationis minister "minister of sacred ordination" and the term consecratione episcopali "episcopal consecration"; the life of those who enter religious institutes, secular institutes or societies of apostolic Life are described as Consecrated life. The rite of consecration of virgins can be traced back at least to the fourth century. By the time of the Second Vatican Council, the bestowal of the consecration was limited to cloistered nuns only.
The Council directed. Two similar versions were prepared, one for women living in monastic orders, another for consecrated virgins living in the world. An English translation of the rite for those living in the world is available on the web site of the United States Association of Consecrated Virgins. Chrism, an anointing oil, is olive oil consecrated by a bishop. Objects such as patens and chalices, used for the Sacrament of the Eucharist, are consecrated by a bishop, using chrism; the day before a new priest is ordained, there is a vigil and a service or Mass at which the ordaining Bishop consecrates the paten and chalice of the ordinands. A more solemn rite exists for what used to be called the "consecration of an altar", either of the altar alone or as the central part of the rite for a church; the rite is now called the dedication. Since it would be contradictory to dedicate to the service of God a mortgage-burdened building, the rite of dedication of a church is carried out only if the building is debt-free.
Otherwise, it is only blessed. A special act of consecration is that of the bread and wine used in the Eucharist, which according to Catholic belief involves their change into the Body and Blood of Christ, a change referred to as transubstantiation. To consecrate the bread and wine, the priest speaks the Words of Institution. In the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Eastern Catholic Churches, the term "consecration" can refer to either the Sacred Mystery of Cheirotonea of a bishop, or the sanctification and solemn dedication of a church building, it can be used to describe the change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ at the Divine Liturgy. The Chrism used at Chrismation and the Antimension placed on the Holy Table are said to be consecrated. Church buildings and altars are consecrated to the purpose of religious worship, baptismal fonts and vessels are consecrated for the purpose of containing the Eucharistic elements, the bread and wine/the body and blood of Christ. A person may be consecrated for a specific role within a religious hierarchy, or a person may consecrate his or her life in an act of devotion.
In particular, the ordination of a bishop is called a consecration. In churches that follow the doctrine of apostolic succession, the bishops who consecrate a new bishop are known as the consecrators and form an unbroken line of succession back to the Apostles; those who take the vows of religious life are said to be living a consecrated life. The Methodist Book of Worship for Church and Home contains a liturgies for "The Order for the Consecration of Bishops", "An Office for the Consecration of Deaconesses", "An Office for the Consecration of Directors of Christian Education and Directors of Music", as well as "An Office for the Opening or Consecrating of a Church Building" among others. Among some religious groups there is a service of "deconsecration", to return a consecrated place to secular purpose. In the Church of England, an order closing a church may remove the legal effects of consecration. In most South Indian Hindu temples around the world, Kumbhabhishekam, or the temple's consecration ceremony, is done once every 12 years.
It is done to purify the temple after a renovation or done to renew the purity of th
Amesbury is a town and civil parish in Wiltshire, England. It is most famous for the prehistoric monument of Stonehenge, in its parish, for the discovery of the Amesbury Archer—dubbed the King of Stonehenge in the press—in 2002, it has been confirmed by archaeologists that it is the oldest continuously occupied settlement in the United Kingdom, having been first settled around 8820 BC. King Alfred the Great left it in his will, a copy of, in the British Library, to his youngest son Aethelweard. Eleanor of Provence, Queen consort of Henry III of England, died in Amesbury on 24 or 25 June 1291, was buried in Amesbury Priory; the parish includes the hamlets of Ratfyn and West Amesbury, most of Boscombe Down military airfield. Amesbury is located in southern Wiltshire, 7 miles north-northeast of Salisbury on the A345, it sits in the River Avon valley on the southern fringes of Salisbury Plain and has been considered an important river crossing area on the road from London to Warminster and Exeter.
