A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
The Jazz Soul of Little Stevie
The Jazz Soul of Little Stevie is the debut studio album by Stevie Wonder released in September 1962 on the Tamla Motown label. The album showcases the 12-year-old Wonder's talents as a composer and instrumentalist, it's one of two Wonder studio albums on which he doesn't sing. Wonder's mentors Clarence Paul and Henry Cosby wrote and produced the material on The Jazz Soul of Little Stevie Wonder, with the young Wonder himself co-writing two of the compositions; the original studio version of "Fingertips" is included on the album. "Fingertips" – 3:00 - Little Stevie on bongos "The Square" – 3:03 - Little Stevie on harmonica "Soul Bongo" – 2:20 - Little Stevie on bongos "Manhattan at Six" – 3:47 - Little Stevie on drums "Paulsby" – 2:47 - Little Stevie on organ and harmonica "Some Other Time" – 5:11 - Little Stevie on harmonica "Wondering" – 2:51 - Little Stevie on organ "Session Number 112" – 3:18 - Little Stevie on piano and harmonica "Bam" – 3:34 - Little Stevie on harmonica "The Jazz Soul Of Little Stevie" at Discogs
Sylvia Rose Moy was an American songwriter and record producer associated with the Motown Records group. The first woman at the Detroit-based music label to write and produce for Motown acts, she is best known for her songs written with and for Stevie Wonder. Born and brought up on the northeast side of Detroit, Moy studied and performed jazz and classical music at Northern High School, before she was seen performing in a club in 1963 by Marvin Gaye and Mickey Stevenson, she was given recording and songwriting contracts by Motown, but was urged to prioritize her songwriting because the company was short of material for its artists. According to Berry Gordy's autobiography To Be Loved, Moy was directly responsible for the label keeping Stevie Wonder. Gordy wrote that, after Stevie's voice began to change as a result of puberty, he was going to drop him from the label, it was that Moy went to Gordy and asked "if she could come up with a hit for Stevie would he reconsider". Her first writing success came with "Uptight", which she co-wrote with Henry "Hank" Cosby after hearing Wonder improvising on piano.
Moy wrote lyrics to the song, which she conveyed to Wonder by singing into his headphones one line ahead as he recorded. Among the subsequent hit singles Moy wrote and/or produced while at Motown were Stevie Wonder's "My Cherie Amour", "I Was Made to Love Her", "Never Had a Dream Come True", she co-wrote "This Old Heart of Mine" with Holland-Dozier-Holland for the Isley Brothers. She wrote theme songs for several television shows, was involved in writing film music, she was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame alongside fellow Motown songwriter and producer Hank Cosby in 2006. She set up a non-profit group, Center for Creative Communications, working with underprivileged children in Detroit. Moy died of complications from pneumonia in Dearborn, Michigan, on April 15, 2017, at the age of 78. "Uptight" "With a Child's Heart" "This Old Heart of Mine "It Takes Two" "I Was Made to Love Her" "Honey Chile" "Shoo-Be-Doo-Be-Doo-Da-Day" "My Cherie Amour" "Never Had a Dream Come True" Sylvia Moy at AllMusic Sylvia Moy discography at Discogs Sylvia Moy on IMDb Adam White, "Sylvia and Stevie: inspiration and influence"
I Was Made to Love Her (album)
I Was Made to Love Her is the seventh studio album by Stevie Wonder, released on August 28, 1967 under Tamla Records, a Motown subsidiary. Side One "I Was Made to Love Her" – 2:36 "Send Me Some Lovin'" – 2:29 "I'd Cry" – 2:33 "Everybody Needs Somebody" – 2:36 "Respect" – 2:21 "My Girl" – 2:55Side Two "Baby Don't You Do It" – 2:11 "A Fool for You" – 3:16 "Can I Get a Witness" – 2:42 "I Pity the Fool" – 3:04 "Please, Please" – 2:40 "Every Time I See You I Go Wild" – 2:52 Stevie Wonder - harmonica, vocals James Jamerson - bass Benny Benjamin - drums Eddie Willis - electric sitar on "I Was Made to Love Her" All other instruments by The Funk Brothers
Stevie Wonder discography
American musician Stevie Wonder has released 23 studio albums, three soundtrack albums, four live albums, 11 compilations, one box set, 98 singles. His first album, The Jazz Soul of Little Stevie, was released in 1962 when he was 12 years old, his most recent, A Time to Love, was released in 2005, he has had ten US number-one hits on the pop charts as well as 20 R&B number one hits, has sold over 100 million records, 19.5 million of which are albums. He has 30 main album releases, all of which are single albums, apart from Songs in the Key of Life, released as a double album with a bonus four track EP. There are 11 official compilation albums, he is eighth on the list of artists with the most number-ones on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100. Source: Google Images Note: Faith topped the Israel chart. 1973: "The Lonely One" from It's Like You Never Left. 1970: "The Distant Dreamer", written by Wonder & "Do I Love Her" written by Sylvia Moy/Wonder from Ramsey Lewis' album "The Piano Player". 1972: "Syreeta" album arranged and written by Wonder or co-written with Syreeta Wright.