This has continued into the present with the building of the A303 across the Avon next to the town. The town developed around the water meadows next to several bends in the river, but in time has spread onto the valley hillsides and absorbed part of the military airfield at Boscombe Down; the land around Amesbury has been settled since prehistoric times, evidenced by the monument of Stonehenge. Other finds in the parish point to large scale prehistoric structures and settlements in the whole area, including Bluestonehenge at West Amesbury, the numerous other monuments around Stonehenge, the discovery of a Neolithic village in the neighbouring parish of Durrington by the Stonehenge Riverside Project, continuing excavations at Boscombe Down where Wessex Archaeology found the Amesbury Archer and Boscombe Bowmen, they are now on display at South Wiltshire Museum. Amesbury is recognized as the oldest continuously occupied UK settlement. During the Iron Age a large hill fort now known as Vespasian's Camp was built alongside the Avenue and overlooking the River Avon.
The fort could have catered for up to 1000 people, was surrounded by smaller settlements and farming communities. Roman remains are poorly documented at Amesbury, but excavations have revealed Roman structures in the Stonehenge landscape, Wessex Archaeology have discovered a large Roman graveyard in the area of the Amesbury Archer burial, it is that there was a large Romano-British settlement overlooking the River Avon at this point. It has been suggested that the name of Amesbury is derived from Ambrosius Aurelianus, leader of Romano-British resistance to Saxon invasions in the 5th century. If this is the case he is to have used the hill fort as a stronghold, it is possible that an order of monks established a monastery in the area, destroyed by the Saxons before they settled the area in the 7th century. Amesbury is associated with the Arthurian legend: the convent to which Guinevere retired was said to have been the one at Amesbury. In 979 AD a Benedictine abbey, the Abbey of St Mary and St Melor, was founded on what may have been the site of a previous monastery by Dowager Queen Ælfthryth.
In 1177 the abbey was dissolved by Henry II and replaced with a double priory of the Fontevraud order. Eleanor of Provence was buried in the priory on 11 September 1291. At some point in time it seems that the church became the parish church, it is possible that this is why it was spared destruction in 1540 when, as part of the reformation, the priory and all other associated buildings were destroyed. Amesbury was given to Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford by the crown. On John Speed's map of Wiltshire, the town's name is spelt both Ambersbury; the Seymour family held Amesbury estate until 1675 and had several grand homes built, including Kent and Diana houses, a new mansion in 1660. The estate subsequently passed to the Bruce family, to Lord Carleton, who bequeathed it to his nephew Charles Douglas, 3rd Duke of Queensberry, it remained in the Queensberry family until 1824. It is believed that at some point in the early 19th century, William Douglas, 4th Duke of Queensberry planted the Nile Clumps to commemorate Admiral Nelson and had the hill fort landscaped as part of the grounds around the mansion.
In 1824 the Antrobus family acquired the estate and it remained in their hands until 1915 when, after the last heir was killed in France, Lord Antrobus sold the grounds–-including Stonehenge-–to private bidders. The mansion remained in their hands until 1979. In 1677, John Rose, founded two schools at Amesbury, a grammar school for teaching grammar and ciphering to twenty children born in the parish, an "English school" to prepare twenty children of poor parents for the grammar school. By a decree in Chancery of 1831, the freedom of the grammar school was extended to children of "mechanics and small tradesmen"; the grammar school was closed in 1899, the children were transferred to a National School. With the establishment of the military Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment at Boscombe Down in 1939, Amesbury began to expand; as it sits on the A303 commuter belt, Amesbury has seen substantial developments on the land between the old town centre and Boscombe Down. Several new housing estates have been completed, the most recent one – Archers Gate – has taken its name from the discovery of the Amesbury Archer.
At the Boscombe Down junction of the A303 a new mixed business development known as Solstice Park has been built and plans have been submitted for a Regional Distribution Centre for a major retailer. On 30 June 2018, two British nationals
Æthelberht of Kent
Æthelberht was King of Kent from about 589 until his death. The eighth-century monk Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, lists him as the third king to hold imperium over other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. In the late ninth century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, he is referred to as a bretwalda, or "Britain-ruler", he was the first English king to convert to Christianity. Æthelberht was the son of Eormenric, succeeding him as king, according to the Chronicle. He married Bertha, the Christian daughter of Charibert, king of the Franks, thus building an alliance with the most powerful state in contemporary Western Europe. Bertha's influence may have led to Pope Gregory I's decision to send Augustine as a missionary from Rome. Augustine landed on the Isle of Thanet in east Kent in 597. Shortly thereafter, Æthelberht converted to Christianity, churches were established, wider-scale conversion to Christianity began in the kingdom, he provided the new church with land in Canterbury, thus establishing one of the foundation stones of what became the Anglican Communion.
Æthelberht's law for Kent, the earliest written code in any Germanic language, instituted a complex system of fines. Kent was rich, with strong trade ties to the continent, Æthelberht may have instituted royal control over trade. Coinage began circulating in Kent during his reign for the first time since the Anglo-Saxon settlement, he came to be regarded as a saint for his role in establishing Christianity among the Anglo-Saxons. His feast day was 24 February but was changed to 25 February. In the fifth century, raids on Britain by continental peoples had developed into full-scale migrations; the newcomers are known to have included Angles, Saxons and Frisians, there is evidence of other groups as well. These groups captured territory in the east and south of England, but at about the end of the fifth century, a British victory at the battle of Mount Badon halted the Anglo-Saxon advance for fifty years. From about 550, the British began to lose ground once more, within twenty-five years it appears that control of all of southern England was in the hands of the invaders.
Anglo-Saxons conquered Kent before Mons Badonicus. There is both documentary and archaeological evidence that Kent was colonised by Jutes, from the southern part of the Jutland peninsula. According to legend, the brothers Hengist and Horsa landed in 449 as mercenaries for a British king, Vortigern. After a rebellion over pay and Horsa's death in battle, Hengist established the Kingdom of Kent; some historians now think. This early date, only a few decades after the departure of the Romans suggests that more of Roman civilization may have survived into Anglo-Saxon rule in Kent than in other areas. Overlordship was a central feature of Anglo-Saxon politics; the Anglo-Saxon invasion may have involved military coordination of different groups within the invaders, with a leader who had authority over many different groups. Once the new states began to form, conflicts among them began. Tribute from dependents could lead to wealth. A weaker state might ask or pay for the protection of a stronger neighbour against a warlike third state.
Sources for this period in Kentish history include the Ecclesiastical History of the English People, written in 731 by Bede, a Northumbrian monk. Bede was interested in England's Christianization. Since Æthelberht was the first Anglo-Saxon king to convert to Christianity, Bede provides more substantial information about him than about any earlier king. One of Bede's correspondents was Albinus, abbot of the monastery of St. Peter and St. Paul in Canterbury; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a collection of annals assembled c. 890 in the kingdom of Wessex, mentions several events in Kent during Æthelberht's reign. Further mention of events in Kent occurs in the late sixth century history of the Franks by Gregory of Tours; this is the earliest surviving source. Some of Pope Gregory the Great's letters concern the mission of St. Augustine to Kent in 597. Other sources include regnal lists of the kings of early charters. Although no originals survive from Æthelberht's reign copies exist. A law code from Æthelberht's reign survives.
According to Bede, Æthelberht was descended directly from Hengist. Bede gives the line of descent as follows: "Ethelbert was son of Irminric, son of Octa, after his grandfather Oeric, surnamed Oisc, the kings of the Kentish folk are known as Oiscings; the father of Oeric was Hengist." An alternative form of this genealogy, found in the Historia Brittonum among other places, reverses the position of Octa and Oisc in the lineage. The first of these names that can be placed with reasonable confidence is Æthelberht's father, whose name now is spelled Eormenric; the only direct written reference to Eormenric is in Kentish genealogies, but Gregory of Tours does mention that Æthelberht's father was the king of Kent, though Gregory gives no date. Eormenric's name provides a
The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century, the direct ancestors of the majority of the modern British people. They comprise people from Germanic tribes who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, indigenous British groups who adopted many aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture and language; the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest. The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language. Charters and law were established; the term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language, spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England and eastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century. In scholarly use, it is more called Old English.