1973 "Bad Weather" Supremes club single, 7" written by Stevie Wonder for Motown records as a before-its-time proto-disco jam 1973: "To Know You Is to Love You" written by Wonder and Syreeta Wright. 1974: "Stevie Wonder Presents: Syreeta" album arranged and written by Wonder or co-written with Syreeta Wright. 1974: "Tell Me Something Good" written by Wonder and given to Rufus. 1975: "I Can See the Sun in Late December" written by Wonder and given to Roberta Flack for Feel Like Makin' Love. 1975: "Sleeping Alone" written by Wonder and given to The Pointer Sisters for their album Steppin'. 1976: "Cause We've Ended as Lovers" written by Wonder and Syreeta Wright and "Thelonious" written by Wonder. 1976: "Don't Be Sad'Cause Your Sun Is Down" written by Wonder and James Taylor. 1977: "The Real Thing", "Sergio The New Brazil ` 77" written by Wonder. 1977: "Spring High", "Love Notes" written and arranged by Wonder from Ramsey Lewis' album "Love Notes". Wonder plays keyboards on both tracks. 1978: "Just the Way You Are" sung by Johnny Mathis and Deniece Williams on their album That's What Friends Are For.
Wonder plays harmonica. 1979: “I Can’t Help it”, “Off The Wall” Michael Jackson. Wonder wrote the track. 1979: "You Are My Heaven", "Don't Make Me Wait Too Long" written and produced by Wonder for Roberta Flack and Donny Hathaway. Wonder plays keyboards on both tracks. 1979: "Soul Bones" song of the Trammps from their album The Whole World's Dancing. 1979: "Let's Get Serious" from Let's Get Serious. 1980: "Betcha' Wouldn't Hurt Me" written by Wonder and Stephanie Andrews, from The Dude. 1980: "My Love Has Passed You By" from La Toya Jackson. 1982: "Ebony and Ivory" and "What's That Your Doin'" from Tug of War. 1982: "Try Jah Love" written and produced by Wonder for Third World's album of the same name 1982: "Samurai" from Luz. 1983: "The Crown" by Gary Byrd and the GB Experience. 1983: "Spice Of Life" from Bodies and Souls. 1983: "Someday" from Gap Band V: Jammin'. 1983: "I Guess That's Why They Call It The Blues" from Too Low for Zero. 1983: "Love Me in a Special Way" from In a Special Way by DeBarge.