The history of the Anglo-Saxons is the history of a cultural identity. It developed from divergent groups in association with the people's adoption of Christianity, was integral to the establishment of various kingdoms. Threatened by extended Danish invasions and military occupation of eastern England, this identity was re-established; the visible Anglo-Saxon culture can be seen in the material culture of buildings, dress styles, illuminated texts and grave goods. Behind the symbolic nature of these cultural emblems, there are strong elements of tribal and lordship ties; the elite declared themselves as kings who developed burhs, identified their roles and peoples in Biblical terms. Above all, as Helena Hamerow has observed, "local and extended kin groups remained...the essential unit of production throughout the Anglo-Saxon period." The effects persist in the 21st century as, according to a study published in March 2015, the genetic makeup of British populations today shows divisions of the tribal political units of the early Anglo-Saxon period.
Use of the term Anglo-Saxon assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the same meaning in all the sources. This term began to be used only in the 8th century to distinguish "Germanic" groups in Britain from those on the continent. Catherine Hills summarised the views of many modern scholars in her observation that attitudes towards Anglo-Saxons, hence the interpretation of their culture and history, have been "more contingent on contemporary political and religious theology as on any kind of evidence." The Old English ethnonym "Angul-Seaxan" comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Anglorum and Gildas calls Saxones. Anglo-Saxon is a term, used by Anglo-Saxons themselves, it is they identified as ængli, Seaxe or, more a local or tribal name such as Mierce, Gewisse, Westseaxe, or Norþanhymbre. The use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest in 1066.
The earliest historical references using this term are from outside Britain, referring to piratical Germanic raiders,'Saxones' who attacked the shores of Britain and Gaul in the 3rd century AD. Procopius states that Britain was settled by three races: the Angiloi and Britons; the term Angli Saxones seems to have first been used in continental writing of the 8th century. The name therefore seemed to mean "English" Saxons; the Christian church seems to have used the word Angli. The terms ænglisc and Angelcynn were used by West Saxon King Alfred to refer to the people; the first use of the term Anglo-Saxon amongst the insular sources is in the titles for Athelstan: Angelsaxonum Denorumque gloriosissimus rex and rex Angulsexna and Norþhymbra imperator paganorum gubernator Brittanorumque propugnator. At other times he uses the term rex Anglorum, which meant both Anglo-Saxons and Danes. Alfred the Great used Anglosaxonum Rex; the term Engla cyningc is used by Æthelred. King Cnut in 1021 was the first to refer to the land and not the people with this term: ealles Englalandes cyningc.
These titles express the sense that the Anglo-Saxons were a Christian people with a king anointed by God. The indigenous Common Brittonic speakers referred to Anglo-Saxons as Saxones or Saeson. Catherine Hills suggests that it is no accident, "that the English call themselves by the name sanctified by the Church, as that of a people chosen by God, whereas their enemies use the name applied to piratical raiders"; the early Anglo-Saxon period covers the history of medieval Britain that starts from the end of Roman rul
Kingdom of Sussex
The Kingdom of the South Saxons, today referred to as the Kingdom of Sussex, was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. On the south coast of the island of Great Britain, it was a sixth century Saxon colony and an independent kingdom; the South Saxons were ruled by the kings of Sussex until the country was annexed by Wessex in 827, in the aftermath of the Battle of Ellandun. The Kingdom of Sussex had its initial focus in a territory based on the former kingdom and Romano-British civitas of the Regnenses and its boundaries coincided in general with those of the county of Sussex. For a brief period in the 7th century, the Kingdom of Sussex controlled the Isle of Wight and the territory of the Meonwara in the Meon Valley in east Hampshire. From the late 8th century, Sussex seems to have absorbed the Kingdom of the Haestingas, after the region was conquered by the Mercian king Offa. A large part of its territory was covered by the forest that took its name from the fort of Anderitum at modern Pevensey, known to the Romano-British as the Forest of Andred and to the Saxons as Andredsleah or Andredsweald, known today as the Weald.
This forest, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, was 30 miles deep. It was the largest remaining area of woodland and heath in the territories that became England and was inhabited by wolves and bears, it was so dense. The forested Weald made expansion difficult but provided some protection from invasion by neighbouring kingdoms. Whilst Sussex's isolation from the rest of Anglo-Saxon England has been emphasised, Roman roads must have remained important communication arteries across the forest of the Weald; the Weald was not the only area of Sussex, forested in Saxon times--for example, at the western end of Sussex is the Manhood Peninsula, which in the modern era is deforested, but the name is derived from the Old English maene-wudu meaning "men's wood" or "common wood" indicating that it was once woodland. The coastline would have looked different from today. Much of the alluvium in the river plains had not yet been deposited and the tidal river estuaries extended much further inland, it is estimated.
Before people reclaimed the tidal marshes in the 13th century the coastal plain contained extensive areas of sea water in the form of lagoons, salt marsh, wide inlets and peninsulas. To the South Saxons of the 5th and 6th centuries this coastline must have resembled their original homeland between coastal Friesland, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein; the landscape gave rise to some key regional differences within the kingdom. The rich coastal plain continued to be the base for the large estates, ruled by their thegns, some of whom had their boundaries confirmed by charters; the Downs were more deserted. South Saxon impact was greatest in the Weald. Along the north scarp of the Downs runs a series of parishes with land evenly distributed across the different soils to their northern boundaries. In the early mediaeval period, the rivers of Sussex may have acted locally as a major unifier, linking coastal and riverside communities and providing people in these areas with a sense of identity; the boundaries of the Kingdom of Sussex crystallised around the 6th and 7th centuries.
To the west, Bede describes the boundary with the Kingdom of Wessex as being opposite the Isle of Wight, which fell on the River Ems. It is possible that the Jutish territories of the Isle of Wight and the Meon Valley in modern Hampshire acted as a buffer zone between the Saxon kingdoms of Sussex and Wessex until they were conquered by the Mercian king Wulfhere and passed to King Aethelwealh of Sussex in the 7th century. To the east at Romney Marsh and the River Limen, Sussex shared a border with the Kingdom of Kent. North of the Forest Ridge in the Wealden forest lay the sub-kingdom of Surrey, which became a frontier area disputed by various kingdoms until it became part of Wessex. To the south of Sussex lay the English Channel, beyond which lay Francia, or the Kingdom of the Franks. By the 680s, when Christianity was being introduced, there is no doubt that the district around Selsey and Chichester had become the political centre of the kingdom, though there is little archaeological evidence for a reoccupation of Chichester itself before the 9th century.
The capital of the Kingdom of Sussex was at Chichester, the seat of the kingdom's bishopric was at Selsey. The traditional residence of the South Saxon kings was at Kingsham, once outside the southern walls of Chichester although within its modern boundaries. Ditchling may have been an important regional centre for a large part of central Sussex between the Rivers Adur and Ouse until the founding of Lewes in the 9th century. By the 11th century the towns were developments of the fortified towns founded in the reign of Alfred the Great; the ancient droveways of Sussex linked coastal and downland communities in the south with summer pasture land in the interior of the Weald. The droveways were used throughout the Saxon era by the South Saxons and originated before the Roman occupation of Britain; the droveways formed a road system that suggests that the settlers in the oldest developed parts of Sussex were concerned not so much with east–west connections between neighbouring settlements as with north–south communication between each settlement and its outlying woodland pastur
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century by social scientists. Scholars of jurisprudence known as jurists or legal theorists, hope to obtain a deeper understanding of legal reasoning, legal systems, legal institutions, the role of law in society. Modern jurisprudence began in the 18th century and was focused on the first principles of natural law, civil law, the law of nations. General jurisprudence can be divided into categories both by the type of question scholars seek to answer and by the theories of jurisprudence, or schools of thought, regarding how those questions are best answered. Contemporary philosophy of law, which deals with general jurisprudence, addresses problems internal to law and legal systems and problems of law as a social institution that relates to the larger political and social context in which it exists; this article addresses three distinct branches of thought in general jurisprudence.