1984: "I Feel for You" from I Feel For You by Chaka Khan. 1984: Closer to the Source by Dizzy Gillespie. 1985: "There Must Be an Angel" from Be Yourself Tonight. 1985: "If Ever" written by Wonder and Stephanie Andrews. 1985: "That's What Friends Are For" a charity single with Dionne Warwick, Gladys Knight and Elton John. 1985: "I Do Love You" by The Beach Boys, from their self-titled album. 1985: "Upset Stomach" written by Wonder for the soundtrack to The Last Dragon 1985: "Cold Farewell", a single recorded by Miyuki Nakajima. 1986: "My Summer Vacation" by Miyuki Nakajima on her 36.5°C album. Wonder plays synthesizer. 1986: "Time Will Teach Us All" Duet with Julian Lennon, from the musical Time. 1987: "Just Good Friends" from Bad. 1988: "My Love" written by Wonder. 1988: "Nightingales" from From Langley Park to Memphis. 1988: "Stephen's Kingdom" from Bird of Paradise. 1989: "Have A Talk With God" from Body & Soul by Jon Gibson. 1989: "Hollywood" from the eponymous album by One + One. 1990: "We Didn't Know" written by Wonder.
Grazing in the Grass
"Grazing in the Grass" is an instrumental composed by Philemon Hou and first recorded by the South African trumpeter Hugh Masekela. Released in the United States as a single in 1968, it reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, ranking it as the 18th biggest hit of the year; the song reached #15 Adult Contemporary. Masekela included the song in his albums Grazing in the Grass: The Best of Hugh Masekela, Still Grazing, Live at the Market Theatre. Masekela’s recording of the song was inducted into The Grammy Hall of Fame in 2018. A vocal version of the song by The Friends of Distinction, with lyrics by band member Harry Elston, was a US chart hit in 1969; the song has been recorded by many other musicians. "Grazing in the Grass" was inspired by an earlier novelty recording, "Mr. Bull Dog No. 5", which Masekela had heard in Zambia. When Masekela was recording his debut album, the running order was short by three minutes and his record company suggested he record the tune. Philemon Hou, an actor and singer, present in the studio, came up with a new melody while the backing track was being recorded.
The session was held at Gold Star Studios in Hollywood. Hugh Masekela – trumpet Bruce Langhorne – guitar Al Abreu – alto sax William Henderson – piano Henry Franklin – bass Chuck Carter – drums The Friends of Distinction recorded a vocal cover version of the tune in 1969 on RCA Victor, a Top Ten pop and R&B hit, reaching no. 3 on the former and no. 5 on the latter. One of the group's members, Harry Elston, wrote lyrics for the song and sang lead on the Friends Of Distinction's version of it; the Friends of Distinction – vocals Max Bennett – electric bass Johnny Guthrie – drums Al Casey and Arthur Wright – guitars Gene Cipriano – piccolo flute John Audino, Anthony Terran, Bud Childers, Dalton Smith – trumpets King Errisson – congas Douglas Davis – cello Jim Horn – tenor saxophone Garry Nuttycombe – viola Harry Bluestone, Jimmy Getzoff – violins Jack Arnold – percussion Larry Knechtel – piano "Grazing in the Grass" has been recorded by many other musicians, including Stevie Wonder, The Ventures, Chet Atkins, Galapagos Duck, Boney James, Rick Braun, Larry Harlow, Willie Mitchell, The Monitors, The Scofflaws, cc: DIVA, Dexys.
In 2004, the song was covered by Raven-Symoné. The music video for her version features her and dancing extras interacting with scenes from The Lion King 1½, the video received frequent airplay on Disney Channel, as well as MTV and BET. "Grazing in the Grass" was sampled by the hip hop duo Nice & Smooth on the track "One and One More Makes Three" from their album Ain't a Damn Thing Changed. A sample of the song can be heard in Sugar Ray's 1999 single "Every Morning," from its album 14:59; the jazz saxophonist George Howard did an upbeat version of "Grazing in the Grass" on his album When Summer Comes in 1993. The song has been included in numerous movie soundtracks including: Battle of the Sexes, Talk to Me, The Last King of Scotland, Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy, The Lion King 1½, Space Cowboys, Jackie Brown and I Shot Andy Warhol. In the 1988 film I'm Gonna Git You Sucka, The Friends of Distinction's version plays on a car stereo in a scene featuring Isaac Hayes singing along—but off-key, for comic effect—to annoy his passenger, played by Jim Brown.