Ancient natural law is the idea that there are rational objective limits to the power of legislative rulers. The foundations of law are accessible through reason, it is from these laws of nature that human laws gain whatever force they have. Analytic jurisprudence rejects natural law's fusing of what it ought to be, it espouses the use of a neutral point of view and descriptive language when referring to aspects of legal systems. It encompasses such theories of jurisprudence as "legal positivism", which holds that there is no necessary connection between law and morality and that the force of law comes from basic social facts. Normative jurisprudence is concerned with "evaluative" theories of law, it deals with what the goal or purpose of law is, or what moral or political theories provide a foundation for the law. It not only addresses the question "What is law?", but tries to determine what the proper function of law should be, or what sorts of acts should be subject to legal sanctions, what sorts of punishment should be permitted.
The English word is derived from the Latin maxim jurisprudentia. Juris is the genitive form of jus meaning law, prudentia means prudence (also: discretion, forethought, circumspection, it refers to the exercise of good judgment, common sense, caution in the conduct of practical matters. The word first appeared in written English in 1628, at a time when the word prudence meant knowledge of, or skill in, a matter, it may have entered English via the French jurisprudence. Ancient Indian jurisprudence is mentioned in various Dharmaśāstra texts, starting with the Dharmasutra of Bhodhayana. Jurisprudence in Ancient Rome had its origins with the —experts in the jus mos maiorum, a body of oral laws and customs. Praetors established a working body of laws by judging whether or not singular cases were capable of being prosecuted either by the edicta, the annual pronunciation of prosecutable offense, or in extraordinary situations, additions made to the edicta. An iudex would prescribe a remedy according to the facts of the case.
The sentences of the iudex were supposed to be simple interpretations of the traditional customs, but—apart from considering what traditional customs applied in each case—soon developed a more equitable interpretation, coherently adapting the law to newer social exigencies. The law was adjusted with evolving institutiones, while remaining in the traditional mode. Praetors were replaced in the 3rd century BC by a laical body of prudentes. Admission to this body was conditional upon proof of experience. Under the Roman Empire, schools of law were created, practice of the law became more academic. From the early Roman Empire to the 3rd century, a relevant body of literature was produced by groups of scholars, including the Proculians and Sabinians; the scientific nature of the studies was unprecedented in ancient times. After the 3rd century, juris prudentia became a more bureaucratic activity, with few notable authors, it was during the Eastern Roman Empire that legal studies were once again undertaken in depth, it is from this cultural movement that Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis was born.
In its general sense, natural law theory may be compared to both state-of-nature law and general law understood on the basis of being analogous to the laws of physical science. Natural law is contrasted to positive law which asserts law as the product of human activity and human volition. Another approach to natural-law jurisprudence asserts that human law must be in response to compelling reasons for action. There are two readings of the natural-law jurisprudential stance; the strong natural law thesis holds that if a human law fails to be in response to compelling reasons it is not properly a "law" at all. This is captured, imperfectly, in the famous maxim: lex iniusta non est lex; the weak natural law thesis holds that if a human law fails to be in response to compelling reasons it can still be called a "law", but it must be recognised as a defective law. Notions of an objective moral order, external to human legal systems, underlie natural law. What is right or wrong can vary according to the interests one is focused on.
John Finnis, one of the most important of modern natural lawyers, has argued that the maxim "an unjust law is no law at all" is a poor guide to the classical Thomist position. Related to theories of natural law are classical theories of justice, beginning in the West with P