Brown had discovered The Friends of Distinction, leading to their signing with RCA Records and the release of "Grazing in the Grass" as their first single. Hugh Masekela's 2004 autobiography, which he dictated to journalist D. Michael Cheers, is titled Still Grazing: The Musical Journey of Hugh Masekela In 2018, the song was included in an episode of Family Guy with The Friends of Distinction as themselves through an archival recording
Motown Records is an American record label owned by Universal Music Group. It was founded by Berry Gordy Jr. as Tamla Records on January 12, 1959, was incorporated as Motown Record Corporation on April 14, 1960. Its name, a portmanteau of motor and town, has become a nickname for Detroit, where the label was headquartered. Motown played an important role in the racial integration of popular music as an African American–owned label that achieved significant crossover success. In the 1960s, Motown and its subsidiary labels were the most successful proponents of what came to be known as the Motown Sound, a style of soul music with a distinct pop influence. Motown was the most successful record label of soul music, with a net worth totaling $61 million. During the 1960s, Motown achieved spectacular success for a small label: 79 records in the top-ten of the Billboard Hot 100 between 1960 and 1969. Following the events of the Detroit Riots of 1967 and the loss of key songwriting/production team Holland-Dozier-Holland the same year over pay disputes, Gordy began relocating Motown to Los Angeles, California.
The move was completed in 1972, Motown expanded into film and television production, remaining an independent company until 1994, when it was sold to PolyGram before being sold again to MCA Records' successor Universal Music Group when it acquired PolyGram in 1999. Motown spent much of the 2000s headquartered in New York City as a part of the UMG subsidiaries Universal Motown and Universal Motown Republic Group. From 2011 to 2014, it was a part of The Island Def Jam Music Group division of Universal Music. In 2014, however, UMG announced the dissolution of Island Def Jam, Motown relocated back to Los Angeles to operate under the Capitol Music Group, now operating out of the landmark Capitol Tower. In 2018, Motown was inducted into Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame class at the Charles H. Wright Museum, Motown legend Martha Reeves received the award for the label. Berry Gordy got his start as a songwriter for local Detroit acts such as Jackie Wilson and the Matadors. Wilson's single "Lonely Teardrops", written by Gordy, became a huge success, but Gordy did not feel he made as much money as he deserved from this and other singles he wrote for Wilson.
He realized that the more lucrative end of the business was in producing records and owning the publishing. In 1959, Billy Davis and Berry Gordy's sisters Gwen and Anna started Anna Records. Davis and Gwen Gordy wanted Berry to be the company president, but Berry wanted to strike out on his own. On January 12, 1959, he started Tamla Records, with an $800 loan from his family and royalties earned writing for Jackie Wilson. Gordy wanted to name the label Tammy Records, after the hit song popularized by Debbie Reynolds from the 1957 film Tammy and the Bachelor, in which Reynolds starred; when he found the name was in use, Berry decided on Tamla instead. Tamla's first release, in the Detroit area, was Marv Johnson's "Come to Me" in 1959, its first hit was Barrett Strong's "Money". Gordy's first signed act was the Matadors, who changed their name to the Miracles in order to avoid confusion with the Matadors who recorded for Sue, their first release, "Got a Job", was an answer record to the Silhouettes' "Get a Job".
The Miracles' first, minor hit was their fourth single, 1959's "Bad Girl", released in Detroit as the debut record on the Motown imprint, nationally on the Chess label. Miracles lead. Several of Gordy's family members, including his father Berry Sr. brothers Robert and George, sister Esther, were given key roles in the company. By the middle of the decade and Anna Gordy had joined the label in administrative positions as well. Gordy's partner at the time, Raynoma Liles played a key role in the early days of Motown, leading the company's first session group, The Rayber Voices, overseeing the label's publishing arm, Jobete. In 1959, Gordy purchased the property that would become Motown's Hitsville U. S. A. studio. The photography studio located in the back of the property was modified into a small recording studio, the Gordys moved into the second-floor living quarters. Within seven years, Motown would occupy seven additional neighboring houses: Hitsville U. S. A. 1959 – administrative office, tape library, control room, Studio A.
Early Tamla/Motown artists included Eddie Holland and Mary Wells. "Shop Around", the Miracles